CALICUT (Zamindari)

LOCATION: Madras (Malabar Dist.) DYNASTY: RELIGION: HIndu
POPULATION: 76,981 (1901)
PRESENT RULER:, Zamorin of Calicut
PREDECESSORS AND SHORT HISTORY: The city of Calicut (traditional name is Nediyirippu Swaroopam) was founded in the 14th century. Zamorin is the anglicised version of Samoothirippadu or Samoothiri Raja, a title of the rulers of the erstwhile Hindu state of Kozhikode (previously known as Calicut), located in the present day state of Kerala, India, between the 14th and 18th century. The Rajas finally succumbed to the rising power of the state of Mysore, led by Hyder Ali in 1766, a treaty was signed with the British in 1806, reducing the state to the status of a zamindari. The zamorin became a pensioner of the British government, with the ruling Zamorin entitled to an allowance called Malikhanam, this was considered to be different to the Privy Purse and therefore is still paid to each succeeding Zamorin though it has devalued to a paltry sum. The royal family is divided into three branches (#2), viz. Kizhakke (East) Kovilakam, located in Kottakkal, Puthiya (New) Kovilakam, located in Tiruvannur and Padinjara (West) Kovilakam located in Mankaavu, all three are currently within the modern district of Calicut or Kozhikode. The family follows the well-known Marumakkalayam law of inheritance, by which the succession is always to the offspring of its female members only, and among these the next eldest male to the Zamorin is the heir-apparent. On the death of the Zamorin, his successor is always the oldest male from any of these three Kovilagams or branches. The next in line is known as the 'Eralppad Raja' and coincidentally the present Eralppad Raja also belongs to Puthiya Kovilakam. The Formal Style and Title of Zamorin is ... His Highness, Srimatu Sakazaguna sampannarana Sakaladharma paripalakaram Mitajana manoranjitarana Akhandita lakshmi prasannarana Raja manya Raja Sri (name). Rulers were....
  • Zamorin MANAVIKRAMAN I, 81st Zamorin of Calicut 1466/1474?, he received the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama on 18th May 1498.
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  • Zamorin MANAVIKRAMAN II, 93rd Zamorin of Calicut 1572/1574, died 24th May 1574.
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  • Zamorin MANAVIKRAMAN III, 100th Zamorin of Calicut 1617/1627, born 1582/1587, died 10th April 1627.
  • 101st Zamorin of Calicut 1627/1630
  • 102nd Zamorin of Calicut 1630/1637
  • Zamorin MANAVIKRAMAN IV Saktan Tampuram, 103rd Zamorin of Calicut 1637/1648, died 28th November 1648.
  • Zamorin MANAVIKRAMAN V Tiruvonam Tirunal Saktan Tampuram, 104th Zamorin of Calicut 1648/1655, died 29th August 1655.
  • Zamorin MANAVEDA RAJA I, 105th Zamorin of Calicut 1655/1658, born 1585, died 15th February 1658.
  • Asvati Tirunal, 106th Zamorin of Calicut 1658/1662, died 5th August 1662.
  • Puratam Tirunal 107th Zamorin of Calicut 1662/1666, died 5th June 1666.
  • 108th Zamorin of Calicut 1666/1668, died in December 1668.
  • 109th Zamorin of Calicut 1668/1671, died 1671.
  • Utrattati Tirunal, 110th Zamorin of Calicut 1671/1684, died 1684.
  • Zamorin MANAVIKRAMAN VI Bharani Tirunal, 111th Zamorin of Calicut 1684/1705, died 1705.
  • Nileswaram Tirunal, 112th Zamorin of Calicut 1705/1711, died 1711.
  • (name unknown), 113th Zamorin of Calicut 1711/1729, died 1729.
  • Zamorin MANAVIKRAMAN VII, 114th Zamorin of Calicut 1729/1741, died 4th April 1741.
  • (name unknown) Kilakke Kovilakam, 115th Zamorin of Calicut 1741/1746, born 1706/1711, 1st Zamorin of the 2nd Dynasty, the House of Nileswaram, died 12th February 1746.
  • (name unknown) Puthiya Kovilakam, 116th Zamorin of Calicut 1746/1758, died 7th May 1758.
  • (name unknown) Kilakke Kovilakam, 117th Zamorin of Calicut 1758/1766, in 1766, he was being beleaguered by Haidar Ali of Mysore, and set fire to his palace, and voluntarily perished in the flames. He died 27th April 1766.
