These appendices are given for those who are interested in comparing and contrasting some of the written records of the Ui Fiachrach against the oral tradition already described above.

Appendix 1: Tales of Fiachra
 

“A further Irish example of a smith as initiator occurs in the story of Niall and his four step brothers. Mongfind sends the boys to Sithchenn, a smith who is also a magician and a seer. He gets them all into the forge and sets fire to it. Niall comes out with the anvil, and the other four brothers with the sledge-hammers, a pail of beer and the bellows, the spearheads, and a bundle of dry sticks with one green twig in it, respectively. From this the smith foretells their future. Mongfind send them to the smith a second time to obtain arms, and he sends them forth to prove their prowess, an expedition which culminates in a further test – the encounter with the hag at the well” (Rees, p. 253).

“In their youth, Niall (of the Nine Hostages) and his four step brothers, Brian, Fiachra, Ailill, and Fergus, were given weapons by a smith and sent hunting to prove their arms. After losing their way
in the forest, the youth lit a fire to cook the game they had killed, and fergus was sent in search of drinking-water. He came to a well guarded by a monstrous black hag who would grant him useof the well only on condition he gave her a kiss. The lad refused and returned without water. Each of his three brothers in turn went on the same errand, but only Fiachra deigned to give the hag a ‘bare touch of a kiss’. For that she promised him ‘a mere contact with Tara’ – meaning that two of his seed (but none of the descendants of the other three brothers) would be kings. Then it was Niall’s turn. Faced with the same challenge, he kissed the old hag and embraced her. When he looked again, she had changed into the most beautiful woman in the world.

‘What art thou?’ said the boy. ‘King of Tara, I am Sovereignty’

(Rees, p. 73).

Appendix 2: The Ui Fiachrach in the Annals of the Four Masters

Hy Fiachra or Hy Fiachrach  was a name applied to the territories possessed by the race of Fiachra, one of the sons of Eochaidh Muighmeadhoin, monarch of Ireland in the fourth century, of the race of Heremon. The following accounts of the race of Hy Fiachra have been collected from the Books of Leacan and Ballymote, O’Flaherty’s Ogygia, and other authorities. Fiachra was for some time King of Connaught, and was a celebrated warrior, and commander-in-chief of the Irish forces under his brother Niall of the Nine Hostages, Monarch of Ireland; and according to the Book of Ballymote, folio 145, on his return home from a great battle which he had fought with the men of Munster, A.D. 402, he died of his wounds at a place called Hy Mac-Uais in Meath, where he was buried with great honours, and where a monument was erected to his memory with an inscription in Ogham characters, on which occasion fifty prisoners taken in the battle were, according to the Pagan customs, sacrificed around his tomb. The place called Hy Mac-Uais is now the barony of Moygoish in Westmeath. Dathi, son of Fiachra, was king of Connaught, and afterwards Monarch of Ireland; he was one of the most celebrated of the Irish monarchs, and carried his victorious arms to Gaul, where he was killed by lightning at the foot of the Alps, A.D. 429. His body was brought to Ireland and buried at Relig-na-Riogh, the ancient cemetery of the Irish kings at Cruachan, near Elphin. Dathi was the last Pagan monarch of Ireland. Oilill Molt, son of Daithi, was also king of Connaught and monarch of Ireland in the fifth century. Amhalgaidh, another son of Fiachra, was also king of Connaught, and from him the territory of Tir Amhalgaidh or Tirawley in Mayo obtained its name. Dathi the monarch had a son called Fiachra Ealgach, whose posterity gave name to the territory of Hy Fiachrach Muaidhe or Hy Fiachra of the Moy, also called Tir Fiachrach, and afterwards Tireragh barony, in the country of Sligo. This Fiachra had a son called Amhalgaidh, who raised a carn of great stones called Carn Amhalgaidh, where it appears great assemblies of the people were held and where Amhalgaidh himself was buried...At Carn Amhalgaidh the chiefs of the O’Dowds were inaugurated as princes of Hy Fiachra, though according to some accounts the O’Dowds were sometimes inaugurated on the hill of Ardnarea near Ballina. Bryan, king of Connaught, ancestor of the Hy Briuin race, and Niall of the Hostages, Monarch of Ireland, ancestor of the Hy Nialls, of whom accounts have been given in the notes on Meath and Brefney, were brothers of Fiachra, son of Eochaidh Muighmeadhain, monarch of Ireland; and hence these three brothers were the progenitors of the kings and head chiefs of the Meath, Ulster and Connaught. The territories possessed by the race of Fiachra obtained the name of Hy Fiachra, and comprised the present counties of Sligo and Mayo with a great portion of Galway. The territory of Hy Fiachra in Galway, or southern Hy Fiachra, was called Hy Fiachra Aidhne from Eogan Aidhne, son of Eochaidh Breac, son of Dathi, monarch of Ireland. The posterity of Eogan Aidhne, the chief of whom were the O’Heynes, O’Clerys, and O’Shaughnesseys, possessed this territory, which was co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacdaugh; and an account of its chiefs and clans will be found in the note on South Connaught. The chiefs of North Hy Fiachra in Sligo and Mayo were the O’Dowds, &c. According to O’Duhan and Mac Firbis, fourteen of the race of Hy Fiachra were kings of Connaught, some of whom had their residence at Aidhne, in Galway; others at Ceara, now the barony of Carra, in Mayo; and some on the plain of Muaidhe or the Moy, in Sligo.

