PARMAR (परमर) DYNASTY

LOCATION: West-Central India CAPITAL: DharanagarDYNASTY: Parmar, