Animal experimentation: cruel and unnecessary

Many animals are used in scientific and medical research. They often undergo cruel methods of testing and suffer greatly as a result. Animal experimentation is both cruel and unnecessary and humans have no right to put innocent animals through such torture. Scientists often don't benefit from testing on animals as they are so different from us and react differently to drugs. Results obtained from experimenting on animals are unreliable.

There are numerous cases that highlight the absurdity of assuming that humans and animals have a biology sufficiently similar for experimentation to yield useful results. For example: morphine calms humans but excites cats, cortisone causes birth defects in mice but not in humans, penicillin kills guiniea pigs and hamsters and aspirin poisons cats. If the results of tests on animals had been relied upon we would not have penicillin or digitalis (a drug used by heart patients but which was withheld for a long time because it was found to raise the blood pressure of dogs). We would also be without chloroform (once a common anaesthetic but not used initially because it was toxic to dogs) and aspirin (which causes foetal deformities in rats and is toxic to certain animals). Certain steroids, adrenaline, insulin and some antibiotics are also toxic to many animals but medically beneficial to humans.

Another example of how animals can't be relied on to yield reliable results is the case of rats being used for cancer research. On 25th February 1993, it was reported in the age that using rats for cancer research may be pointless. The gene repair systems of rats, it has been found, makes them unusually susceptible to cancer and while it was once thought that their responses parallelled our own, it now appears that there are significant differences in 'the way humans and rodents repair genes damaged by chemicals, radiation, or other agents that mutate DNA.' (Age, 25th February 1993).

Above:This innocent monkey awaits his fate at the hands of his brutal captors. Can anyone look deeply into these eyes and fail to be moved? (Picture and caption taken from Animal Rights Resource Site)

Not only are results obtained from animal testing unreliable, but animal testing puts animals through a lot of unnecessary suffering. Some tests that are commonly used include the Draize Eye Test, the LD50 and Skin Test for Toxicity. These tests are used in the general cosmetic industry and in the household products industry.

Some information on the various tests used:

The Draize Eye Test

This test is used to test shampoos, weed-killers, pesticides, household detergents and riot natural gases. The substances are applied to the eyes of conscious rabbits in order to test irritancy. Apart from the cruelty of this test, a rabbit's eye is a bad model and there are major differences between a rabbit's eye and a human eye.

The LD50

Rabbits, dogs, cats, mice and guinea pigs are used in the LD50 test and it's used to test lipsticks, skin-care products such as moisturisers and cleaners, shampoos and nail polish. The LD50 test (Lethal Dose 50 percent) is administered by introducing the ingredients under investigation into the animal via the mouth or intravenously. The animal is fed up to 50 percent of its body weight and the aim of the test is to find the dose which will kill half the animal sample. For the test to be valid statistically, a minimum of 50 animals are required.

Skin Test for Toxicity

Rats are used in this test. Their fur is shaved and the substance to be tested is applied thickly to the exposed skin. The skin is frequently abraised (broken) to increase absorption.

Above:This unfortunate bunny had the bad luck to become part of a skin toxicity test. (Picture and caption taken from Animal Rights Resource Site)

How do we stop the use of animals in medical, scientific and cosmetic-related research? Boycott the companies that test on animals (buy products which don't test on animals) and/or write to your local paper about the issue. Or write to your local member of parliament and suggest that animal experimentation should be made illegal!! Also, many of the companies that test on animals have e-mail addresses. Write to them!

The following information was extracted from the PETA website (http:// and tells you what companies currently test on animals:

Companies That Test on Animals
(Updated 10/97)

Frequently Asked Questions

Why Are These Companies Included on the "Do Test" List?
The following companies manufacture products that ARE tested on animals. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are presently observing a moratorium on animal testing. Please encourage them to announce a permanent ban. Listed in parentheses are either examples of products manufactured by that company or, if applicable, its parent company. Companies on this list may manufacture individual lines of products without animal testing (e.g., Del Laboratories claims its Naturistics and Natural Glow lines are not animal tested). They have not, however, eliminated animal testing on their entire line of cosmetics and household products. Similarly, companies on this list may make some products, such as pharmaceuticals, that are required by law to be tested on animals. However, the reason for these companies' inclusion is not the required animal testing that they conduct, but rather the animal testing of personal care and household products that is not required by law.

What Can Be Done About Animal Tests Required by Law?
Although animal testing of pharmaceuticals and chemicals is still mandated by law, the same arguments against using animals in cosmetics testing are valid when applied to the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. These industries are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency, respectively, and animal tests are now required by law -- laws that were developed haphazardly in the 1920s. We know that non-animal test methods exist right now and that these tests are more accurate in predicting toxicity than are crude, cruel tests on animals. It is the responsibility of the companies that kill animals in order to bring their products to market to convince the regulatory agencies that there is a better way to determine product safety. Companies resist progress because the crude nature of animal tests allow them to market many products that might be determined too toxic if cell culture tests were used. Let companies know how you feel about this.

