January 26, 1999
Mary Wareham, senior advocate for the Arms Division of Human Rights Watch, said North Africa is a heavily mined region - with all countries affected by the weapon. Egypt, which claims to suffer from some 23 million uncleared landmines, is also the sole remaining antipersonnel mine producer in Africa.
Egyptian manufactured mines are known to have been deployed in countries in Afghanistan, Angola, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Somalia.
Human Rights Watch urged Tunisia and Algeria, which are the only countries in North Africa that have signed the treaty, to ratify and implement the treaty as soon as possible. To date 60 countries have ratified the treaty.
A steady number of letters from companies which continue to refuse to renounce their involvement in the antipersonnel mine business is being forwarded to me at Human Rights Watch. They include Lockheed Martin, General Electric and Ensign Bickford Industries Inc. Their correspondence reveals that they have NOT changed their positions to a statement renouncing past, current and FUTURE involvement in the production of components for antipersonnel landmines.
Please continue to forward any correspondence to us and please keep up this very important effort.
Senior Advocate, Arms Division
Human Rights Watch
Profit margins for AP mines are small, largely because individual mines sell so cheaply. Recent prices for conventional AP mines include $3.00 for a Chinese Type 72 mine, $6.75 for the Pakistani P4 MK2 mine and $27.47 for U.S. M18A1 claymore mines. (More sophisticated mines, for example those that self- destruct after a preset time, are much more expensive, typically costing hundreds of dollars each.) But even small profit margins can pay off with big sales volume.
More than 400 million AP mines have been emplaced since World War II, the vast majority in the last three decades, according to Thomas Reeder, a senior mine warfare analyst at the U.S. National Ground Intelligence Center. Of this total, 110 million mines in approximately 70 countries remain to be cleared. More than 100 million AP mines are also held in storage around the world, according to U.S. military estimates, including 14 million in U.S. stockpiles. (State parties to the Ottawa Treaty will be required to destroy their stockpiles of AP mines.)
It is unclear how much demand there will be for AP mines once the Ottawa Treaty enters into force, but some will undoubtedly remain. Until the international ban on antipersonnel mines is universal, members of the ICBL will continue to research the production and trade of AP mines and publicly identify and stigmatize the countries and companies involved in the supply, use and production of AP mines.
The producer states that have not signed the Ottawa Treaty are: Belarus, Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, North Korea, South Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, the United States, Vietnam and Yugoslavia.
THE U.S. CORPORATE PRODUCERS
Although it has had a unilateral export moratorium on AP mines in place since 1992, the United States has refused to sign the Ottawa Treaty.
From 1969 to 1992, the United States exported 4.4 million AP mines to at least 34 different countries. U.S. mines have been sown in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Cuba, Iraq, Kuwait, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Somalia, South Korea, Sudan and Vietnam. Forty-seven U.S. companies have been involved in the manufacture of anti-personnel landmines, their components or delivery systems. Because U.S. stockpiles are full, there is apparently no current production of AP mines.
Last year, Human Rights Watch approached these companies, highlighted the humanitarian impact of AP mine warfare and asked them to renounce future involvement in AP mine production. Nineteen of the 47 companies agreed to do so. Notable companies that declined to renounce future involvement are General Electric, Alliant Techsystems (the main U.S. manufacturer of AP mines), Lockheed Martin and Raytheon.
Of the 28 companies that rejected Human Rights Watch's humanitarian appeal to renounce future involvement in AP mine production, 16 responded in writing, and 12 never bothered to respond to repeated requests.
A number of companies insisted they should not be on the list of mine producers because they were currently not involved in the production of AP mines. Human Rights Watch pointed out that, because at the moment U.S. stockpiles of AP mines are full, no AP mines are being produced in the United States. The purpose of the pledge was to obtain guarantees that companies would not engage in any future production. Despite Human Rights Watch's clear request, some companies refused to address the issue of future involvement. General Electric, in a carefully crafted January 16, 1997 letter, stated: "We know of no active GE contracts nor any current direct sales of GE products or materials in which we are involved with manufacturers of antipersonnel mines, mine components or mine delivery systems .... GE's name on an undated (but apparently old) government list of suppliers is not relevant to the Company's current operation." GE never renounced involvement in future production, despite repeat- ed requests for clarification.
