Hazing or bullying by students at Universities and in schools

Hazing is a US term to describe the bullying of a student by several/many others to conform to certain behaviours. Although some of the hazing websites refer to dormitories and sororities, the modern evolution of hazing can include the targeting of students by groups of other students because they don't fit in to a group or refuse to conform to the expectations of a group of peers eg a student who won't join in the culture of drinking alcohol and/or lowering their own standards to that of the group.

A useful first link to visit to educate yourself about hazing is Stop hazing org where you will recognise the bullying culture continuing on from school and home into the Universities and other places.

You may also want to search Google for school bullying to find information about dealing with bullying in schools

Workplace Mobbing in Australia

Visit "Workplace Mobbing Australia" to read who the targets of organised bullying and/or stalking and threat might be

A quote from the "Workplace Mobbing Australia" site says

"Workplace mobbing is a 'virus' or a 'cancer' that spreads through malicious hearsay, rumour, and gossip. It is done with deliberate intent to have those targeted 'eliminated' or 'forced out' of their employment. Accusations of unsubstantiated 'bullying' can even be made against the target as the perpetrators realise the benefits of claiming 'victim' status. Those targeted are falsely accused and are denied the right of reply or natural justice.

The pattern as identified by European research and now confirmed in Australia indicates that those at high risk of being ganged up against are:
· High achievers
· Enthusiastic (those who volunteer or take on extra work)
· Those with high integrity (won't condone theft, bullying, etc)
· Those with high ethical standards
· Promoters of human rights, dignity and respect
· Possible whistleblowers
· Those who don't join in with the destructiveness of the in group
· Those with family responsibilities (particularly women)
· Those with religious or cultural requirements "

Visit the Workplace Mobbing Website (Australia) to learn more

The Workplace Mobbing Syndrome, response and prevention in the public sector by Linda Shallcross

Comments"Here is an excerpt from this excellent paper
‘Workplace mobbing’ is defined as ‘a malicious attempt to force a person out of the workplace through unjustified accusations, humiliation, general harassment, emotional abuse, and/or terror’ as in Davenport.et.al. (1999), p 40. The term ‘mobbing’ is preferred to other definitions of harassment to clearly identify the behaviour as abusive group behaviour, instead of, for example, the term ‘bullying’ that implies individual acts of aggression. The phenomenon of ‘mobbing’ behaviour in the workplace has been studied by a number of researchers commencing with Leymann in Sweden in the early 1990s. Different terms are used to describe the ‘mobbing’ phenomenon, such as ‘emotional abuse’, ‘harassment’, ‘bullying’, ‘mistreatment’ and ‘victimisation’. Leymann (1994) described ‘mobbing’ as ‘harassing’, ‘ganging up on someone’, or ‘psychologically terrorizing’ others at work. Another researcher describes it as a deliberate ‘campaign’ by co-workers to exclude, punish and humiliate a targeted worker in a ‘desperate urge to crush and eliminate’ them in the workplace (Westhues, 2002). The outcome of mobbing is the target's 'expulsion' from the workplace, causing psychological and physical injuries as well as financial distress (Davenport et al., 1999; Einarsen et al., 2003; Leymann & Gustaffson, 1996). Some targets have committed suicide and the symptoms of those who have been ‘expelled’ are similar to those of post traumatic stress disorder.

When victims of mobbing are denied "natural Justice"

NATURAL JUSTICE(from the Workplace mobbing website in Australia)
This section provides an overview of natural justice principles, including the Dream as well as an overview as what can be expected in practice, ie the Nightmare.

The dream
These principles are commonly understood in the process of providing natural justice. These form the basis of training of employers by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) into the provision of natural justice in the handling of grievances in the discrimination jurisdiction.
The principles include:

Informing the respondent (or in the case of workplace mobbing, the target) as to who has made the complaint
Providing the respondent (or in the case of workplace mobbing, the target) with the specific incidents, dates, and context including any witnesses, in writing.
It is a denial of natural justice when the target or the accused is not given the incidents or information as to who has made complaints against them.
The respondent must have the full opportunity to respond to each of the incidents before penalties or disciplinary actions are imposed. For example, ‘ejecting’ those accused from their employment on the basis of vague accusations by unidentified persons is a fundamental breach of natural justice.
The penalties imposed, should the incidents be proven, must not outweigh the crime. That is: ask does the punishment fit the crime?
All parties to the complaint have the right to be heard.
All relevant submissions and evidence are to be considered.
The employer does not take into account matters that are not relevant.
The person who lays the charge must not determine the charge.

The decision-maker must be fair and just.

Terms of reference must not favour any party to a complaint. For example, gathering evidence to support the claims of the accusers denies natural justice to the respondent.

The Nightmare

Often grievance processes have spurious definitions of natural justice that mean that an accused person does not have the right to fair treatment.
Despite common perceptions that ‘an accused’ has basic rights, this is not guaranteed and often not required by grievance policies.
Despite commonly accepted assurances about fairness and equity, the following is a summary of employee experiences, particularly in public sector agencies, when complaints have been made against them.

· An accusation or complaint is made without any substantiating evidence or witnesses
. There is no requirement to advise the person who has been complained about as to the details of the complaint
. There is no requirement on the complainant/s to formalise their complaint before punishing actions are taken against the person complained about
· The ‘accused’ can be effectively ‘dismissed’ by being transferred to another work area without consultation
· Complainants are often guaranteed that they need not be identified when making a complaint
· Consultants are appointed to construct a case for the complainant/s against the accused person
· There is no requirement to similarly construct a case for ‘the defendant’
· The case against the accused can focus on the perceptions and emotions of the complainant/s rather than the facts or incidents
· The final recommendations are those that support actions already taken against the accused
· The punishing actions taken against the person complained against are not legally defined as disciplinary actions
. There is no requirement on complainant/s to be accountable for trivial or vexatious or false accusations
· The ‘accused’ is not provided the right to complain about the grievance process
· There is no requirement to provide redress to those who are falsely accused

Violence at work by Duncan Chapell and Vittorio Di Martino
Excellent article in pdf format - a definite must read for those victimised in the workplace and for those interested in the incidence of bullying and violence in today's modern society.

Bullies Down Under-Say No to Workplace Bullying (Australian Web site)
Bullying is escalating in workplaces throughout Australia and New Zealand, thriving on denial, misinformation, myth and the silencing of those who try to speak out. This Website aims to: break the silence on workplace bullying, provide information to challenge workplace bullies, validate the experiences of those targeted by a bully, establish links with other websites tackling bullying, suggest resources and support organisations for the targets of bullies, provide information for employers and unions to assist in the creation of a bully free work environment.

Bystanders and bullying

"Bystanders and bullying" says "In most bullying situations, the target of bullying finds themself isolated and alone. Work colleagues, who may formerly have been friendly and supportive, melt away and the target is left feeling like a pariah and an outcast."

Visit Bystanders and Bullying to read more

The Mobbing Encyclopedia
Evaluates mobbing, PTSD resulting from mobbing/bullying over time etc. Available in different languages.

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