VHD Biological Abs Articles

BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS of VHD ARTICLES

Record 1 of 5 - BA on CD January - June 1991TI: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease: An investigation of some properties of the virus and evaluation of an inactivated vaccine.

AU: SMID-B; VALICEK-L; RODAK-L; STEPANEK-J; JURAK-E

SO: VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY 26(1-2): 77-86

PY: 1991

LA: English

AB: An inactivated vaccine against rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), developed and tested in our laboratory, is produced commercially by Bioveta, Ivanovice, Czechoslovakia. Rabbits developed full protection against infection 3 weeks after the administration of a single dose. Antibodies were detectable from day 5 after vaccination. Naturally acquired antibodies were demonstrated in some rabbits kept on commercial farms. The virus survived at least 225 days in an organ suspension kept at 4 degree C, at least 105 days in the dried state on cloth at room temperature (around 20 degree C), and at least 2 days at 60 degree C, both in organ suspension and in the dry state. Experimental infection of rabbits younger than 2 months was successful in some animals. Hares, guinea pigs, white mice, golden and Chinese hamsters, chinchillas and hysterectomy- derived, colostrum-deprived piglets were resistant to infection.

Record 2 of 5 - BA on CD January - June 1991

TI: A new disease: hemorrhage in rabbits.

AU: POPOVIC-N

SO: VETERINARSKI GLASNIK 44(8-9): 711-713

PY: 1990

LA: Serbo-Croatian

AB: Haemorrhagic diseases in rabbits have viral etiology. They affect animals only and most often exhibit a 1-3 days course. Virus is introduced via the alimentary respiratory tract or the skin lesions. Death is sudden and without any characteristic symptoms. Pathomorphology is characterised by a number of haemorrhages in the internal organs. Within 5 days as of inoculation with the inactivated agent an at least six-month immunity is produced in rabbits.

Record 3 of 5 - BA on CD January - June 1991

TI: First observations of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in Belgium.

AU: PEETERS-J-E; BROES-A; CHARLIER-G

SO: ANNALES DE MEDECINE VETERINAIRE 134(8): 567-571

PY: 1990

LA: French

AB: The rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly fatal and contagious disease of the rabbit which was first identified in China in 1984 and has since been reported in several countries. The first outbreaks of the RHD in Belgium were identified in early summer 1990. The disease affected a total of 10 small fancy rabbitries. Within one week 65 to 100% of the rabbits over two months of age died, of which 30 to 50% during the first day of the events, mostly without any clinical sign. Necropsy revealed the marked hypertrophy of the thymus with numerous petechiae, haemorrhagic pneumo-tracheitis as well as hypertrophy and degeneration of the liver. Histopathology mainly showed lesions of necrotic hepatitis. The disease is caused by a virus (RHDV), probably a calicivirus, which is present in large quantities in the liver of the affected animals. The RHDV has a diameter of 34 +- 2 nm and is able to agglutinate human red blood cels of group O. Haemagglutination is inhibited by convalescent sera. Diagnosis is based on haemagglutination tests or negative staining electron microscopy on liver homogenates.

Record 4 of 5 - BA on CD January - June 1991

TI: Monoclonal antibodies to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and their use in the diagnosis of infection.

AU: RODAK-L; GRANATOVA-M; VALICEK-L; SMID-B; VESELY-T; NEVORANKOVA-Z

SO: JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY 71(11): 2593-2598

PY: 1990

LA: English

AB: Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were prepared. Using Western blot (WB) analysis, the MAbs obtained were divided into two groups, one reacting with the major structural proteins of M-r 61K and 38K, and the other giving negative reactions. Both groups of MAbs, however, reacted specifically with RHDV in ELISA and by immunoperoxidase (IP) and immunofluorescence (IF) tests with infected cells. As demonstrated by WB using RHDV-specific MAbs and a MAb to feline calicivirus (FCV) strain F9, the major structural (capsid) proteins of RHDV and FCV have very similar sizes (M-r 61K and 38K compared to 62K to 64K and 40K respectively). No cross-reactions of MAbs with proteins of the other virus were observed in WB analysis, ELISA, IP tests or IF. The high specificity and sensitivity of RHDV-specific MAbs make them suitable for the routine IP and IF diagnosis of RHDV in liver cells of rabbits dying after natural or experimental infections.

Record 5 of 5 - BA on CD January - June 1991

TI: Viral hemorrhagic disease in rabbits.

AU: PIRES-M-D-A

SO: REVISTA PORTUGUESA DE CIENCIAS VETERINARIAS 85(493-494): 38- 42

PY: 1990

LA: Portuguese

AB: The haemorragic rabbit disease is caused by a Picornaviridae virus, exclusively affecting rabbits and only animals older than 3 months. The affected rabbits have sudden death. In this paper, the author describes some of the histopathological lesions found in the necropsied animals. The distribution of the disease in the area of Tras-os-Montes is registered on the map included.