 The Clans of Hy Fiachra are thus designated by O’Dugan :-

“Binn sluagh na m-borb cliathach.”

“The music loving hosts of fierce engagements”

O’Dubhda, a name sometimes anglicised O’Dowda, but more frequently O’Dowd, and by some O’Dowde, by others O’Dooda and O’Doody, was the head chief of North Hy Fiachra, whose territory comprised nearly the whole of the present country of Sligo, with the greater part of Mayo. The name Dubhda appears to be derived from Dubh, dark or black, and dath, a colour, which, by the elision of the two last letters, which have no sound, makes Dubhda, and might signify a dark haired chief. Taithleach was a favourite name amongst the chiefs of the O’Dowds, and may be derived from Tath, a ruler, and laech or laoch a warrior; hence it may signify the ruling warrior. The O’Dowds are descended from Fiachra Eaglach, son of Dathi, monarch of Ireland above mentioned, and took their name from Dubhda, one of their ancient chiefs. Several celebrated chiefs are mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries. At A.D. 981, Aodh O’Dubhda or Hugh O’Dowd, whi is styled lord of North Connaught, died. By a typographical error in O’Connors Rer.Hib.Scrip. the name is translated O’Duffy instead of O’Dowd. In the Annals at A.D. 1097, is recorded the death of Murchartach O’Dowd, lord of Hy Amhalgaidh. Many valiant chiefs of the O’Dowds are mentioned in these Annals down to the seventeenth century: and they had large possessions in the county of Sligo until the Cromwellian wars, when their estates were confiscated. The O’Dowds were inaugurated as princes of Hy Fiachra or North Connaught at Carn Amhalgaidh, near Killala, as above stated. They appear from history to have been a valiant race; and many of them even down to modern times were remarkable for their great strength and stature: indeed, it may be observed that most of the clans of Sligo and Mayo furnished many men of great size and strength.”

 Annals of the Four Masters, Pages 98-99

“Let us go to the land of Fiachra
To the melodious hosts of fierce conflicts,

From the hospitable and powerful tribe,

It is our wish there to proceed.

From Codhnaigh, it is a peaceful visit,
Which marks the end of the territory,

To the boundary of Rodhba to be recorded;

It is a delightful perfect land;

The whole of that portion

Is the inheritance of O’Dowd.

Fourteen kings of the tribe
Obtained the province undivided,

By deeds of combined force and battle,

Of the illustrious race of Fiachra.”

Annals of the Four Masters, Pg 608

Brandubh, or the Black Raven, so called from the colour of his hair – Pg 221

The Teutonic race are characterized by various writers as cool, steady, slow, calculating, systematic, persevering, taciturn, great reasoners and matter-of-fact people, generally acting with union and concert, fond of wealth, great money-makers, eminent in arts, manufacturers, mechanics, trade and commerce, proud, domineering, distant and rough in manners, not hospitable, selfish, and uncourteous to strangers, sturdy, firm, resolute, of cool and determined bravery, acting in concert and combination with great perseverance and energy, and accomplishing great conquests, forming monarchies and empires, and having hereditary rulers.
 The Celtic race, as described by ancient and modern writers, are sanguine, quick of temper, fiery, passionate, changeable, fond of novelty, though closely adhering to old customs, careless of riches, unless suddenly acquired, improvident, extremely hospitable and courteous to strangers, polite, generous, friendly, very fond of news, great talkers, laughers, and orators, full of figurative language, wit and satire, very partial to poetry and music, fond of splendid dresses and ornaments, clamorous and boastful, vain, impatient of controul, factious, and prone to dissensions among themselves, greedy of glory, enthusiastic, acting from sudden impulse, fierce and impetuous in valour, and very prone to war, their chief modes of government by tribes, clans, and petty kings, and their rulers elective.”