  • (name unknown) Puthiya Kovilakam, 118th Zamorin of Calicut 1766/1788, died 1788.
  • Zamorin KARALAVARMA VIKRAM Vikram Puthiya Kovilakam, 119th Zamorin of Calicut 1788/1798, the state was ceded to the English by the treaty with Tipu Sultan in 1792. He died 28th March 1798.
  • Zamorin KISHANVARMA Puthiya Kovilakam, 120th Zamorin of Calicut 1798/1816, died 1816.
  • Zamorin BRAHMACHARI VIRAVARMA VIKRAM Puthiya Kovilakam, 121st Zamorin of Calicut 1816/1825, died 1825.
  • Kariasthan Tampuran Patinjare Kovilakam, 122nd Zamorin of Calicut 1825/1828, after accession in 1806 the British eliminated the Patinjare Kovilakam from the succession because they had borne arms against them at some time and were unrepresented at the time of the original signing of the treaty, the Zamorin fought a case against the government for recognition of Patinjare Kovilakamís right to take part in succession, he won the case and in his time became Zamorin.He died 1828.
  • Ettanettan Tampuram I Puthiya Kovilakam, 123rd Zamorin of Calicut 1828/1845, died 1845.
  • (name unknown) Puthiya Kovilakam, 124th Zamorin of Calicut 1845/1848, died 1848.
  • Kuttunni Saktan Tampuram Kilakke Kovilakam, 125th Zamorin of Calicut 1848/1856, died 1856.
  • Valia Ettan Tampuran Kilakke Kovilakam, 126th Zamorin of Calicut 1856/1859, died 1859.
  • Ettanettan Tampuran II Patinjare Kovilakam, 127th Zamorin of Calicut 1859/1868, died 26th March 1868.
  • Maharaja Bahadur Sri Sir MANAVIKRAM VIII Kutti Ettan Puthiya Kovilakam, 128th Zamorin of Calicut 1868/1892, K.C.S.I. [cr.1892], F.M.U. [1882] (#1), born 19th March 1820, he succeeded to the gadi on 26th March 1868, 119th in descent from the founder of the family, who derived his title from Cheraman Perumal, in 352AD, he started an English school in June 1877, to impart English education to the young members of the Zamorin's family. Today, it has grown into a prestigious institution, known as "The Zamorin's Guruvayurappan College". He was granted the title of Maharaja Bahadur in 1878 and appointed a Fellow of the Madras University in 1882, created a Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India on 25th May 1892. He died in 1892.
  • Cheria Kunhunni Tampuran Kilakke Kovilakam, 129th Zamorin of Calicut 1892/1900, born 1832, died 1900.
  • Cheri Yettan Tampuran Puthiya Kovilakam, 130th Zamorin of Calicut 1900, died 1900.
  • Kutti Ammaman Tampuran Puthiya Kovilakam, 131st Zamorin of Calicut 1900/1904, died 1904.
  • Unni Anujan Tampuran Puthiya Kovilakam, 132nd Zamorin of Calicut 1904/1909, died 1909.
  • Kunhi Anujan Tampuran Kilakke Kovilakam, 133rd Zamorin of Calicut 1909/1912, died 1912.
  • Vidvan Ettan Tampuran Patinjare Kovilakam, 134th Zamorin of Calicut 1912/1915, died 1915.
  • Kuttuni Tampuran Patinjare Kovilakam Maharaja Bahadur, 135th Zamorin of Calicut 1915/1928, born 1909, the state was under the Court of Wards from 1915 to 1927. He died 1928.
  • Anujan Kunhunni Tampuran Patinjare Kovilakam, 136th Zamorin of Calicut 1928/1931, died 1931.
  • Cheri Yamian Manaveda Kilakke Kovilakam, 137th Zamorin of Calicut 1931/1937, died 7th September 1937.
  • Manavikrama VII Sri Mulam Tirunal Kuttietan Tirunal Kilakke Kovilakam, 138th Zamorin of Calicut 1937/1940, died 1940.
  • Manavikraman VIII Kilakke Kovilakam, 139th Zamorin of Calicut 1940/1953, died 15th October 1953.
  • Kunhi Anujan Raja II (name unknown) Kovilakam, 140th Zamorin of Calicut 1953/1954, died 1954.