Some companies were more forthright. Raytheon wrote, "It is generally not our practice to broadly and formally renounce participation in businesses." Other companies said governments, not corporations, were to blame for landmines' deadly toll. "It is irresponsible to imply in any way that companies such as Alliant Techsystems have contributed to the world's landmine problem," insisted Alliant Techsystems, a major defense contractor which was awarded Pentagon antipersonnel and antitank mine production contracts worth $336 million between 1985 and 1995 (a subsidiary, Accudyne Corp., received contracts worth another $150 million in the same period). "To do so wrongly maligns responsible U.S. citizens, and diverts resources that could be applied toward stigmatizing governments that violate international law."
THE GLOBAL PRODUCERS
With 19 other producer states refusing to sign the Ottawa Treaty, the threat of ongoing or renewed AP production and commerce is not limited to the United States. Among the other countries that will face increased scrutiny are:
- China, probably one of the two largest producers of AP mines today. The China North Industries Corporation (Norinco) and Chinese state factories produce a variety of mines, including the Type 72, one of the most common AP mines in mine-infested countries. China has declared an export moratorium.
- Egypt, one of the most significant mine producers in the developing world (as well as one of the most mine-affected, with an estimated 23 million uncleared landmines). Egyptian landmine producers include the Heliopolis Company for Chemical Industries, the Company for Chemical Industries, and Maasara Company for Engineering Industries (all controlled by the Ministry of War Production). Many mines produced in Egypt are copies of mines designed in the United States, Italy and Russia. Egyptian mines have been found in Afghanistan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Somalia. Egypt has declared an export moratorium.
- Iraq, which produces a wide variety of AP mines. Although Iraq has imported huge quantities of mines, Iraqi factories have also produced copies of Italian, Yugoslavian and Russian mines. Iraq used huge numbers of mines in Kuwait and Iraqi Kurdistan, and is alleged to have exported AP mines.
- Israel, home to Explosives Industries Ltd. and Israeli Military Industries, which produce at least three different AP mines. Israeli mines have reportedly been sold to Argentina (used in the Falklands/Malvinas War), Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nigeria and Zaire. Israel has declared an export moratorium.
- Pakistan, which is among the largest AP mine producers in the developing world. Pakistan Ordnance Factories manufactures several types of AP mines. (The Pakistan Ordnance Factories' marketing campaign for the P4 MK2 included an unusually candid description of the mine's design. "The mine has been designed with a view to disable personnel," says a company brochure. "Operating research has shown that it is better to disable a man than to kill him. A wounded man requires attention, conveyance and evacuation to the rear, thus causing disturbances in the traffic lines of the combat area. Also, a wounded person has a detrimental psychological effect on his fellow soldiers.") Pakistani mines have been found in Afghanistan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. Pakistan has declared a moratorium on exports of AP mines.
- Russia, probably one of the two largest producers of AP mines in the world. Most of the Russian production facilities are still state owned, although many of the export decisions are made privately by factory managers. Russia has recently declared an export moratorium.
- Singapore, which is one of the most significant producers of mines in the developing world. Chartered Industries, controlled by the state-owned Sheng-Li Holding Company, produces and markets copies of two Valsella (Italy) designed AP mines. Singapore is reported to have exported AP mines to Iraq, among other places. Singapore has declared a moratorium on exports of AP mines.
- South Korea, where the Daewoo Corporation and Korea Explosives Company Ltd. produce landmines for the South Korean armed forces. It is not known if South Korea has exported landmines.
-Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), which inherited some of the former Yugoslavian landmine production capability (the other former Yugoslav republics have signed the Ottawa Treaty). Yugoimport is the holding company for the Federal Directorate of Supply and procurement (SDPR), which manages the export of Yugoslavian weapons. Yugoslavia exported a large number of AP mines and millions were used during the war in Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia has exported AP mines to Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia.
Of known exporters of AP mines, only Iran, Iraq, Serbia and Vietnam have not declared export bans or moratoria. However, self-declared bans and moratoria are matters of discretionary domestic policy and do not represent the same obligation as international treaties. Additionally, many of these countries do not have adequate export controls or the ability or will to monitor arms producing factories.
One important task for the ICBL will be to monitor and verify that these non -Ottawa Treaty signing states are adhering to their promises to stop exporting AP mines.
More information on landmine producers
Stigmatization Campaign Update #3
7 OCTOBER 1998
This Update focuses on todays events at Alliant
This morning 53 people were arrested outside Alliant
headquarters in front of a crowd of 130 protesters and assembled
local TV, radio and print media. The demonstration was organized
by Alliant Action and started at 7am. Protesters called for Alliant to
reverse its continued pledge to produce antipersonnel landmines for
the U.S. military. Other demands by the protesters included a call
for Alliant Techsystems to cease development of the Objective
Individual Combat Weapon (year 2005 replacement of the M-16
rifle), cease development of the delivery systems for the First Strike
Trident II Nuclear Missiles, and explore meaningful peace
At 9am protesters crossed from the car park, where
allowed to legally protest, over toward the main building of Alliant
Techsystems. As they walked over the crosswalk they were
arrested one by one. All were handcuffed, including three Sisters of
Mercy aged 72, 73 and 74. Those who resisted arrest were cuffed
AND placed on stretchers or in wheelchairs before being hauled off.
Chief Earl Johnson confirmed to Human Rights Watch by telephone
that 45 people, including a juvenile, were arrested by the Hopkins
Police Department, booked with trespassing, processed at a nearby
ice arena and released this morning. He said that the City Attorneys
Office will make the final decision on charges against the protesters
in a few weeks. Dee Logan and another woman were arrested by
the Hopkins Police Department but taken to processed at another
facility where their status is as yet unknown.
Of immediate concern to Human Rights Watch and
the protesters at
Alliant Techsystems is the arrest of six protesters including Marv
Davidoff, Eric Skoglund, Tom Bodilin, Joel Kilgur, William Barnett
and Alison Lofton. These individuals were arrested by the Hopkins
Police Department but taken to the St. Louis Park Police station to
be held for the next 36 hours on charges of trespassing at the
specific request of the Hopkins City Attorney Win Curtis as
Hopkins police have no holding facilities. It is likely that these
protesters are being detained to prevent them from participating in
further demonstrations planned outside Alliant Techsystems
tomorrow on 8 October 1998 at 7am. Peter Thompson, the
protestors lawyer is currently attempting to arraign these individuals
Alliant Techsystems continues to refuse to renounce
in the production of antipersonnel landmines and is extremely
defensive of its self-destructing antipersonnel mines which it claims
have a reliability factor of 99.99996 percent. It is likely that the
company will bid for the $210 million U.S. Government contract to
redesign the remote anti-armor (RAAM) system to include ADAM
antipersonnel mines, thus making the Remote Area Denial Artillery
Munition, or RADAM. In his 31 August 1998 letter to the US
Campaign to Ban Landmines, President Clinton defended
development of RADAM as “necessary because of the systems
potential role in replacing our current method of employing two
separate munitions (the ADAM APL and the RAAM anti-tank
mine) that form an important artillery-fired anti-tank capability.” The
Presidents defense of this unnecessary and costly design contradicts
his stated goal of signing the Mine Ban Treaty by 2006 and gives
further incentives to Alliant Techsystems to continue its stance in
favor of antipersonnel landmines.