Record 1 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1991

TI: Genomic and subgenomic RNAs of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus are both protein-linked and packaged into particles.

AU: MEYERS-G; WIRBLICH-C; THIEL-H-J

SO: VIROLOGY 184(2): 677-686

PY: 1991

LA: English

AB: The major subgenomic RNA of the calicivirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus which codes for the viral capsid protein has been cloned as cDNA. The nucleotide sequence of this mRNA was shown to be identical to the 3' terminal region of the genomic RNA. The 5' end of the mRNA corresponds to position 5296 of the genomic sequence; except for two differences the first 16 nuceotides of genomic and subgenomic RNAs are identical. After isolation from the liver tissue viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs were found to be resistant to RNase degradation. This protection was due to RNA packaging into particles. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation of liver homogenates allowed separation of such particles containing either genomic RNA or subgenomic RNA. Genomic and subgenomic RNAs are protein-linked and for the genomic molecule this interaction is localized within the first 179 nucleotides. After radioactive labeling of purified RNA and subsequent RNase treatment a protein of 15 kDa was identified.

Record 2 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1991

TI: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a calicivirus genome.

AU: MEYERS-G; WIRBLICH-C; THIEL-H-J

SO: VIROLOGY 184(2): 664-676

PY: 1991

LA: English

AB: The RNA genome of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was molecularly cloned. The 5' terminal sequence of the genomic RNA was determined after PCR amplification after PCR amplification of a G-tailed first strand cDNA template. The cloned cDNA allowed determination of the first complete caliciviral sequence encompassing 7437 nucleotides without poly(A) tail. The RHDV genome contains one long open reading frame of 2344 codons which in the 5' region encodes the nonstructural proteins. Sequence comparision studies revealed significant homology between nonstructural proteins of the feline calicivirus (FCV) and RDHV. In analogy to FCV the deduced RHDV amino acid sequence contains a picornavius 2C-like sequence, a hypothesized cysteine protease motif, and the conserved polymerase residues GDD. For the protein region containing the GDD motif, alignments of sequences from different viruses including the putative caliciviruses hepatitis E virus and Norwalk virus were performed; concerning the classification of the latter two viruses, a final judgement was not possible. Bacterial expression of sequences derived from the 3' part of the genomic RHDV RNA showed that this region codes for the viral capsid protein.

Record 3 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1991

TI: Studies on rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

AU: DU-N; XU-W; LIU-S; XU-F; YU-Y; LI-R

SO: SCIENTIA AGRICULTURA SINICA 24(1): 1-10

PY: 1991

LA: Chinese

AB: The causative agent of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) was discovered and identified in 1984 in China. The rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is icosahedral, 32-34nm in diameter and non-enveloped, composed of 32 capsomers, with a core measuring 17-23nm. In thin sections of liver, lung, and kidney from infected rabbits, accumulated and scattered virions can be seen both in nuclei and cytoplasm. The buoyant density is 1.36- 1.38 g/cm-3 in CsCl and the sedimentation coefficient is 162 S. The nucleic acid of RHDV is single-stranded DNA, non-segmented and linear, with a length of 1.90 mu-m and molecular weight of 2.4 times 10-6. The mol percentages of the four bases constituting the nucleic acid are: C = 23.7, G = 20.5, T = 31.9, A = 24.0, and G+C mol% = 44.2. There are 4 viral polypeptides, with molecular weights of VP-1 = 58-60kd, VP-2 = 54.7kd, VP-3 = 51-53kd, and VP-4 = 26kd. The virus can agglutinate human RBC of any blood group, with very high HA titres. It can resist the treatment of ether and chloroform, and is stable at pH 3.0 or 50 degree C. Nuclear inclusion bodies can be seen in liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain cells of infected rabbits. It is suggested that this virus may be a new member of parvovirus, with unique properties. RHD is a disastrous infectious disease, affecting only adult rabbits and spreading readily among susceptible flocks, with very high morbidity and mortality. In experimental infections most rabbits die within 24-72 hours, characterized by systematic haemorrhages and multiple vascular thrombi. If the disease course prolong, the principal lesions are necrotic foci in liver. Clinical diagnosis is based on epidemiology, sudden death, severe haemorrhages in lung, and hyperaemia, haemorrhages and necrosis in liver. HA and HI tests have been used to detect the viral antigens in liver, spleen, serum and other tissues. Besides, several serological tests are also developed. Formalinized tissue vaccine can stop the spread of the disease in 3-4 days, and the effect of antiserum is also satisfactory. Because of the successful vaccination, the disease has been controlled since 1986 in China. Now the disease is found only sporadically or limited to small areas. Since 1987 outbreaks of RHD have been reported in several Asian and European countries, and Mexico in 1988, today it is a serious worldwide disease in rabbits. Further investigations on the nature of the causative agent and the development of effective control measures must be enforced.