Annals of the Four Masters, Pg 369

Appendix 3: Notes from
 “The Genealogies, Tribes and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach”

Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, who was sixth from Conn of the Hundred Battles...

1. Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin (pronounced Eochy Moyvane), King of Connaught,
was proclaimed monarch of Ireland in the year 358, and, after a reign of

eight years, died at Tara. He married Mongfinn, daughter of Fidach, of the

royal family of Munster, and sister of Crimhthann Mor Mac Fidaigh, who

succeeded Eochaidh as monarch of Ireland, according to the Four Masters, in

the year 366...By Mongfinn this monarch had four sons, namely, 1, Brian,

the ancestor of the Hy-Briuin tribes, of whom the O'Conors of Connaught

were the most distinguished; 2, Fiachra, the ancestor of the Hy-Fiachrach

tribes, of whom the O'Dowds, O'Heynes, and O'Shaughnessys were, at least in

later ages, by far the most distinguished families; 3, Fergus; and 4,

Oilioll, from whom the Tir Oiliolla, now the barony of Tirerill, in the

county of Sligo, received its name.

 Queen Mongfinn, like the Empress Agrippa, actuated by the motives of
ambition, for the aggrandizement of her offspring, poisoned her brother,

the monarch Crimthann, on Inis Dornglas, a small island in the river Moy,

in the hope that her eldest son, Brian, might be immediately seated on the

throne of Ireland; and in order the more effectually to deceive her brother

as to the contents of the proffered cup, she drank of it herself first, and

died of the poison soon after; her brother, on his way home to Munster,

died at a place in the south of the present county of Clare, which, from

that memorable event, received the appellation of Sliabh Oighidh an righ,

or the mountain of the death of the king...

 According to all our ancient authorities King Eochaidh had a second wife,
Carinna, who is said to have been of old Saxon descent, and who was the

mother of the youngest, though by far the most celebrated, of his sons,

namely, Niall of the Nine Hostages, the ancestor of the O'Neill of Ulster,

and all the other families of the Hy-Niall race. It is stated in the Book

of Ballymote, fol. 145, b, a, that the poisoning of her brother Crimthann

was of no avail to Queen Mongfinn, for that Niall of the Nine Hostages, the

son of King Eochaidh by his second wife, and who had been the general of

King Crimthann's forces, succeeded as monarch of Ireland immediately after

the poisoning of Crimthann...

...we read that in the life-time of Niall of the Nine Hostages, Biran, his
brother of the half blood, became King of Connaught, and his second eldest

brother of the half blood, Fiachra, the ancestor of the O'Dowds and of all

the Hy-Fiachrach tribes, became chief of the district extending from Carn

Fearadhaigh, near Limerick, to Magh Mucroimhe, near Atherny. But

dissensions soon arose between Brian and his brother fiachra, and the

result was that a battle was fought between them, in which the latter was

defeated, captured, and delivered as a hostage into the hands of his half

brother, Niall of the Nine Hostages. After this, however, Dathi, the son of

Fiachra, a very warlike youth, waged war on his uncle Brian, and challenged

him to a pitched battle, at a place called Damh-chluain, situated not far

from Knockmaa hill, near Tuam, in the now county of Galway. In this battle,

in which Dathi was assisted by Crimthann, son of Enna Cennselach, King of

Leinster, Brian and his forces were routed, and pursued from the field of

battle to Tulcha Domhnaill, where he was overtaken and slain by Crimthann,

son of Enna Cennselach...