To assist the Alliant Techsystems protesters YOU CAN:
Call Wayne Gilbert, Vice President and Director
of State and
Community Affairs, Alliant Techsystems. Tel. 1-608-752-9081
Tell him that Alliants continued refusal to renounce
its involvement in
the production of antipersonnel mines is unacceptable as it flies in the
face of worldwide revulsion for this inhumane and indiscriminate
Tell him to request the Hopkins City Attorney
to release the
remaining protesters from this mornings demonstration.
A steady number of letters from companies which
continue to refuse
to renounce their involvement in the antipersonnel mine business is
being forwarded to me at Human Rights Watch. They include
Lockheed Martin, General Electric and Ensign Bickford Industries
Inc. Their correspondence reveals that they have NOT changed
their positions to a statement renouncing past, current and FUTURE
involvement in the production of components for antipersonnel
landmines. Please continue to forward any correspondence to us
and please keep up this very important effort.
Senior Advocate, Arms Division
Human Rights Watch
1522 K St. NW, #910
Washington DC 20005
Tel. +1-202-371-6592 (dir. 6599 x 103)
Exposing the Source is available from Human Rights Watch
and is also on the World Wide Web at:
This Update brings an analysis of where the stigmatization campaign fits given the signing of the Mine Ban Treaty and recent U.S. policy developments. It also brings news from the Colorado, Maine, Minnesota, Vermont and Wisconsin - some of the local lobbying efforts underway around the country.
In April 1997, Human Rights Watch Arms Division released Exposing the Source, a comprehensive expose of U.S. companies involved in the manufacture of antipersonnel mine components. Following correspondence prior to the report's release seventeen of the forty-seven corporations identified agreed to renounce all future involvement in antipersonnel landmine production. HRW in cooperation with the US
Campaign to Ban Landmines launched a "stigmatization campaign" against the remaining 30 recalcitrant companies and grassroots pressure resulted in two companies renouncing their involvement by the end of 1997, Unitrode Corporation in New Hampshire and Thiokol Corporation in Utah (See Stigmatization Campaign Update #1: 12 Jan. 1998). The 1997 Ban Bus to Ottawa drew attention to the stigmatization campaign by
stopping and participating in demonstrations outside manufacturers in Colorado, Maine and Minnesota.
Mine Ban Treaty:
To date 126 nations have signed the Mine Ban Treaty and 19 have ratified it. This agreement is establishing a global norm against the use, development, production, stockpiling, and transfer of antipersonnel mines. The very existence of this treaty sets a legal, political and moral benchmark against which users, exporters and producers of the weapon must defend their continued involvement regardless of whether their government has signed the treaty. The emergence of a widely accepted international standard outlawing antipersonnel mines is a strong argument which can and must be made against U.S. landmine producers.
Refusal of companies to renounce involvement in landmine production makes even less sense in light of new U.S. policy endorsing the treaty. Last month, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright stated that the United States will sign the treaty by 2006 if alternatives can be found to antipersonnel mines. HRW contends that alternatives to antipersonnel mines already exist and that the 126 nations who signed the ban treaty did so indicating their willingness to give up the weapon now and to use alternatives already in existence. HRW welcomes the new U.S. commitment to the treaty, but believes that eight years is too long to wait. The U.S. should sign now and U.S. companies should get out of the landmine business NOW.
COLORADO - Capco Inc.
The Grand Junction Peace and Justice Office has been in contact with the CEO of Capco Inc, Steven Wood and its vice-president, Mr. John Younger. In a telephone conversation on 2 June,, Younger said he was surprised that Capco hasn't received much notoriety since Exposing the Source was published - "only a couple of phone calls and four or five letters." Following her conversation with Younger, Bev Goodrich of the GJ P & J said she thought he was "proud of Capco's involvement in the
landmine industry and feels it is patriotic work." Younger dismissed the Mine Ban Treaty and argued for continued use of landmines as a defensive weapon.
