Newsletter of the

Species Orchid Society of

Western Australia (Inc)

Vol 30 No5

October

2018

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2018

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2011
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2010

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2009
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AUGUST 09
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2007
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Members of Note
Quiet Achievers
&
Life Members

Members Orchid Collections

Members can have pictures of their orchid collection posted here. Just email Tony

Michael Zink's Orchids

Brassavola nodosa

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Orchid Articles

Paul Carver's
Angreaceum
sesquipedale

Editor e-mail: - Ph/Fax: 9296 1765

On-line Membership Form PDF or WORD

Download; Plant Display Template

Species Orchid Society Rules PDF

Inter Society Orchid Display & Workshop

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NEXT MEETING - TUESDAY 9th October @ 7.45
AT WILSON COMMUNITY HALL
,
Braibrise Rd, WILSON

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Anne O'Callaghan Cultural Award:

Awarded to Kirsty for Phalaenopsis schilleriana
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MINUTES OF THE GENERAL MEETING 11 September 2018 7.50pm
Present: 39 present as per the register.
Apologies: 6 as per register
Visitors: Sara & Lorraine
New members: Nil.
Minutes: Minutes June meeting accepted (Ray, Lynn
Business Arising: Nil


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Norm's Orchids


Dendrobium speciosum
(several)

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Inwards:
1. Neutrog Bulk Order (OSWA),
2. AOF (receipt and Fiona Stanley Query), AOC (AGM details)
3. OSWA about Orchids WA rule changes, 5th Aug Orchids WA GM minutes (draft),
4. GCA Our Gardens,
5. Spring Orchid Fair (next weekend).


Outwards:
6. AOF (donation and Fiona Stanley Hospital report).
7. All SOSWA members are invited to the ANOS meeting of the 12th of November for the installation of Norm as a life
member and a talk by Eric McCrum.

Raffle: Caterina, Paul, Helen, Tom, Tony and Bruce.
Name Badge: Caterina.

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Kirsty's Orchid


Phalaenopsis schilleriana

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FORTH-COMING EVENTS
Home visits:
At 10 am on the Sunday after the fourth Thursday of each month. Please bring chairs and food to share.


28 October - Charly & Gerda, Sinagra.
25 November - Lynn, Belmont

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Graham & Margaret's Orchids

Caladenia georgeii


Caladenia nobilis


Diuris magnifica


Dendrobium kingianum alba

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FOR SALE/WANTED

Victor wants to acquire a plant of Rhynchostele rossii and is also interested in small Aerangis species. If you have spare plants, please contact Victor on 9243 1843 or e-mail vnquin@gmail.com

Lynn wants to acquire plants of Oncidium (Odontoglossum)
naevium, and Dendrobium aggregatum (lindleyii) and farmeri if you have a spare plant. She is also collecting wine/champagne corks if you have any that you do not want. Please phone Lynn on 0414 922 923 or e-mail contrarymiss@hotmail.com

Nahiid is looking for plants of Phalaenopsis gigantea, Phalaenopsis pulchra, Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica and Phalaenopsis bellina. If you have any spare plants of these species, please phone
Nahiid on 0415 818 850 or e-mail her at

N.Stephens@murdoch.edu.au

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Murray & Arni's Orchid
Dendrobium jonesii

Rhynchostylis gigantea

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A message from The Water Corporation

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The difference between

Phalaenopsis amabilis & Phal. aphrodite subsp. formosana

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Ken & Chris's Orchids

Dendrobium farmeri
Dendrobium speciosum

Pleurothallis marthae

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WA terrestrial orchids in situ – a four-day field trip to the Mid-west