2. Fiachra Foltsnathach, i.e. of the flowing hair, son of King Eochaidh. -
After the fall of Brian, the eldest son of King Eochaidh, as before

recited, Fiachra, the second son, was set at liberty, and installed King of

Connaught, and enjoyed that dignity for twelve years, during which period

he was general of the forces of his brother Niall. His death happened in

the following manner, according to the Lecan records:- He went on one

occasion with the king's forces to raise tribute in Munster, but the

inhabitants of that province, who detested him and his race, on account of

his mother having poisoned the preceeding monarch, who was of their own

province and blood, refused to pay the tributes to King Niall, and defied

him in battle. They met the king's forces in the territory of Caenriaghe,

now the barnony of kenry, situated in the county of Limerick, on the south

side of the Shannon, where they were defeated, and obliged to give up

hostages for their future allegiance. In this battle, however, Fiachra was

severely wounded by Maighe Mescora, one of the warlike tribe of the Ernaans

of Munster, and he set out in triumph for Tara; but when they had arrived

in the territory of Hy-Mac Uais, in Meath, the Munster hostages found Brian

[My Note: An error in the text here - should be Fiachra] unprotected and in

a very feeble state from his wounds, and being suddenly actuated by motives

of revenge, they seized upon his person and buried him alive in the earth!

Thus fell Fiachra a victim to his own incautiousness, according to the

Lecan records, which do not tell us a word about what his own chieftains

were doing, when he was left thus barbarously unprotected. According to the

Book of Lecan this Fiachra had five sons, and if we can rely on the order

in which they are mentioned we should feel inclined to think the monarch

Dathi the youngest. They are mentioned in the following order:- 1, Earc

Culbhuidhe, i.e. of the yellow hair, so called because his hair was the

colour of pure gold, who was the ancestor of the men of Ceara; 2, Breasal,

whose race became extinct; 3, Conaire, from whom a St. Sechnall is said to

have sprung; 4, Amhalgaidh, or Awley, King of Connaught (and ancestor of

several ancient families in Tirawley and Erris, in the county of Mayo), who

died in the year 449...The seven sons of this Amhalgaidh, together with

twelve thousand men, are to have been baptized by St.Patrick, At Forrach

Mac n-Amhalgaidh, near Killala...and 5, Daithi, the youngest, but most

illustrious, of the sons of Fiachra, and the ancestor of all the chiefs of

the Hy-Fiachrach race.

3. Dathi, son of Fiachra Foltsnathach.- On the the death of his father,
Fiachra, this warlike chieftain became King of Connaught, and on the death

of his uncle, Niall of the Nine Hostages, int he year 405 or 406, he became

monarch of Ireland, leaving the government of Connaught to his less warlike

brother Amhalgaidh, or Awley, who lived to recieve the doctrines of

Christianity from the lips of the Irish apostle, Patrick, and who is set

down in all the lists of the kings of Connaught, as the first Christian

king of that province. King Dathi, following the example of his

predecessor, Niall, not only ventured to invade the coasts of Gaul, but

forced his way to the very foot of the Alps, where he was killed, it is

said, by a flash of lightning, leaving the throne to Ireland to be filled

by a line of Christian kings.  His body was carried home by his son

Amhalgaidh, who took command of the Irish forces after the death of his

father, and by his four servants of trust, Dungal, Flanngus, Tuathal, and

Tomaltach, who carried it to the royal cemetary at Cruachan, called Reilig

na riogh, where it was interred, and where, to this day, the spot is marked

by a red pillar stone...After the death of King Dathi, Laoghaire, or Leary,

the son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, became monarch of Ireland, and

enjoyed that dignity, as the Book of Lecan states, for thirty tears after

the arrival of St. Patrick.

 The monarch Dathi married three wives, but the Irish authorities differ

much about their order; the fact therefore probably was that he had the

three together; be this, however, as it may, the Book of Lecan states that

he married Ruadh, or Rufina, the daughter of Airti Uichtleathan, by whom he

had Oilioll Molt, monarch of Ireland, and Fiachra Ealgach, the ancestor of

O'Dowd; he married, secondly, Fial, daughter of Eochaidh, by whom he had

Eochaidh Breac, the ancestor of O'Heyne and O'Shaughnessy; and thirdly ,

Eithne, the daughter of Orach, or Conrach Cas, who, according to some

authorities, was the mother of his son King Oilioll Molt. But as it would

be idle to speculate on which of Dathi's sons were youngest or eldest, the

Editor will here follow the authority of the Book of Lecan, which states

that Dathi had twenty-four sons, of whom, however, only twenty are gieven

by name, and set down in the following order:- 1.Oilioll Molt: he succeeded

as king of Connaught in the year 449, and after the death of the monarch

Laoghaire, in 463, became monarch of all Ireland, and reigned twenty years.