Record 4 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1991

TI: Studies on some biophysical and biochemical characteristics of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) DNA.

AU: SUN-S-B; WANG-H-Z; YANG-X-I; LUO-J; LIU-H

SO: VIROLOGICA SINICA 6(1): 59-64

PY: 1991

LA: Chinese

AB: In the present paper, some biophysical and biochemical characteristics of the nucleic acid in the original strain of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) - A-2R - 3 (separated from Wuxi, China. 1984) have been studied. By using Feulgen assay, diphenylamine reaction test and nuclease digestion sensitivity test, we demonstrated that the nucleic acid of the RHDV was DNA form. Staining with acridine orange, reaction with diluted formaldehyde, digestion with nuclease S1 and determination of thermal denaturation of the RHDV DNA showed that the RHDV contains single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Electron micrograph revealed that the RHDV DNA is linear single-strand DNA molecules with 2.15 mu in length, their molecular weight is about 2.1-2.5 times 10-6 d. The base composition is: A 25.34, T 29.37, G 23.38, C 21.43. The G+C mol% is 45.28. The results suggested that the RHDV can be classified into the Parvoviridae and as a membrane of the Parvoviruses.

Record 5 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1991

TI: Investigation on the occurrence of rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease or serologically related infectors in Lower Saxony (West Germany).

AU: MAESS-J; RYLL-V; KEYSERLINGK-M-V; WENK-L; POHLMEYER-K

SO: ZEITSCHRIFT FUER JAGDWISSENSCHAFT 37(1): 49-54

PY: 1991

LA: German

AB: Hare (Lepus europaeus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) hunted during the hunting season 1989/90 in Lower Saxony were investigated for Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease by means of hemagglutination reaction: Detection of antigen in perished animals (HA) hare: 9/103 (positive results/total amount of animal) rabbit: 5/15 (positive results/total amount of animal) Detection of antibody in animals hunted (HI) hare 53/251 (hunting grounds: 19/25) rabbit 26/70 (hunting grounds: 5/10).

Record 1 of 6 - BA on CD January - June 1992

TI: Capacity of human erythrocyte O, A, B and AB groups to agglutinate the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

AU: FITZNER-A; KESY-A; CHROBOCINSKA-M

SO: MEDYCYNA WETERYNARYJNA 48(2): 89-90

PY: 1992

LA: Polish

AB: The usefulness of human erythrocytes taken from donors of different blood groups was assessed in respect to their capacity to react with a suppression of rabbit organs derived from infected animals with RHDV. According to the authors HA test should be carried out in a 0.85 per cent NaCl solution (pH = 7.0) at room temperature and the results should be read after 2-3 hours.

Record 2 of 6 - BA on CD January - June 1992

TI: Etiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease spontaneously occurring in Korea.

AU: PARK-J-H; KIDA-H; UEDA-K; OCHIAI-K; GORYO-M; ITAKURA-C

SO: JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES B 38(10): 749-754

PY: 1991

LA: English

AB: Causative agent of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) was purified by CsCl density gradient centrifugation from the liver homogenates of rabbits infected with RHD virus which originated from Korea. The viral particles were 35-40 nm in diameter, and had hallow depressions on their surface. Protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy clearly showed that the convalescent antisera of diseased rabbits reacted specifically with the virus particles. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses demonstrated that the structural protein of the virus was composed of a single major polypeptide of 63 kD. These findings indicate that the causative agent of RHD, tentatively named as picornavirus in Korea, belongs to calicivirus.

Record 3 of 6 - BA on CD January - June 1992

TI: Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: First outbreak in Israel and review of the literature.

AU: KUTTIN-E-S; NOWOTNY-N; NYSKA-A; SCHILCHER-F; WANER-T

SO: ISRAEL JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE 46(4): 119-126

PY: 1991

LA: English

AB: The first outbreak of rabbit haemmorrhagic disease in Israel is reported, and a review of the literature is presented.

Record 4 of 6 - BA on CD January - June 1992

TI: Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD): Investigation for quantification of antigen.

AU: LIEBERMANN-H; BERGMANN-H; LANGE-E; SCHIRRMEIER-H

SO: JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES B 38(8): 621-629

PY: 1991

LA: German

AB: The efficiency of a vaccine of inactivated virus is influenced to a great deal by the mass of antigen per dose of application. Therefore it is essential to know the concentration of the antigen. We tested a physical method for quantification of the RHD-Virus. It implies a centrifugation of the prepurified, if necessary, preconcentrated infectious or inactivated virus in a gentle sucrose gradient. It is followed by analysis in a sensitive UV flow-through photometer with a computer calculated virus mass. The extinction coefficient (optical density) of the virus (175S-component) at 254 nm is 3.9 cm-2/mg. The haemagglutination test and the ELISA were used to prove the virus specificity of the optical peak and partial for comparing them with the method mentioned above.