http://members.iinet.net.au/~emntee/Orchids_in_The_Mid-west.htm

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The Genus Dendrobium

The genus was originally identified and named by Olaf Swartz in 1799; however there were two earlier names Ceraia Lour. and Callista Lour. Therefore, the genus name Dendrobium is a conserved name as it has replaced the earlier names. The type species is Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. from Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan, originally described by Linnaeus in 1753 as Epidendrum moniliforme. The root of the genus name Dendrobium is dendro = tree and bios = life. The species in this genus are generally light loving, and in many instances, grow either high in the forest canopy or in relatively unprotected locations where they are exposed to high light.
Dendrobium and its relatives can be found from India and Sri Lanka to Tahiti, from Japan and Korea to Stewart Island (South if the South Island on New Zealand). The majority of orchids in the genus Dendrobium are epiphytic; however there are some members that are lithophytic or terrestrial. They range in size from miniature to very large (up to 5m tall), grow in climatic conditions from semi-desert to hot wet rainforest, from sea level to 3,800 m in the high central mountain ranges of Papua New Guinea. They can be found on fringing coral beaches, primary tall rainforest, mangrove forests, in cultivated rubber and coconut plantations, roadside cuttings, rocky cliff faces and rocky outcrops, stunted coastal scrubland, paperbarks in swampy forests and city trees. These incredible orchids are highly adaptable, are an important commercial product and for many of us, were our first experience of orchids when we were given a flower arrangement containing 'Singapore orchids'.


Dendrobieae is in the subfamily Epidendroideae of the family Orchidaceae. The subtribe, Dendrobiinae contains the species that we know as Dendrobium, while the other sub-tribe Bulbophyllinae, the Bulbophyllum. This classification, proposed by Dressler 1993 has been used as the basis for this article.
Dendrobium contains about 1000 species, although this varies as taxonomists discover and identify new species, or revisit past identification and reduce species to synonymy. Baker and Baker (1996) found over 2400 valid names for Dendrobium species.


The genus Dendrobium is divided into six (6) main sections: Callista, Dendrobium, Formosae, Latouria, Phalaenanthe, and Spatulata. Schlechter (1982) classified Dendrobium into 41 sections, however for simplicity this article will focus on the foregoing higher level Sections and some of the more common members of each; identify their specific characteristics, habitat, cultural requirements and the relative ease or challenges to grow and flower them.


While now relatively common in cultivation, and in literally thousands of hybrids, Dendrobium orchids are increasingly becoming threatened in the wild as habitat is destroyed for farming and plantation purposes, logging (both legal and illegal) and population expansion. Many members of this genus come from highly populated regions of mainland and island Asia where the need to house citizens imposes heavily on governments. Currently, 31 (thirty one) species are listed as threatened on the ICUN redlist, with three species Dendrobium huoshanense, Dendrobium officinale, and Dendrobium schutzei shown as critically endangered. Another 8 (eight) are listed as endangered.


Section Callista
Approximately ten (10) species are described in section Callista. However, as earlier noted, there are many synonyms for the species in this section, one of most popular in cultivation in the genus due to their showy flowers. In this section, we find:
* Dendrobium chrysotoxum
* Dendrobium densiflorum
* Dendrobium farmeri
* Dendrobium harveyanum
* Dendrobium jenkinsi
* Dendrobium lindleyi
* Dendrobium palpebrae
* Dendrobium sulcatum,
and
* Dendrobium thyrsiflorum.


Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindley 1847 (SECTION Densiflora) is a smaller-sized, cool to warm growing epiphyte on generally deciduous trees that lose much of their canopy
during winter. This species comes from Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Himalayas, Bangladesh and India at moderate elevations 400-1,600m. Its common name in Thailand is the Golden Bow orchid. It has clustered, grooved, clavate or fusiform, up to 30 cm, many angled, apically thickened pseudobulbs that can be enveloped by many white, membraneous sheaths (a common feature of many members of the genus) with 2 to 3 oblong to lanceolate, coriaceous, acute leaves.

Flowering takes place in winter through spring with an up to 30cm inflorescence that arises from nodes near the apex of the pseudobulb. It is lax (loose, not tightly clustered) and pendulous. The flowers are short-lived, but highly fragrant, with the fragrance said to be honey-like.