His two grandsons, Eoghan Bel and Oilioll Inbanna, became Kings of

Connaught, but his race became extinct in his great grandsons; 2, Fiachra

Ealgach, the ancestor of O'Dowd, and several other families; 3, Eochaidh

Breac, i.e. Eochy the Freckled, the ancestor of O'Heyne, O'Shaughnessy, and

many other families; 4, Eochaidh Meann; 5, Fiachra, who is said to have

been detained as a hostage in the hands of King Niall of the Nine Hostages,

and who is said to have left a family called Hy-Fiachrach, at a place

called Cuil Fabhair, in Meath [My note: surely an error, since Niall was

already long dead]

The tribes, customs and Genealogies of Hy-Fiachrach, Pages 343 to 346.

"Guaire Aidhne.-He was King of Connaught for thirteen years, during which
period he distinguished himself so much for hospitality and bounty that he

became almost the god or personification of generosity among the Irish

poets"  Page 391

At the year 1201 the Four Masters enter the death of Conchobhar, or Conor
O'heyne, the son of Maurice; at 1211 that of Cugaola O'heyne, and at 1212

they have the following entry:- "A.D. 1212. Donnchadh O'Heyne had his eyes

put out by Aodh, the son of cathal Croibhdhearg O'Conor, without the

permission of O'Conor himself." These were evidently the grandsons of Aodh,

or Hugh O'Heyne, who was slain in 1153, and whose race was now laid aside,

when Donnchadh was deprived of his eyes and rendered unfit for the

chieftainship. After this Eoghan, the son of Giolla na naomh O'Heyne,

became chief of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and one of the most conspicuous

chieftains that ever ruled that territory. In the year 1255 he was one of

the chiefs of Connaught who joined the sons of King Roderic O'Conor against

Hugh, the son of Charles the Red-Handed O'Conor, King of Connaught, who was

assisted by the Englishl on which occasion Hugh O'Conor despatched his

brother felim and others of the chiefs of his people, and a large body of

English soldiers, into Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne to plunder Eoghan O'Heyne, and

they encamped one night at Ardrahin, for the purpose of plundering the

country early the next morning; but when O'Flaherty of Iar-Connaught, and

the other enemies of Hugh O'Conor, had heard that the English were here

stationed with the intention of plundering Eoghan O'Heyne, they did not

neglect their friend, but marched, as the Four Masters state, "with one

mind and one accord," until they came to a place near Ardrahin, where they

halted, and having held a consultation, they came to the resolution of

sending Tuathal, the son of Muircheartach, and Taithleach O'Dowd, with a

strong force, to Ardrahin, while O'Flaherty and the son of Muircheartach

O'Conor were to remain with their forces outside. The two O'Dowds, with

their soldiers, marched courageously and boldly into the town of Ardrahin,

and made a vigorous and desperate attack upon the English, whom they put to

flight east and west. The party who fled eastwards were pursued by the

O'Dowds, and the constable, or capatin of the English received two wounds,

one from the javelin of Tuathal O'Dowd and the other from that of

Taithleach, which left him lifeless; but the party who fled westwards met

O'Flaherty and the son of Muircheartach O'Conor, and routed them to their

misfortune. After this the sons of Roderic and their supporters made peace

with Hugh O'Conor and his friends, which the annalists remark was an

unseasonable peace, as there was no church or territory in Connaught at the

time that had not been plundered or laid waste!

 Page 400

References:

Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland / by the Four Masters

 Ashcroft, B. & Griffiths, G. & Tiffin, H. Key Concepts In Post Colonial Studies, London: Routledge, 1998.

Baker, S. Magic Realism and Postcolonialism in Contemporary Australian Fiction,  Murdoch University, 1992

Baker, S.L. Clowning Seriously: The Political Force of Magic Realism In PostColonial Fiction From Australia and Canada, 1997

Baldick, Chris (ed), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1991

Barker, C. Everville, New York: HarperCollins, 1994

Bartlett, Thomas and Keith Jeffrey (eds) A Military History of Ireland, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Bhabha, H. K. The Location of Culture, London: Routledge, 1994.