Record 5 of 6 - BA on CD January - June 1992

TI: Rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease: I. Pathomorphological studies.

AU: GLAVITS-R; SZTOJKOV-V; RATZ-F; MEDER-M; MOCSARI-E

SO: MAGYAR ALLATORVOSOK LAPJA 46(1): 5-12

PY: 1991

LA: Hungarian

AB: Detailed pathological, light- and electronmicroscopic investigations were carried out in 450 experimentally infected adult rabbits to study the patho-morphology of the disease. Ataxia and epistaxis was observed only occasionally before the sudden death. The pathological examinations revealed haemorrhages all over the body and an acute hepatic dystrophy with formation of Councilman-bodies. The characteristic hepatic lesions were associated with the multiplication of the causative virus. The virus could be demonstrated in the cytoplasm of pathognostic Councilman-bodies in all cases. The endothelial lesions (dilatation, endothelial degeneration, intravascular coagulation), developed due to the viraemia, caused - besides the deterioration of hepatic lesions - circulatory disturbances and haemorrhages, characteristic for the disease. Inflammatory processes did not accompany the degenerative and circulatory alterations, possibly due to the short course of the disease. Thus, the terms haemorrhagic tracheo-pneumonia", as well as viral haemorrhagic pneumonia", used by others, did not specify appropriately the disease. The causative agent from the Hungarian cases was classified a calicivirus according to its size and morphological properties.

Record 6 of 6 - BA on CD January - June 1992

TI: Pulmonary intravascular macrophages in rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

AU: CARRASCO-L; RODRIGUEZ-F; MARTIN-DE-LAS-MULAS-J; SIERRA-M-A; GOMEZ-VILLAMANDOS-J-C; FERNANDEZ-A

SO: JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY 105(3): 345-352

PY: 1991

LA: English

AB: Attention has already been drawn to the presence of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) in species in which the lung plays an important part in the removal of particles from the bloodstream. The stimulation of PIMs under certain conditions has been related to pulmonary oedema and congestion. In order to ascertain whether these cells are found in rabbits, healthy animals were inoculated with a liver homogenate obtained from animals which had died of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, a condition characterized by vascular phenomena and pulmonary oedema. PIMs were detcted both in experimental and healthy control animals. They shared the morphological characteristics reported for other species, particularly with respect to the presence of intercellular junctions with endothelial cells. In experimental animals, PIMs were actively involved in the removal of cell debris which may or may not have been associated with the presence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus antigen.

Record 1 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1992

TI: Hematological parameters and visceral lesions relationships in rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease.

AU: PLASSIART-G; GUELFI-J-F; GANIERE-J-P; WANG-B; ANDRE-FONTAINE-G; WYERS-M

SO: JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES B 39(6): 443-453

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Twenty rabbits were inoculated with a suspension of Viral Hemorrhagic Disease virus. Hemostatic functions were assessed every sixth hour from 6 to 60 hours post-inoculation. Tissue samples obtained at the same intervals allowed the study of the development of lesions throughout the experiment. Biological signs of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) were detected on and after 30 h post-inoculation, and consisted of prolonged One Stage Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thrombin Time, the decrease of factors V, VII, and X and high levels of soluble fibrin monomer complexes and D-dimers. A reduction of thrombocyte numbers, heterophils and lymphocytes was associated. The close association of DIC and necrotizing hepatitis lesions suggested the hepatic lesions to be the most important DIC triggering factor. Other mechanisms are discussed.

Record 2 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1992

TI: European brown hare syndrome in the UK: A calicivirus related to but distinct from that of viral haemorrhagic disease in rabbits.

AU: CHASEY-D; LUCAS-M; WESTCOTT-D; WILLIAMS-M

SO: ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 124(3-4): 363-370

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: The virus recovered from cases of European brown hare syndrome in the U.K. contains one major capside protein of approximately 60 k molecular weight and morphologically resembles known caliciviruses. It has been compared with a European isolate of rabbit haemorrhagic disease calicivirus and, although it shows some antigenic similarity, it is not identical. In transmission and protection studies the virus from U.K. hares failed to produce disease in rabbits and did not effectively protect against subsequent challenge with the rabbit calicivirus.

Record 3 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1992

TI: Genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

AU: MILTON-I-D; VLASAK-R; NOWOTNY-N; RODAK-L; CARTER-M-J

SO: FEMS (FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN MICROBIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES) MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS 93(1): 37-42

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent calciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from thos determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.

Record 4 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1992

TI: Detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus antigen in tissues by immunohistochemistry.