  • Sri Kutti Manavikraman Raja (name unknown) Kovilakam, 141st Zamorin of Calicut 1954/1958, died May 1958.
  • Kunhammaman Tampuran Raja Kilakke Kovilakkam, 142nd Zamorin of Calicut 1958/1962, born 6th September 1882, died in July 1962.
  • Kuttianujan Raja alias Kuttianijan Raja Puthiya Kovilakkam, 143rd Zamorin of Calicut [xx.7.1962] - [9.1.1998], died 9th January 1998.
  • ?Sri Manavikraman IX Kunahujan Raja Puthiya Kovilakam, 144th Zamorin of Calicut [9.1.1998] - [9.11.2003]
  • ?Cheria Kunhunni Raja, 145th Zamorin of Calicut
  • P.K. Ettanunni Raja Thiruvannur Kovilakam, 146th Zamorin of Calicut [9.1.1998] - [16.8.2003], born 14th August 1910 in Thiruvannur Puthiya Kovilakam as the son of Vamanan Namboothiri of Thanatt Illam and Sreedevi alias 'Aniyathi Thampuratti', educated at the Zamorin-owned institutions, including the Srikrishna Vidayalam; as the Zamorin, he was the trustee of 36 temples, including the Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple and the Thali Temple in Kozhikode, he was also the trustee of many educational institutions maintained by the Zamorin family. He was entitled to the 'Malihana', a maintenance paid from the State exchequer, worked as teacher at the Zamorin-owned institutions and as clerk and cashier at many private institutions before assuming the office of Zamorin, also a Sanskrit scholar, died unmarried 16th August 2003 (uncle of Sreedevi Satya Varma and Radha Bhanu Varma)
  • P.K. Sri Manavikraman X Raja Thiruvannur Kovilakam, 147th Zamorin of Calicut [16.8.2003] - [27.3.2013], born 22nd March 1913 or 6th April 1912 into the Puthiyakovilakath Thekkekettu Thavazhi at Thiruvannur in Kozhikode, son of A.K.T.K.M. Ashtamurthi Namboothiripad and Kunhithambatty Thamburatithe Zamorin, educated at the Zamorinís High School, and at Loyola College, Madras, attaining a Bachelorís Degree in Mathematics; he served as an officer of the Post and Telegraph Department; he retired as a Deputy General Manager with B.S.N.L.; afterwards he succeeded to the dignity of Zamorin of Calicut in 2003 and became the trustee of 40 temples from Chemanchery to Palakkad; he had a permanent seat on the Guruvayur Sree Krishna Templeís managing committee and his family managed the Zamorinís Guruvayurappan College; though a figurehead for all practical purposes he was a highly respected and popular figure. The census operations in Calicut usually starts from the Zamorinís residence. He is a unifying figure in a part of Kerala where Hindus and Muslims make a large part of the population. Previously he was much in demand to attend social events and gatherings but this inclination has fallen off, due to the Zamorin's health and advanced age; prior to becoming the Zamorin he worked in the Engineering Branch of the Posts and Telegraphs; married Smt Rani Bharathi Raja, died 1997, and had issue, three daughters. He died 27th March 2013.
    • Smt. Sethu Raja, died 1965.
    • Smt. Dr. Sudha Krishnanunni Raja, a Senior paediatrician in the Malabar Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital in Calicut; married Dr. Puthyia Kovilakam Krishnanunni Raja. ('Suhrutham', Chalapuram P.O., Kozhikode - 673002, Madras, India)
    • Smt. Sarala Vaasu, a college Professor from Stella Maris College, Madras, now retired.
  • Shrimati M. Lakshmi Amma : wife of Late P Ramchandran Nair, daughter of PK Ravi Varma Raja and daughter-in-law of KC Mana Vikraman Raja, DC, the Zamorin (king) of Calicut.
The help of Shri A. Rammohan is gratefully acknowledged, June 2010.

Puthiya Kovilakam Sri MANAVIKRAM RAJA, present Zamorin of Calicut (photo courtesy of Shri A. Rammohan, June 2010)
1. K.C.S.I. = Knight Commander of the Star of India and F.M.U. = Fellow of Madras University
2. PK is the abbreviation for Puthiya Kovilagam, KS for Kizhakke Kovilakam and PC for Padinjara Kovilakam