 


Photo source:
Synonyms in use for this species are Callista chrysotoxa (Lindl.) Brieger 1981; Callista chrysotoxa (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Callista suavissima Kuntze 1891; Dendrobium chrysotoxum var. suavissimum (Rchb.f.) A.H.Kent 1888; Dendrobium suavissimum Rchb.f 1874
Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. ex Wall. 1829, (SECTION Densiflora) is the type species for this SECTION and is commonly named the densely-flowered Dendrobium is found in Assam, Bangladesh, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Tibet, Hainan and southern China. It is a small to medium sized, cool growing epiphyte or occasional lithophyte on moss covered trunks or branches at altitudes 1,100 to 1,800m. Its habitat has distinct seasonal variation between the hot, wet and humid summer and the cooler, drier winter. Vegetatively similar to Dendrobium chrysotoxum, it has erect, tufted, 7 to 12 noded, obscurely 4 angled, fusiform or clavate, 30 cm long stems with each node half covered by a white sheath and carrying 3 to 5, towards the apex, elliptic or ovate, persistent, acute leaves. This species blooms from the late winter through spring with pendant, 20 cm, cylindrical, densely flowered racemes with scented, short-lived flowers arising from nodes at or near the apex of the pseudobulb. The in-situ photo on the following page clearly demonstrates the tight-bunched flower raceme that is typical of this species.

Photo source:

Synonyms in use for this species are Callista densiflora (Lindl. ex Wall.) Kuntze 1891; Callista densiflora (Wall.) Brieger 1981; Dendrobium clavatum Wall. 1828; Dendrobium densiflorum f. parviflorum Regel 1874; Dendrobium schroederi Dombrain 1870; Endeisa flava Raf. 1837; Epidendrum dumunsuttu Buch.-Ham. ex Lindl. 1830


Dendrobium farmeri Paxton 1849 (SECTION Densiflora) is perhaps the best known and most frequently present in orchid collections. Found in the eastern Himalayas, Assam, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Malaysia as an epiphyte in evergreen lowland forests and primary montane forests at 150 to 1,000 meters, its common name is Farmer's Dendrobium (named after the English Supervisor of the Calcutta Botanical Garden in the 1800's), this pendulous, hot to warm growing epiphyte has clavate or fusiform, 4 angled above stems carrying 2 to 4, towards the apex, coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate leaves.

Flowering occurs in spring on 20cm, pendent, many densely flowered, cylindrical racemose inflorescences that arise from the nodes near the apex of leafless and leafed canes.

Unfortunately, the flowers are short-lived, lasting for only a week or so. Photo source:

Its habitat consists primarily of primary forest tall trees, often adjacent to waterways and streams. This species prefers some shading, and the climate features frequent heavy summer rainfall with a dry, cooler winter. White, pink and white and yellow flower colour forms are known.


Photo source:


Photo source:


Dendrobium farmeri is very similar to Dendrobium palpebrae that can be found in the same habitats. Lavarack et al (2000) say that the two species can be distinguished by the violet tinge to the flowers of Dendrobium farmeri that is not present in Dendrobium palpebrae.
Synonyms in use for this species are Callista densiflora (Lindl. ex Wall.) Kuntze var farmeri 1891; Callista farmeri (Paxton) Kuntze 1891; Dendrobium densiflorum var. farmeri (Paxton) Regel 1874; Dendrobium farmeri var. albiflorum C.Morren 1860; Dendrobium farmeri var. aureoflavum Hook.f. 1864
Dendrobium harveyanum Rchb.f. 1883 (SECTION Densiflora) is rare in collections, and is found in Yunnan province in China, and Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. This rare species is a small sized, cool growing epiphyte on tree trunks and large branches at 1,100 - 1,700m. Commonly known as Harvey's Dendrobium, an Irish orchid enthusiast from the 1800's who was first to flower species, it is also known in China as Su Ban Shi Hu, and in Thailand as Ueang Kham Foi. It has erect, spindle-shaped, deeply sulcate stems with several apical, deciduous, ovate-oblong, leathery leaves. Flowering in late winter-early spring, it has a pendant, 15cm few to several flowered, racemose, lax inflorescence that arises from the nodes near the apex of older leafless canes with two-nine, fragrant honey-scented flowers. The distinctive golden-yellow flowers have long filaments edging the petals, while the round lip is fringed and densely pubescent (covered with fine hairs)