AU: PARK-J-H; ITAKURA-C

SO: RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE 52(3): 299-306

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Formalin fixed liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung, duodenum and appendix tissues from nine rabbits, experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), were investigated for evidence of RHDV antigen by the direct avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical method. In all the rabbits examined, RHDV antigen was detected in degenerative and necrotic hepatocytes of the liver tissues. The area involved coincided with histopathological lesions on serial liver sections. The RHDV antigen was expressed in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes, suggesting that RHDV replicated in these cells. RHDV antigen was also detected in the spleen. The results of immunohistochemistry were supported by the demonstration of RHDV protein by Western blot analysis and of RHDV particles by protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy in the liver homogenate from all the rabbits that were examined.

Record 5 of 5 - BA on CD July - December 1992

TI: Susceptibility of hares (Lepus europaeus Pall.) for the infectious hemorrhagic disease of rabbits (RVHD) under experimental conditions.

AU: JURCIK-R; LENCUCHOVA-L; SALAJ-J; SLAMECKA-J; MELICHAREK-I; REVAYOVA-D

SO: ZEITSCHRIFT FUER JAGDWISSENSCHAFT 38(1): 34-41

PY: 1992

LA: German

AB: The export of hares to France and Italy is of great economic significance for hunting associations in CSFR. In connection with the occurrence of RVHD among rabbits in CSFR, stricter import conditions for live hares were imposed by these countries, which in turn made their exportation more difficult. The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the susceptibility of hares to RVHD and the possibilities of active transmission of this disease through exported hares and rabbits to native populations in importing countries. The experiment, in which the hares were artificially infected with RVHD virus has shown that the virus in the hares did not multiply, although the animals responded with the production of disease specific antibodies. Susceptible control rabbits that were placed together with infected hares showed neither clinical symptoms nor did they react with the production of antibodies. Exposure of the hares for the time period of 4 days to a diseased rabbit and its cadaver demonstrated that the hares cannot be infected by natural means with RVHD. On the basis of our experimental results we can conclude tht the fear of the contagious spread of RVHD through exported hares is groundless.

Record 1 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: A new virus of rabbit: III. Study on morphological superstructure and antigenicity of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

AU: ZHAO-L; LI-T; SONG-B; SUN-F

SO: ACTA MICROBIOLOGICA SINICA 32(5): 359-363

PY: 1992

LA: Chinese

AB: In the spring 1986, an acute infectious disease occurred in Wuhan Second Producing Medical Manufactory, and the rabbit almost died. We tested the mortal symptom and confirmed rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) as same as Huang Yinyao report. Hubei Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute appear this RHD also. After we purified virus of above two source by low speed, high speed and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, they can react with antiserum of RHDV from Nanjing Agricultural University in agar gel immunodiffusion tests. These results proved that they belong to the same serotype. Data indicate RHDV have difference morphological superstructure, viral polypeptides and especially RHDV can't react with antiserum of standard Parvovirus of rabbit and so on, so we suggest RHDV is a new virus.

Record 2 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

AU: UEDA-K; PARK-J-H; OCHIAI-K; ITAKURA-C

SO: JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 40(4): 133-141

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Seven rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus were examined haematologically and histologically. Haematologically, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time were markedly prolonged in the terminal phase of the disease, just prior to death (all the animals died between 27 and 40 hr after inoculation with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus). There was an increase in the titre of fibrin degradation products and a decrease in antithrombin III activity during the same interval. Acute necrotic hepatitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in many organs, including the lung, kidney, spleen and heart were the characteristic histopathological changes. Thus, the haematological and histological changes suggested that DIC was induced by rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus infection. Severe liver necrosis was considered to be a factor causing DIC by inducing a hypercoagulable condition in the systemic blood circulation.

Record 3 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: Antigenic relationship between rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and parvoviruses.

AU: LIU-D-Z; XU-W-Y; DU-N-X

SO: VIROLOGICA SINICA 7(3): 351-356

PY: 1992

LA: Chinese

AB: Antigenic relationship between rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and six parvoviruses was determined with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect-ELISA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay (ELISIA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results by indirect-ELISA showed that the correlation coefficients between RHDV and minute virus of mice (MVM), goose parvovirus (GPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV) were 5.59%, 3.54%, 1.76% and 0.7%, respectively, while the correlation coefficients between MEV and PPV was 31.6% and between MVM and MEV was 35.3%. There was no relationship between GPV and other parvovirus including MVM, MEV and PPV. In ELISA inhibition test relationship did not exist between RHDV and feline parvoviruses (including CPV, MEV and FPV) except GPV whose highest inhibition rate was 40%. There was no evidence of any relationship between RHDV and parvoviruses by HI test. Based on cross reaction, RHDV was correlated with parvoviruses to some extent.