Help out the local activists by lobbying Capco
to renounce its involvement and future involvement in landmine production. Capco
has produced components for the Gator CBU-89 & CBU-78, Volcano M87 antipersonnel
Steven Wood, President
John Younger, Vice-President
1323 Winters Ave
Grand Junction CO 81501
GJ P & J
St. Joseph's Church
P.O. Box 246
253 White Ave.
Grand Junction CO 81502
MAINE - Vishay Intertechnology Inc.
After continued attempts to initiate a dialogue between local
campaigners and management at the Sanford-headquarters of Vishay Intertechnology Inc failed, the Maine Coalition to Ban Landmines announced in March that it will conduct a public demonstration on the first Friday of each month from noon to 1pm outside the plant. Vishay has been identified as manufacturing components for the Volcano M87 and Gator BLU-92/B antipersonnel mines.
Action: Help out the local activists by lobbying Vishay to renounce its involvement and future involvement in landmine production.
Vishay Intertechnology Inc.
PO Box 231
207 Main St.
Sanford ME 04073
Paul C. Christian
Social Justice & Peace Services
Catholic Charities Maine
562 Congress Street
Portland, ME 04101-3323
Tel. +207-879-1130, ext. 279
MINNESOTA - Alliant Techsystems
Weekly vigils at 7am every Wednesday morning outside the main entrance to Hopkins-based Alliant Techsystems continue two years on (they started on 7 May 1996) by the Minnesota Campaign to Ban Landmines.
There are anywhere from 15 - 40 people every week in rain, shine, sleet or snow! The last big demo was held in April with several dozen arrests. This time they have decided not to prosecute. There is a plan to demonstrate at Alliant annual meeting again (last year it was in August) and also when 50/50 Tour comes through. At the next weekly vigil, this Wednesday June 24, the demonstrators will be joined by 12 Indochinese exchange visitors, including 4 Cambodians.
Alliant Techsystems is the biggest munitions manufacturer
U.S. and its refusal to renounce future AP mine production has generated the biggest response from non-governmental organizations. Show your support for the incredible efforts of local activists by lobbying Alliant's CEO.
Chief Executive Officer
Alliant Techsystems Inc.
600 Second St. NE
Hopkins MN 55343-8384
Susan B. Walker
4400 Upton Ave Sth, Apt. 401
Minneapolis MN 55410
Rev. James Ketcham
email : email@example.com
John Harmon and Dee Logan
The University of Vermont is actively joining the campaign to ban
landmines after finding that one million dollars of its $169 million
endowment portfolio is invested in companies identified by Exposing the Source as being involved in AP mine production. Consequently UVM's Board of Trustees endorsed a measure backing any shareholder resolutions urging those companies to get out of the landmine business. The Board declined to consider a stronger proposal supported by UVM Student Coalition to actually divest or sell of its holdings in the companies. UVM students say they will be back in the fall to pressure UVM to divest of its landmine-related companies including Alliant Techsystems, General Electric and Lockheed Martin.
President, UVM Student Coalition
UVM Environmental Council
590 Main St.
Burlington VT 05405
WISCONSIN - Amron Corp.
Tom Seery of Milwaukee Peace Action reports that Amron Corporation of Waukesha, Wisconsin is "going out of business" on 1 July 1998. Amron was identified in Exposing the Source as supplying components for the manufacture of antipersonnel mines and was placed on the list of companies refusing to renounce their involvement in the landmine business after they refused to respond in writing to HRW.
Engaging in a dialogue with companies that refuse
to renounce their involvement is both helpful and educational. If a company
refuses to talk with you then be creative and engage in public lobbying efforts.
Please share any media coverage, local updates and/or correspondence you receive from the companies with the coordinator of the US Campaign to Ban Landmines and with me at Human Rights Watch. Your efforts are very important and you are on the winning side of this issue: Good Luck!
Human Rights Watch, Arms Division
1522 K St. NW, #910
Washington DC 20005
Tel. +1-202-371-6592 (dir. 6599 x 103)
Exposing the Source is available from Human Rights Watch Arms Division
and is also on the World Wide Web at: