A global campaign webliography - LANGUAGES INDEX (under construction)
Language_resources Font_Downloads Online_Courses Webpage_Translators

The following abbreviations are used for languages found on the Internet. For the most part, they are based on the conventional abbreviation for the country of origin. Where this is not the case, eg, Arabic, English, the abbreviation is placed in brackets thus (AR), (EN), etc. These correspond with the lower-case forms (en, fr, etc) used in the Webliography. The compiler would welcome advice of any errors or suggested improvements to this presentation. (email)

AF Pushto (Afghanistan) [Also official--Dari DA]
AL Albanian
AM Armenian
(AR) Arabic
AZ Azeri (Azerbaijan)
(BA) Basque
BE Flemish (Belgium)
BG Bulgarian (Cyrillic alphabet)
(BM) Bambara or Bamanankan (Mali, Africa)
(CA) Castilian (Spain)
(CE) Cantonese (China)
CN Mandarin (China)
(CT) Catalan (Spain, Andorra, Sardinia) Learn
CZ Czech
(DA) Dari (Afghanistan)
DE German
DK Danish
EE Estonian
(EN) English
(EO) Esperanto
ER Tigrinya (Eritrea) [Arabic, Italian IT and English EN for internet use] info
ES Spanish
ET Amharic (Ethiopia) [Other-- Orominya, Tigrinya, Arabic, French, English, Italian]
FI Finnish
FJ Fijian
FR French
GR Greek
HR Croatian (Latin-alphabet)
HU Hungarian
ID Indonesian
IE Irish Gaelic (Eire)
IL Hebrew (Israel)
IN Hindi (India) [Advice is welcomed on web use of Konkani, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Telugu]
IM Manx (Isle of Man)
IR Farsi (Persian, Iranian)
IS Icelandic
IT Italian
JP Japanese
KH Khmer (Cambodia)
KR Korean
KU Kurdish
LA Laotian
LK Sinhala (Sri Lanka) [also official--Tamil (TA) and English (EN)]
LT Lithuanian
LV Latvian
MK Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet (ex Yugoslavia)
MM Burmese (Myanmar)
MN Mongolian info
MT Maltese
MY Bahasa /Malay (Malaysia)
NL Dutch (Netherlands)
NP Nepali
NU Norwegian
PG Pidgin English (Papua New Guinea)
PH Filipino
PK Punjabi (Pakistan) [Other demotic: Sindhi, Pashtu.Urdu, Balochi. Official--English]
PL Polish
PT Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil)
RO Romanian
RU Russian
SE Swedish
(SH) Serbo-Croatian (Latin alphabet))
(SO) Soninké (Africa)
(SR) Serbian (Cyrillic alphabet)
(SW) Swahili (Zanzibar)
TH Thai
TR Turkish (Latin-alphabet)
(UR) Urdu
VN Vietnamese
(WE) Welsh
(WO) Wolof (West Africa--Gambia, Mauretania, Senegal) Learn
YU Serbian Cyrillic (ex Yugoslavia)
ZA Afrikaans (South Africa) [Also official--English and nine others! Info]



Language Resources

iLove Languages Page

From pages of Robert Beard (Bucknell University)

A Web of online dictionaries (now
English dictionary multiple search
European language translation engines

John Massam's page on translation and dictionaries: Free Translations page
and their useful FAQ and language tips

Travlang's free online translating dictionaries (60 European languages)


Online Courses




Font Downloads

Homepage of ParsNegar Software

BURMESE four TrueType fonts for Windows
To install in Windows 3.*+, first use Winzip or pkunzip to extract the files from the archive into their own directory or your fonts directory, then open (Windows) Control Panel, then Fonts, then choose Add, then browse for the directory where you put the fonts. Then select them all, Close out of Control Panel, and you are done. The fonts should work in all Windows applications. No program is provided to reorganize the keyboard. 

. . .installation and usage instructions on reading, writing and printing in Greek, as well as some tips on how to email in Greek, and spell check your Greek text.


Translators for Webpages and Text

CAUTION: Online translation, though usually very helpful, is at best only approximate -- and needs to be read with some understanding of the things that will go wrong! For instance, the French for 'the MAI' is 'l'AMI' which will invariably be englicised as 'the FRIEND'.
For an interesting report on the nature and application of machine translation, see Machine Translation and the Power and Purpose of "Gisting" in the Internet Era at

FONTS: You cannot machine-translate into a non-Latin-alphabet language unless your PC is set up with the appropriate characters. See above for info on downloading certain font characters.


Babel Fish (AltaVista)

Renders TO and FROM English: --French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. Also does French TO and FROM -German, and Russian to English. An important feature is automatic translation of linked pages.


Local Translation

Renders FROM English TO: --French, German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese;
FROM French TO: English, German
FROM German TO: English, French
FROM Italian/ Spanish/Japanese TO English


Sakhr Ajeeb

Renders English TO and FROM Arabic. (Free registration required)


Systran (Free service)

Renders TO and FROM English: --French, German, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Japanese. Also does French TO and FROM-- German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian

Systran also offers an online paid service in over 35 language pairs



Handles Spanish, French and German TO English. Also renders English into Spanish, French, German, Italian, Norwegian and Portuguese.



From 25 Mar 04.