Record 4 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: Studies on replication of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in vitro.

AU: LUO-J; YANG-X-L; LIU-H; YAN-Y-F; WANG-H-Z; SUN-S-B

SO: VIROLOGICA SINICA 7(3): 343-350

PY: 1992

LA: Chinese

AB: In this paper the characteristics of replication of RHDV in the RL and RK cells have been studied by using synchronous infective method. The cytopathology effect can be observed at 48-96 hrs after viruses infection. HA titer of viral increased 5-10 times as high as those HA titers of viruses infection at 72 hr. The sensitivity of RHDV to passage cells are different, it is most sensitive for 4-8 generation. Special fluorescence in the cells can be seen at 18-72 hrs using immunofluorescence stain. Viruses of multiplication in cells were precipitated with PEG-DS, and purified with Sepharose 4B chromatography. Intact virions can be observed under electron microscope. Healthy rabbits were infectious with pure virions, resulting in death of rabbits by 100%. Clear immuno-sedimentation band can be produced between antigens obtained from cell cultures with antisera of RHDV using ID and CIE tests. The pure virions of cell cultures resolved into four polypeptides and with molecular weight of 65 kd, 52 kd, 43 kd and 36 kd respectively was seen after Coomassie blue staining following SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of Vp2, Vp3, Vp4 polypeptide showed identical with Vp2, Vp3, Vp4 polypeptide of virions of rabbit liver tissue, but molecular weight of Vp1 polypeptide were slightly different from each other.

Record 5 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: Studies on the viral polypeptides and serological relationships of four strains of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

AU: ZHU-W; LUO-J; YANG-X-L

SO: VIROLOGICA SINICA 7(3): 334-341

PY: 1992

LA: Chinese

AB: In this paper four different strains of RHDV were purified by two phases of polyethylene glycol-dextran sodium sulfate and centrifugation, then virions in highly pure form were obtained by using Sepharose 4B chromatography. The recovery rate of virus preparation was about 70 percent. Serological relationships of four different strains of RHDV were studied by using immuno double diffusion, cross hemagglutination inhibition and enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that serotypes are the same among four different strains of RHDV. The viral proteins of four strains of virus were analyzed by SDS- PAGE. The results indicated that the four strains of virus all have four polypeptides. Their molecular weight range from 28 KD to 64 KD. But the molecular weight of polypeptides of four strains and the composition ratio of each polypeptide in total viral proteins are different. The results suggested that the district difference probably exist in structural proteins of four strains of virus.

Record 6 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: A new virus of rabbit: II. Study on morphological structure and some physicochemical properties of a strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.

AU: ZHENG-H; ZHAO-L; SUN-F

SO: ACTA MICROBIOLOGICA SINICA 32(3): 198-203

PY: 1992

LA: Chinese

AB: In this paper a strain of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was isolated and purified from the diseased rabbit livers with a method of using chloroform, two-phase of polyethylene- glycol-dextran sulfate sodium and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Purified virus was nonenveloped, icosahedeal symmetry with a triangulation number of 3, and 33-37 nm in diameter. The capsid was composed of 32 capsomers with central holes in an outer diameter of about 9 nm. Two types of viral particles having different sedimentation coefficient, 130S and 166S, could be identified after sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Probably no less than four virion proteins with molecular weight of 66.4, 65.0, 63.5, 41.0 times 10-3 dalton were decreased by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Viral nucleic acid was extracted from purified virus by using SDS- proteinase K-phenol. Tests with diphenylamine, formaldehyde, and staining with acridine orange as well as the curves of thermal denaturation showed that this kind of virus had a single-stranded DNA. The molecular weight of the ssDNA was approx. 2 times 10-6 dalton as determined by electron microscopy. Data indicate that the RHDV may like the parvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

Record 7 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: Detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus particles in the rabbit liver tissues.

AU: PARK-J-H; OCHIAI-K; ITAKURA-C

SO: JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY 107(3): 329-340

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Liver tissues from rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were studied electron microscopically. The earliest change in hepatocytes of the rabbits infected with RHDV was hydropic degeneration. Rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated with a mild increase in polysomes and cytoplasmic cisternae in degenerated hepatocytes. Characteristic cytopathological changes of necrotic hepatocytes included shrinkage of the cell body, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles, vacuoles or cisternae and karyolysis. A large number of viral particles resembling a calicivirus in size and morphology was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of many necrotic hepatocytes. The particles had accumulated mainly in the membrane-bound cisternae or scattered around the membrane-bound vacuoles of the necrotic hepatocytes. Western blot analysis demonstrated that RHDV antigen was present in the infected hepatocytes. RHDV particles were also detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Replicating patterns of RHDV particles and subsequent cytopathology resembled those in other calicivirus infections.

Record 8 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: Immunohistochemical localization of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease viral antigen.