Binski, R. "Even More English than Scottish", in The Spectator, Vol 276:8765

 Bouchard, D.F. (ed). Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews by Michel Foucault, New York: Cornell University Press, 1977

Bourke, A. “The Virtual Reality of Irish Family Legend” in Eire-Ireland, the Irish American Cultural Institute, 31:1-2

Bradley, I. The Celtic Way, London: Darton Longman and Todd, 1993

Breslin, P. Ireland's shanachies are gone now, but their legends live on, Smithsonian, Feb 1985, v15, p104(8), on Expanded Academic Index

Brown, Max,  Australian son : the story of Ned Kelly / told by Max Brown ;
Including the Jerilderie letter: a recently-discovered statement of 8,300 words made by Ned Kelly. Melbourne : Georgian House, 1956.

Bury, J.B. The Life of St. Patrick And His Place in History, New York: MacMillan & Co, 1905

Cahill, T. How The Irish Saved Civilization - The Untold Story of Ireland's Heroic Role From The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval
Europe, London: Sceptre, 1995.

Canetti, E. Crowds and Power

Carey, J. “Harold Adams Innis and Marshall McLuhan” in Rosenthal et al McLuhan: Pro and Con, Baltimore: Pelican, 1972

Cavendish, R. Visions of Scotland Mallard Press, 1990

Charles-Edwards, T.M. Early Irish and Welsh Kinship, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993

Clarke, D. & Roberts, A. Twilight Of The Celtic Gods, London: Blandford, Cassell Imprint, 1996

 Clifford, J. “Introduction: Partial Truths” in Clifford, J. and Marcus, G. (eds). Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, University of California Press, 1986

Clifford, J. 'Introduction: Partial Truths' in Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. eds. J. Clifford and G. Marcus, University of California Press, 1986.

Coglan, R. The Encyclopaedia of Arthurian Legends, Element, 1991

Cooper, J. C.  Dictionary of symbolic and mythological animals London : Thorsons, 1995.

 D’Haen, T.L. “Magical Realism and Postmodernism: Decentering Privileged Centres” in Zamora, L.P. & Faris, W.B. (eds.) Magical Realism – Theory, History, Continuity London: Duke University Press, 1995.

Dames, M. Mythic Ireland, London: Thaames and Hudson, 1996.

Davis, C. & James, D. The Celtic Image London: Blandford, 1996,

de Certeau, M. The Writing of History , Tom Conley (trans.), New York: Columbia University Press, 1988

De Paor, L. (ed). Milestones in Irish History, Mercier Press, 1986.

Delaney, F. Legends Of The Celts, London: Grafton, HarperCollins, 1989

Delaney, F. The Celts, London: Grafton, HarperCollins, 1989

Derrida, J. On The Name , edited by Thomas Dutoit, translated by Davied Wood, John P. Leavey, and Ian MacLeod, Stanford
University Press, 1995,

Dezell, M. “The Shame of St Patrick’s Day” in The Journal (A Publication of the Australian-Irish Heritage Association) Autumn 1998

Donovan, K. “Good old Pat: An Irish-American stereotype in Decline” in Eire-Ireland, the Irish American Cultural Institute, 15:3

Duignan-Cabrera, A. "Celtic Inc." in Entertainment Weekly, No 423.

Dumville, D. Saint Patrick AD 493-1993, Suffolk: St Edmundsbury Press, 1983

Dwelly's Illustrated Gaelic to English Dictionary, Gairm Gaelic Publications.

Eliade, M. Myths, Dreams & Mysteries - The Encounter Between Contemporary Faiths and Archaic Reality (Trans. Philip Mairet),
Fontana 1968

Ellis, P.B. The Celtic Empire Guild Publishing, Constable and Company, St Edmundsbury Press, 1990

Falck, C. Myth, Truth and Literature - Towards A True Post Modernism, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1994.

 Faris, W.B. “Schecherazade’s Children: Magical Realism and Postmodern Fiction” in Zamora, L.P. & Faris, W.B. (eds.) Magical Realism – Theory, History, Continuity London: Duke University Press, 1995.

Fiske, J. Understanding Popular Culture, Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989

Foreman, P.G. “Past-On Stories: History and the Magically Real, Morrison and Allende on Call” in Zamora, L.P. & Faris, W.B. (eds.) Magical Realism – Theory, History, Continuity London: Duke University Press, 1995.

