PRATIHARA DYNASTY (प्रतिहार)

LOCATION: Northern IndiaCAPITAL: Kannauj FOUNDED: 836 - 1018 DYNASTY: Pratihara or PariharRELIGION: Hindu
VANSH: AgnivanshaGOTHRA: Kashyap, Kaushika VED: Yajurved KULDEVI: Pitambara Devi, Chamunda DeviKULADEVA: Ramachandra

HEAD OF HOUSE:
the Head of the Parihar Clan in the North-West Provinces, is the Raja Saheb of Malhájini in the Etawah district.

States and Estates:
Ayodhya, Kurukshetra to Banaras, Bundelkhand, up to Himachal, Nagod, Alipura, Miyagam, Ambotah, Damoh, Gwalior to 950, Jabalpur, Kannauj, Mandore, Khaneti, Malhajini, Sarausi, Lilera, etc.

BRANCHES:
This vansha has 16 branches which follow:- Budhkhelya, Chandrawat (Kilolya, Chandrayana, Chohanna are subclans), Dhandhila (from Dhondil, son of Dhar), Dhorana I (from Mahap, son of Maldeva), Dhorana II (fgrom Dungar), Indha (descended from Rao Indha, son of Sodhak) (Lakhanya subclan), Keshavot, Khakkhra (from Khokkar), Lullra, Minas (from Gujar Mal), Ramla, Sanpolat, Sindhoka (from Sindhu, son of Khir), Surawat, Suvarna, Sundhia.
Subclans include: Gajkeshar, Badkeshar, Gorana, Kalhans, Chopra, Pokawat etc.

SHORT HISTORY:

They were the main Kshatriyas out of four Agnikula kshtriyas created on Mount Abu. The Sanskrit equivalent of Parihar is Pratihara, which means keeper or protector, and was used by the Gurjara-Pratihara rulers as a self-designation. They claim descent from the Hindu mythological character, Lord Lakshmana, who had performed the duty of a door-keeper (pratihara) for his elder brother Lord Rama. The Pratiharas ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries, and are generally thought to be descended from the Gurjara clan, who appeared in northern India in the aftermath of the Hephthalite or Huna invasion at the end of the fifth century. They established the state of Marwar, based at Mandore near modern Jodhpur, which grew to dominate Rajasthan. Afterwards, Kannauj became the centre of the Pratihara state, which covered much of northern India during the peak of their power, from 836 to 910, after which their position started to weaken, and continued throughout the 10th century, partly as a result of the drain of simultaneously fighting off Turkic attacks from the west and the Pala advances in the east. The Pratiharas lost control of Rajasthan to other Rajput clans, and the Chandelas captured the strategic fortress of Gwalior in central India, ca 950. By the end of the tenth century the Pratihara domains had dwindled to a small kingdom centered on Kannauj. Mahmud of Ghazni sacked Kannauj in 1018, and the Pratihara king Rajapala fled. The Chandela ruler Ganda captured and killed Rajapala, placing Rajapala's son Trilochanpala on the throne as a proxy. Jasapala, the last Pratihara Raja of Kanauj, died in 1036. The Pariharas of Marwar lost control of the region in the 13th century to the Rathore clan of Rajputs.

There were three branches of Pratihara rulers. One branch of this dynasty ruled in Rajasthan at Mandore. Raja Nagabhata of Mandore made his capital at Merta. One branch from Mandore moved to Jalore, where Raja Nagabhatta I 730/756, made his capital at Bhinmal. Second branch ruled in the east at Kannauj and the third branch ruled in the south at Broach.

BROACH (Brigukaccha)

KANNAUJ

GWALIOR

The founder of Gwalior was said to Raja Suraj Sen, who became the first Raja in Gwalior in either legendary antiquity or the 8th century C.E. Around 300, Raja Nal lost Gwalior and moved to Naisadha, where he founded the Narwar Fort. The forts of Gwalior and Narwar both fell at the same time to the Kachhawa Rajputs around 933, who were expelled by the Parihar Rajputs in 1129, Gwalior was captured by Qutbuddin Aibak in 1196 and he held it till his death in 1210, after which it reverted to the Parihar Raja, who then held Gwalior till 1232, when they moved to Narwar; next mention is 1251 when it was held by Raja Chahadadeva, who surrendered it to Emperor Nasiruddin. It isn't known whether he was a Parihar Rajput or not. After the invasion of Timur, Narwar fell to the Tomar Rajputs who held it till 1506 when it was taken by Sikander Lodi who held it till December 1508 when he gave it to Raj Singh Kachhawa.

MANDORE (Mandavyapura)

Mandore was ruled by the Indha branch of the Pratihara dynasty till about 1133 to 1144, when they were overthrown by the Chauhan Raja Rayapala, whose son Sahajapala ruled at Mandore about 1144, as appears from his inscription found at Mandore.. The Chauhan rulers were themselves overthrown some time after 1231 by the Parihar rulers. Mandore was then capital of Marwar and was again overthrown, this time by the Rathore Rajputs in 1395.

JALORE (Jabalipura)

In ancient times Jalore was known as Jabalipura - named after a saint. The town was also known as Suvarngiri or Songir, the Golden Mount, on which the fort stands. According to some historical sources, in 8th-9th centuries, one branch of the Gurjara Pratiharas was ruling at Jablipur (Jalore). It was a flourishing town in the 8th century. The precise year of its construction is not known, however it is believed to be built between the 8th and 10th centuries. Thereafter it was ruled by the Paramara Rajputs in the 10th century.


TREES:

1. Senior Branch of Pratihara Kings at Broach (fl.736) and Kannauj (fl. 861) (Dynastic Tree I)

2. Junior Branch of Pratihara Kings at Avanti and Kannauj till 1036 (Dynastic Tree II)

1. "The Gurjara Pratiharas" by R.C.Majumdar, Journal of the Department of Letters Vol.X, Calcutta University Press, 1923
2. "The History Of The Gurjara Pratiharas" by Dr. Baij Nath Puri M.A., B.Litt. (Oxon), D.Phil (Oxon); Department of Ancient Indian History and Archaeology, Lucknow University. 1937.
3. "The Gurjara-Pratiharas And Their Times" by Vibhuti Bhushan Mishra M.A.; Reader, Post-Graduate Department of History, Gauhati University, Assam. 1966.