Photo source:


Marni Turkel has a page dedicated to this species in which she reports on the difficulty she experienced in successfully growing and flowering this species. Her comments on Dendrobium harveyanum at LINK
are informative and thought-provoking. Marni says that for many years she struggled to grow and flower Dendrobium harveyanum.
Her research into its habitat showed that it came from a classic monsoon climate with heavy rainfall and cloudy skies in spring and summer. Autumn and winter have little or no rainfall, with bright light and warm days and cool nights. By the end of winter, humidity is low, and it is likely that the orchids receive little if any moisture, even from dew.
She goes on to say that originally she grew the species with year-round moisture. Her plant was a small, struggling specimen with few roots and almost no flowers. With nothing to lose, several years ago she decided to adopt a grow-or-die attitude and began giving it a prolonged dry rest in winter. It was as if she had a different plant: strong growths, lots of active roots and flower spikes every year. Synonyms in use for this species are Callista harveyana (Rchb. f.) Kuntze 1891 Dendrobium jenkinsii Wallich ex Lindley 1839
(SECTION Densiflora) comes from Hainan province in China, Assam, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Laos. It is a small-sized, warm to cool growing epiphyte in open forests on tree trunks at 700 -1,500m. Its common name is Jenkins's Dendrobium - Jenkins was an officer of the East India Trading Co. early 1800's. In China, its common name is Xiao Huang Hua Shi Hu, and in Thailand, Ueang Phung Noi
It has clustered, branching, fusiform to ovoid-oblong, 4 ribbed, somewhat flattened pseudobulbs carrying a single, terminal, thickened, leathery, rigid, oval to oblong, obtuse, notched leaves . Flowering in early spring on short 15 cm] long, arching to pendant, simultaneously 1 to 5 flowered racemes that arise from near the apex of the leafed pseudobulb, it carries short-lived, wide open flowers that are similar to Dendrobium lindleyi. The main difference is that Dendrobium jenkinsii has a fewer flowered inflorescence while Dendrobium lindleyi has many flowers. Dendrobium jenkinsii has a bilobed lip while Dendrobium lindleyi is entire. Dendrobium jenkinsii has clustered, sulcate, ovoid, flattened pseudobulbs carrying a single, apical, ovate, thick, shiny, persistent leaf.

 

Some excellent photos of Dendrobium jenkinsii can be found at LINK. This species is almost always named by growers as Dendrobium aggregatum , a synonym that has been published as valid in the Sanders hybrid list.

 

 

Synonyms in use for this species are Callista jenkinsii Kuntze 1891; Dendrobium aggregatum Roxb. var. jenkinsii [Wall.]Lindley 1898; Dendrobium marseillei Gagn. 1934

Contd next month

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Frankie's Orchids


Dendrobium gracilicaule

Dendrobium melaleucaphilum


Dendrobium tetragonum

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NOTES FROM YOUR COMMITTEE

1. The Spring Orchid Fair on 15-16 September in Leederville was a highly successful event and generated a profit of a little under $1,000 for the Society (after recovery of the contribution of $500 seed funding).

2. Special thanks to all our members who helped make this event such a success by volunteering their time to work on the door, sell raffle tickets, help Sharon and Jeanine in the kitchen, work on the plant sales table, supply plants for sale, assist Paul and his team to stage an amazing display that attracted an enormous amount of interest from general public visiting the event and providing the plants for it, talking to them about our shared interest in species orchids and being part of the multi-society planning committee. For a club that does not "do displays", we feel that we have done remarkably well over the past two months. Thank you all. We knew we could count on you when needed, but you have done even more than we could have hoped.


3. A Special Meeting of Orchids WA has been called for the 3 November to finalise the draft new rules.

4. If you haven't ordered your new badge yet, please see Mich. The cost for badges with a magnetic clip is $13.50, and with pin is $11.50.