Foster, R.F. (ed). The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland

Foucault, M. Language, Counter-Memory, Practice - Selected Essays and Interviews by Michel Focault, edited and translated by
Bouchard, D.F., New York: Cornell Univeristy Press, Ithaca, 1977,

Foucault, M. The Archaeology of Knowledge, London: Tavistock, 1972

Foucault. M. The Archaeology of Knowledge, (A.M. Sheridan Smith trans.) Tavistock Publications, 1972

 Fromm, E. The Forgotten Language - An Introduction to the Understanding of Dreams, Fairy Tales and Myths New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1951

Georges, R.A. & Jones, M.O. Folkloristics An Introduction

Gibson, C. Signs And Symbols Saraband, Rowayton USA, 1996

Graham, I. A Critique Of The Structural Study of Myth, 1995

Green, M. The Gods of the Celts, Sutton, 1986.

Griffiths, S. Reading Mythology, 1999

Harrington, J.P. “A Tudor Writer’s Tracts on Ireland, His Rhetoric” in Eire-Ireland, the Irish American Cultural Institute,

Hesketh, C. "...And it may be a fake anyway", in The Spectator, 276:8765

Hyde, D. Beside the Fire - A Collection of Irish Gaelic Folk Stories, London, 1910

 Innis, H.A. “Technology and Public Opinion in the United States’ in Innis, H.A. The Bias of Communication, Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1951

Jencks, C. (ed). The Post-Modern Reader, London: Academy Editions, 1992

Kiernan, T.J. The Irish Exiles In Australia, Dublin: Clonmore & Reynolds, 1954

Lady Gregory, Visions and Beliefs In The West Of Ireland Collected And Arranged By Lady Gregory: With Two Essays And Notes By

W.B. Yeats, New York: Oxford University Press, 1970

Leach, M. (ed).  Funk & Wagnalls Standard dictionary of folklore, mythology and
                Legend, New York : Funk & Wagnalls, c1972.

Le Page,. R.B. & Tabouret-Keller, Andree, 'The Place of Ethnicity in Acts of Identity' in Acts of Identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985

Lyon, M. ‘X-Nicity – A Cultural Analysis of Ethnic Identity and Performance in Australia, Made Relative To Contemporary Post-Diasporic Rendering of Generation-X and the Hellenic Community of Perth, Western Australia. 1997

Lyons, D. Ireland Land Of The Poets Promotional Reprint Company, London, 1996

Lyotard, J. F. The differend : phrases in dispute   (trans) Georges Van Den Abbeele,    Manchester : Manchester University Press, 1988
 MacDonald, M. The Clans of Scotland London: Grange Books, Regency House Publishing, 1995

MacHale, C. The O’Dubhda Family History, 1990

 MacKay, H. “Toying With Words is Child’s Play” in The West Australian, May 23, 2000, Pg 16.

Mahony, C.H. Contemporary Irish Literature Transforming Tradition, MacMillan,

Malouf, D. 12 Edmondstone Street, London: Chatto & Wondus, 1985

Manifold, J.S. Who Wrote the Ballads? , Australasian Book Society, Sydney, 1964

Masson, S. "Marginalia - A Meditation on the medieval and the postmodern" in Australian Quarterly: Journal of Comparative Analysis, 70:3

Matthews, C. Celtic Devotional Daily Prayers and Blessings, Godsfield Press

Matthews, C. The Celtic Book Of Days Godsfield Press, 1995

McLysaght, P. “An Bhean Chaointe: The Supernatural Woman in Irish Folklore” in Eire-Ireland, the Irish-American Cultural Institute, 14:4

McHoul, A. &Grace, W.  'Discourse' in A Foucault Primer, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1983

McNeill, J. T. The Celtic Churches - A History: AD 200 to 1200, University of Chicago Press

Michaels, E. Bad Aboriginal Art - Tradition, Media and Technological Horizons, Allen&Unwin, 1994

Mikics, D. “Derek Walcott and Alejo Carpentier: Nature, History and the Caribbean Writer” in Zamora, L.P. & Faris, W.B. (eds.)

Magical Realism – Theory, History, Continuity London: Duke University Press, 1995.