AU: ALEXANDROV-M; PESHEV-R; YANCHEV-I; BOZHKOV-S; DOUMANOVA-L; DIMITROV-T; ZACHARIEVA-S

SO: ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 127(1-4): 355-363

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Immunohistochemical investigations were carried out to determine organ and cellular localization of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease viral antigen (RHDVA). It was found in certain parenchymal liver cells near the interlobular septs and in some macrophages and pseudoeosinophils of all studied organs and blood. Whereas in morphologically preserved hepatocytes and macrophages the RHDVA accumulated in the nuclei, in cells with disintegrated nuclei it was distributed throughout the cytoplasm.

Record 9 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: Comparative histopathological study of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS).

AU: FUCHS-A; WEISSENBOECK-H

SO: JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY 107(1): 103-113

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Histopathological lesions due to rabbit haemorrhagic diease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) were studied in 35 rabbits and seven hares. Both rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and hares (Lepus europeus) regularly showed severe necrotizing hepatitis. In RHD, coagulation necrosis, mainly confined to the periphery of the lobules, was consistently found. In EBHS, lytic necrosis affecting the whole lobule was conspicuous, at least in severe cases. Particularly in EBHS, necrotic hepatocytes exhibited a special kind of karyorrhexis. In rabbits with a subacute or subclinical form of disease, early liver cirrhosis was observed. Depletion of lymphocytes was a regular feature in spleens of rabbits and was frequently found in hares. In RHD, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and haemorrhages in different organs, especially in kidneys and lungs were constant findings. DIC was never seen in EBHS and haemorrhages were an infrequent finding.

Record 10 of 10 - BA on CD January - June 1993

TI: In vitro translation of a subgenomic mRNA from purified virions of the Spanish field isolate AST/89 of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV).

AU: BOGA-J-A; MARIN-M-S; CASAIS-R; PRIETO-M; PARRA-F

SO: VIRUS RESEARCH 26(1): 33-40

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Purified preparations of the Spanish field isolate of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus AST/89 were found to contain the plus- stranded genomic RNA of more than 7.4 kilobases(kb) and large amounts of a subgenomic mRNA of 2.4 kb. The smaller RNA was translated in vitro and shown to code for a 60 kDa protein which was immunoprecipitated using anti-RHDV as well as anti-VP60 sera.

Record 1 of 4 - BA on CD July-December 1993

TI: Haematological modifications observed during viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) in the rabbit.

AU: GUELFI-J-F; GANIERE-J-P; PLASSIART-G; ANDRE-FONTAINE-G; DEBAILLEUL-M

SO: RECUEIL DE MEDECINE VETERINAIRE DE L'ECOLE D'ALFORT 169(2): 93-99

PY: 1993

LA: French

AB: The results concerning haematological modifications in thirty rabbits inoculated with the V.H.D. virus are presented. The earliest abnormalities (within the first 24 hr) are lymphopenia and/or the appearance of soluble complexes. Lymphopenia is frequent after the 30th hour. Some animals also exhibited neutropenia (probably of peripheral origin) and regenerative anaemia (by haemorrhage). Some rabbits show straight away a disseminated intravascular coagulation (D.C.I.) and a hepatocellular insufficiency. Together these are rapidly fatal. Others show first of all an isolated D.C.I. and survive longer. Hyperfibrinolysis appeared to be more easily shown by the D-Di and the FS tests than the Spli-test.

Record 2 of 4 - BA on CD July-December 1993

TI: Immunoelectron microscopy of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus using monoclonal antibodies.

AU: VALICEK-L; SMID-B; RODAK-L

SO: ACTA VIROLOGICA (PRAGUE) (ENGLISH EDITION) 36(6): 589-591

PY: 1992

LA: English

AB: Five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), prepared and tested in ELISA, immunoperoxidase (IP) and immunofluorescence (IF) test previously, reacted specifically in immunoelectron microscopy (IEM), too. No differences in binding of individual MoAbs with full or empty RHDV particles were found by IEM.

Record 3 of 4 - BA on CD July-December 1993

TI: Susceptibility of hares and rabbits to a Belgian isolate of European brown hare syndrome virus.

AU: NAUWYNCK-H; CALLEBAUT-P; PEETERS-J; DUCATELLE-R; UYTTEBROEK-E

SO: JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES 29(2): 203-208

PY: 1993

LA: English

AB: Signs and pathologic changes in European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) were reproduced in four hares (Lepus europaeus) after experimental inoculation of a liver suspension from hares from Belgium, which naturally died of EBHS. Virus particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy in the liver of an experimentally infected hare. They were spherical with a diameter of 28 to 30 nm. After density gradient centrifugation, virus particles were detected in the density zone of 1.34 g/ml. Based on immunoelectron microscopy with a convalescent serum, we identified the virus as the cause of EBHS. Clinical signs were not produced in three seronegative domestic rabbits after subcutaneous inoculation of the EBHS virus. Although low levels of antibodies against EBHS virus were found in the serum of these three rabbits 4 weeks after the inoculation of EBHS virus, the rabbits were not protected when challenged with viral hemorrhagic disease (VHD) virus. The different pathogenicity of the Belgian EBHS and VHD virus isolates in rabbits and the lack of protection in rabbits with circulating EBHS virus antibodies against a challenge with VHD virus indicates that both Belgian virus isolates form two different virus populations.