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Peter's Orchids


Cattleya loddigesii


Cattleya intermedia var amethystina

Dendrochilum cobbianum


Dendrochilum glumaceum

Dendrochilum yuccaefolium


Phalaenopsis amabilis
Gary Yong Gee says... Phal. amabilis is Phal. aphrodite


Phalaenopsis aphrodite var. formosana


Phalaenopsis equestris

Phalaenopsis mannii

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Unusual and Surprising Orchids and their
Reproductive Biology
by Ken Jones

Cont. next month

See the whole article (so far) HERE

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Caterina's Orchids


Dendrobium moniliforme...Gary Yong Gee says.... Den. moniliforme looks to me to be Den. Pukekura [Den. moniliforme x Den. regium].


Maxillaria porphyrostele

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MONTHLY PLANT


Bulbophyllum auratum
Difficulty: This species requires some warmth and winter protection, with high humidity and good air movement in summer
Description: Small to medium sized epiphyte
Country of origin: Mainland and island S E Asia


Photo source:

Cost: $5.00

Bulbophyllum auratum (Lindl.) Rchb.f. 1861 SECTION Ephippium Schlechter 1913 is an umbrel species. It is found in Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra and the Philippines at 100-1,200m as a hot to cool growing epiphyte, mostly on mangrove trees. These plants have been provided by our expert Bulbophyllum grower Charly after dividing a particularly large specimen, and some are showing early flower spikes.

This species blooms in early spring, and as noted above, has an umbrel of drooping, shoe-shaped fragrant flowers.
Charly advised that this species flowers more than once a year, and that he grows all his Bulbophyllum orchids in a heated and humidified glasshouse, and uses sphagnum moss as media. As these plants have recently been repotted, unless you want to change to a different media or slab-mount them, they should not need anything more than water and fertiliser for some time.

When growing orchids in sphagnum moss, care needs to be taken to ensure that it does not dry out as it can become water-repellent. This fine-rooted species requires moist, but not soggy media all year.

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Maxine's Orchid

Cattleya intermedia var. amethystina

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Orchids in Their Natural Habitat and in Cultivation -
Ecuagenera's five-day pre-WOC tour

See the full article HERE

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Siva's Orchids

Dendrobium abberans


Rhyncholaelia digbyana

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Tara's Orchids


Coelogyne mossiae....... Gary Yong Gee says...
Tara's Coelogyne mossiae is Coel. Unchained Melody [Coel. cristata x Coel. flaccida]. Unfortunately there are many plants of this primary hybrid in cultivation that are incorrectly named. Internet searches show that this is a common error that is perpetuated.


Maxillaria densa


Pterostylis curta


Serapias lingua

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Fiona Stanley Hospital Site Terrestrial Orchids

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Hygienic Practice

The benefits of hygienic practice in keeping your collection free of plant diseases.

Hygiene tips to keep your orchids disease free.

Checklist in WORD in PDF

See the full article HERE

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Courtney's Orchids


Coelogyne flaccida

Serapias lingua

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Financial Report:: Tabled by Adrian. Current balance is $13,055.87. (Ray, Ian)

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Tony & Mavis's Orchids

Duiris corymbosa


Phalaenopsis equestris


Stenorrhynchos speciosum


Trichocentrum stipitatum

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STANHOPEAS by Bill Mather & Ken Jones

See the article HERE

 

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Noel & Eva'sOrchid


Calanthe vestita

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General Business:

1. Orders of Neutrog bulk supplies to OSWA to be placed with Paul prepaid before the 26th of September.

2. Spring Show points: Plant display labels and sale table paper work to Ken, the kitchen has adequate utensils for the casserole night (there are still vacancies for this), We still require donations for food for morning and afternoon teas and also for the raffle and entry is only free if your name is on the duty roster.

3. The Orchids WA report will be discussed in the next committee meeting as will the proposed amendments to its rules by OSWA.

4. The NDOS is having an auction on the 26th of November at 7:45PM at the Alf Faulkner Hall in Eden Hill and SOSWA members are invited to participate.

5. ANOS is running a correspondence judging course. See Lorraine if you are interested.

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Victor's Orchids


Aerangis fastuosa


Dendrobium capituflorum


Osmoglossum pulchellum

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As usual, any and all comments are welcome

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