Alberto-Culver Co. (Tresemmé, Sally Beauty Supply, Alberto VO5, TCB Naturals)
2525 W. Armitage Ave., Melrose Park, IL 60160 °708-450-3000 °

Allergan, Inc.
2525 Dupont Dr., P.O. Box 19534, Irvine, CA 92612 °714-752-4500 °800-347-4500 °

Arm & Hammer (Church & Dwight)
469 N. Harrison St., Princeton, NJ 08543 °609-683-5900 °800-524-1328 °

Aziza (Chesebrough-Ponds)
33 Benedict Place, Greenwich, CT 06830 °203-661-2000 °800-243-5804

Bausch & Lomb (Curél, Soft Sense, Clear Choice)
1 Bausch & Lomb Place, Rochester, NY 14604-2701 °716-338-6000 ° 800-344-8815 °

Benckiser (Coty, Lancaster, Jovan)
237 Park Ave., 19th Fl., New York, NY 10017-3142 °212-850-2300 °

Bic Corporation
500 Bic Dr., Milford, CT 06460 °203-783-2000

Block Drug Co., Inc. (Polident, Sensodyne, Tegrin, Lava, Carpet Fresh)
257 Cornelison Ave., Jersey City, NJ 07302 °201-434-3000 °800-365-6500

Boyle-Midway (Reckitt & Colman)
2 Wickman Rd., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5M5 Canada °416-255-2300

*Braun (Gillette Company)
400 Unicorn Clark Dr., Woburn, MA 01801 °800-272-8611°

Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. (Clairol, Ban Roll-On, Keri, Final Net)
345 Park Ave., New York, NY 10154-0037 °212-546-4000 °

Carter-Wallace (Arrid, Lady's Choice, Nair, Pearl Drops)
1345 Ave. of the Americas, New York, NY 10105-0021 °212-339-5000

Chesebrough-Ponds (Fabergé, Cutex, Vaseline)
800 Sylvan Ave., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 °201-512-0094

Church & Dwight (Arm & Hammer)
469 N. Harrison St., Princeton, NJ 08543-5297 °609-683-5900 °800-524-1328 °

Clairol, Inc. (Bristol-Myers Squibb)
345 Park Ave., New York, NY 10154 °212-546-5000 °800-223-5800 °

Clorox (Pine-Sol, S.O.S., Tilex, ArmorAll)
1221 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612 °510-271-7000 °800-227-1860 °

Colgate-Palmolive Co.
(Palmolive, Ajax, Fab, Speed Stick, Mennen, SoftSoap) 300 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022 °212-310-2000 °800-221-4607 °

Coty (Benckiser)
237 Park Ave., 19th Fl., New York, NY 10017-3142 °212-850-2300 °

Cover Girl (Procter & Gamble)
One Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, OH 45202 °513-983-1100 °800-543-1745 °

Dana Perfumes (Alyssa Ashley)
635 Madison Ave., 5th Fl., New York, NY 10022-1009 °212-751-3700 °800-822-8547 °

Del Laboratories (Flame Glow, Commerce Drug, Sally Hansen)
565 Broad Hollow Rd., Farmingdale, NY 11735 °516-293-7070 °800-645-9888 °

*Dial Corporation (Purex, Renuzit)
1850 N. Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85004 °602-207-1800 °800-528-0849 °

DowBrands (Glass Plus, Fantastik, Vivid)
P.O. Box 68511, Indianapolis, IN 46268 °317-873-7000 °

Drackett Products Co. (S.C. Johnson & Son)
1525 Howe St., Racine, WI 53403 °414-631-2000 °800-558-5252 °

Ecolab, Inc.
370 N. Wabasha St., St. Paul, MN 55102-1390 °612-293-2233 °800-352-5326 °

Erno Laszlo
200 First Stamford Place, Stamford, CT 06902-6759 °203-363-5461

*Gillette Co. (Liquid Paper, Flair, Jafra, Braun, Duracell)
Prudential Tower Bldg., Boston, MA 02199 °617-421-7000 °800-872-7202 °

1775 Windsor Rd., Teaneck, NJ 07666 °201-833-2300

Helene Curtis Industries (Finesse, Unilever, Suave)
325 N. Wells St., Chicago, IL 60610-4713 °312-661-0222 °

Jhirmack (Playtex)
300 Nyala Farms Rd., Westport, CT 06880 °203-341-4000

Johnson & Johnson (Neutrogena)
1 Johnson & Johnson Plaza, New Brunswick, NJ 08933 °908-524-0400 °

Kimberly-Clark Corp. (Kleenex, Scott Paper, Huggies)
P.O. Box 619100, Dallas, TX 75261-9100 °800-544-1847 °