Record 4 of 4 - BA on CD July-December 1993

TI: The amino terminal sequence of VP60 from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus supports its putative subgenomic origin.

AU: PARRA-F; BOGA-A; SOLEDAD-MARIN-M; CASAIS-R

SO: VIRUS RESEARCH 27(3): 219-228

PY: 1993

LA: English

AB: Direct determination of the amino acid sequence of VP60 from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus is impeded by the presence of a blocked N-terminus. Chemical cleavage of VP60 using cyanogen bromide allowed the identification and purification of VP60 of two oligopeptides showing identical amino acid composition, one of which had its amino terminus blocked. Automated sequential degradation of the unblocked CNBr- peptide yielded the amino acid sequence EGKARTAPQGEAA. This sequence is identical to the deduced amino acid sequence following the first AUG codon found at position +10 at the 5'-end of the 2.4 kb subgenomic mRNA. These data favor the hypothesis that this viral polypeptide is mainly produced from the subgenomic mRNA and not from the genomic RNA by processing of the putative polyprotein generated from the major open reading frame.

Record 1 of 1 - BA on CD January-June 1994

TI: Rabbit haemorrhagic disease in Croatia: First outbreaks detected in 1989.

AU: Madic-J; Tomac-A; Curic-S; Wirscher-M; Cvetnic-S

SO: Veterinarski Arhiv 62(5): 253-261

PY: 1993

LA: English

AB: The first outbreaks of rabbit haemorrhagic disease in Croatia were detected at the end of 1989. In 1990, the disease was registered in 24 rabbitries in the south-western parts of Croatia. At the same time the European brown hare syndrome was also frequently detected in free living hares (Lepus capensis) from Croatia. Both syndromes are documented on the basis of epizootiological, pathological, virological, and experimental transmission findings. Hemagglutination activity is detected in liver suspensions of naturally and experimentally infected animals. Calicivirus-like particles were detected as the causative agent. The diseases were transmissible from rabbit to rabbit and from hare to rabbit.

Record 1 of 3 - BA on CD July-September 1994

TI: European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus: Relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses.

AU: Wirblich-C; Meyers-G; Ohlinger-V-F; Capucci-L; Eskens-U; Haas-B; Thiel-H-J

SO: Journal of Virology 68(8): 5164-5173

PY: 1994

LA: English

AB: Monoclonal antibodies directed against the capsid protein of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were used to identify field cases of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) and to distinguish between RHDV and the virus responsible for EBHS. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of liver extract of an EBHS virus (EBHSV)-infected hare revealed a single major capsid protein species of approximately 60 kDa that shared epitopes with the capsid protein of RHDV. RNA isolated from the liver of an EBHSV-infected hare contained two viral RNA species of 7.5 and 2.2 kb that comigrated with the genomic and subgenomic RNAs of RHDV and were recognized by labeled RHDV cDNA in Northern (RNA) hybridizations. The nucleotide sequence of the 3' 2.8 kb of the EBHSV genome was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame that contains part of the putative RNA polymerase gene and the complete capsid protein gene. This particular genome organization is shared by RHDV but not by other known caliciviruses. The deduced amino acid sequence of the capsid protein of EBHSV was compared with the capsid protein sequences of RHDV and other caliciviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that EBHSV is closely related to RHDV and distantly related to other caliciviruses. On the basis of their genome organization, it is suggested that caliciviruses be divided into three groups.

Record 2 of 3 - BA on CD July-September 1994

TI: Bacterial endotoxins and rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

AU: Di-Guardo-G; Panfili-G; Ferrari-G

SO: Immunology & Infectious Diseases (Oxford) 4(1): 76-77

PY: 1994

LA: English

Record 3 of 3 - BA on CD July-September 1994

TI: First epizootic of rabbit hemorrhagic disease in free living populations of Oryctolagus cuniculus at Donana National Park, Spain.

AU: Villafuerte-R; Calvete-C; Gortazar-C; Moreno-S

SO: Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30(2): 176-179

PY: 1994

LA: English

AB: The first known epizootic of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) occurred in two free-living wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations at Donana National Park, Spain. Rabbit population density was not correlated to RHD mortality. Only adult animals were affected; males and females had similar mortality rates.