Moody, T.W. & Martin, F.X. The Course of Irish History

Moore, T. The Re-Enchantment of Everyday Life, Hodder& Stoughton, 1996

Mor, C. Scratches In The Margin - Wisdom From The Celtic Tradition Sydney: Random House, Australia, 1996

Morrison, T. “Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation” in Evans M (ed.) Black Women Writers

O'Farrell, Patrick The Irish In Australia, New South Wales University Press, 1987

O'Suilleabhain, S. Legends from Ireland

Otway, C. Sketches In Erris And Tyrawly, Dublin: William Curry Jun. and Company, 1841

Pratchett, T. and Briggs, S. The Discworld Companion, Victor Gollancz, London, 1994

Raphael, Samuel and Paul Thompson (eds). The Myths We Live By, London: Routledge, 1990

Rees, A. and Rees, B. Celtic Heritage - Ancient Tradition in Ireland and Wales, Thames and Hudson, 1961

Riche, B. “Allarme to England” in Harrington, J.P. “A Tudor Writer’s Tracts on Ireland, His Rhetoric” in Eire-Ireland, the Irish
American Cultural Institute,

Riche, B. “New Description of Ireland” in Harrington, J.P. “A Tudor Writer’s Tracts on Ireland, His Rhetoric” in Eire-Ireland, the Irish American Cultural Institute,

Richter, M. Medieval Ireland - The Enduring Tradition

Roberts, T.R. Myths Of The World - The Celts In Myth And Legend, MetroBooks, Michael Friedman Publishing Group, New York, 1995

 Rohrich, L. Folktales and Reality (trans). Peter Tokofsky, Indiana University Press, 1991

Rolleston, T.W. The Illustrated Guide To Celtic Mythology, Studio Editions, London, 1994

Rutherford, J. (ed). Identity, Community, Culture, Difference, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1990

Ruthrof, H, The Body in Language, London: Cassell, 1999

Sacred Symbols - The Celts, London: Thames & Hudson, 1995

Said, E.W. Orientalism, Ringwood: Penguin, 1985

Samuel, R. & Thompson, P. The Myths We Live By, New York: Routledge, 1990

Sellars, S. “Introduction” in Language and Sexual Difference: Feminist Writing in France, London: MacMillan, 1991

Sharp, E.A. & Matthay, J. (eds). Lyra Celtica - An Anthology of Representative Celtic Poetry, Edinburgh: John Grant, 1932

Shinn, T.J. Women Shapeshifters - Transforming the Contemporary Novel

Shipley, J.T. Dictionary Of World Literary Terms London: Allen&Unwin, 1979

Simpson, J.A. & Weiner, E.S.C. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd edn., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

Slemon, S. “Magical Realism as Postcolonial Discourse” in Zamora, L.P. & Faris, W.B. (eds.) Magical Realism – Theory, History, Continuity London: Duke University Press, 1995.

Stewart, R.J. & Williamson, R. Celtic Bards, Celtic Druids London: Blandford, Cassell, 1996

Stokes, G. T. Ireland and the Celtic Church - A History of Ireland From St. Patrick to the English Conquest in 1172 , London, 1907

Summers, C. (ed.) Changeling – The Dreaming White Wolf Publishing, 1998

The Celtic Day Book, Sterling Publishing, Toronto,

The genealogies, tribes and customs of Hy-Fiachrach, commonly called O'Dowda's country / now first published from the Book of
Lecan by Duald MacFirbis (1585-1670),

Trinh T. Min-ha, 'The Language of Nativism' in Woman Native Other, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1989

Vattimo, G. The Transparent Society, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992

Welch, Robert Transformations in Modern Irish Writing London: Routledge, 1993

Westropp, T.J. Collectanea: A Study of The Folklore on the Coast of Connacht, Ireland in Folklore, London, Vol. 29

Wimberly, L.C. Folklore in the English and Scottish Ballads - Ghosts, Magic Witches, Fairies, the Otherworld

Wood-Martin, W. G. Traces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland - a folklore sketch - a handbook of Irish pre-Christian traditions , London:
Longmans, Green & Co, 1902

Zaczek, I. Chronicles Of The Celts Collins&Brown, Hodder & Stoughton, Australia, 1996

Zamora, L.P. & Faris, W.B. (eds.) Magical Realism – Theory, History, Continuity London: Duke University Press, 1995.

 Zamora, L.P. “Magical Romance/Magical Realism: Ghosts in U.S. and Latin American Fiction” in Zamora, L.P. & Faris, W.B. (eds.) Magical Realism – Theory, History, Continuity London: Duke University Press, 1995