5601 E. River Rd., Fridley, MN 55432 °612-571-1234

L & F Products
One Philips Pkwy., Montvale, NJ 07645-1810 °201-573-5700

Lever Bros. (Unilever)
390 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022 °212-888-1260 °800-745-9696 °

*Mary Kay Cosmetics
16251 N. Dallas Pkwy., Dallas, TX 75248 °972-687-6300 °800-201-1362 °

Max Factor (Procter & Gamble)
One Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, OH 45202 °513-983-1100 °800-543-1745 °

Courthouse Plaza N.E., Dayton, OH 45463 °513-222-6323 °

Mennen Co. (Colgate-Palmolive)
E. Hanover Ave., Morristown, NJ 07962 °201-631-9000 °

Murphy-Phoenix Co. (Colgate-Palmolive)
P.O. Box 39670, Solon, OH 44139 °800-486-7627 °

Neoteric Cosmetics
4880 Havana St., Denver, CO 80239-0019 °303-373-4860

Neutron Industries, Inc.
7107 N. Black Canyon Hwy., Phoenix, AZ 85021 °602-864-0090

Noxell (Procter & Gamble)
11050 York Rd., Hunt Valley, MD 21030-2098 °410-785-7300 °800-572-3232 °

Olay Co./Oil of Olay (Procter & Gamble)
P.O. Box 599, Cincinnati, OH 45201 °800-543-1745 °

*Oral-B (Gillette Company)
1 Lagoon Dr., Redwood City, CA 94065-1561 °415-598-5000 °

Pantene (Procter & Gamble)
Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, OH 45202 °800-945-7768 °

Parfums International (White Shoulders)
1345 Ave. of the Americas, New York, NY 10105 °212-261-1000

*Parker Pens (Gillette Company)
P.O. Box 5100, Janesville, WI 53547-5100 °608-755-7000 °

117 Water St., Allegan, MI 49010 °616-673-8451 °800-253-3606 °

Pfizer, Inc. (Bain de Soleil, Plax, Visine, Desitin, BenGay)
235 E. 42nd St., New York, NY 10017-5755 °212-573-2323 °

Physicians Formula Cosmetics (Pierre Fabré)
1055 W. Eighth St., Azusa, CA 91702 °818-334-3395

Playtex Products, Inc. (Banana Boat, Woolite, Jhirmack)
300 Nyala Farms Rd., Westport, CT 06880 °203-341-4000

Procter & Gamble Co. (Crest, Tide, Cover Girl, Max Factor, Giorgio)
One Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, OH 45202 °513-983-1100 °800-543-1745 °

Reckitt & Colman (Lysol, Mop & Glo)
1655 Valley Rd., Wayne, NJ 07474-0945 °201-633-6700 °800-232-9665

Richardson-Vicks (Procter & Gamble)
One Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, OH 45202 °513-983-1100 °800-543-1745 °

Sally Hansen (Del Laboratories)
565 Broad Hollow Rd., Farmingdale, NY 11735 °516-293-7070 °800-645-9888 °

Sanofi (Yves Saint Laurent)
90 Park Ave., 24th Fl., New York, NY 10016 °212-907-2000

Schering-Plough (Coppertone)
1 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ 07940-1000 °201-822-7000 °800-842-4090 °

Schick (Warner-Lambert)
201 Tabor Rd., Morris Plains, NJ 07950 °201-540-2000 °800-492-1555 °

S. C. Johnson Wax (Pledge, Drano, Windex, Glade)
1525 Howe St., Racine, WI 53403 °414-260-2000 °800-558-5252 °

SmithKline Beecham
100 Beecham Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15205 °412-928-1000 °800-456-6670 °

SoftSoap Enterprises (Colgate-Palmolive)
1107 Hazeltine Blvd., Suite 370, Chaska, MN 55318 °612-448-1118 °

Sunshine Makers (Simple Green)
P.O. Box 2708, Huntington Beach, CA 92649 °714-840-1319 °800-228-0709 °

Sun Star
600 Eagle Dr., Bensenville, IL 60106-1977 °800-821-5455

3M (Scotch, Post-It)
Center Bldg., 220-2E-02, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 °612-733-1110 °800-364-3577 °

Unilever (Lever Bros., Calvin Klein, Elizabeth Arden, Helene Curtis, Diversey)
390 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022 °212-888-1260 °800-745-9696°

Vidal Sassoon (Procter & Gamble)
P.O. Box 599, Cincinnati, OH 45201 °800-543-7270 °

Warner-Lambert (Lubriderm, Listerine, Schick)
201 Tabor Rd., Morris Plains, NJ 07950-2693 °201-540-2000 °800-323-5379 °

Westwood Pharmaceutical
100 Forest Ave., Buffalo, NY 14213 °716-887-3400 °800-333-0950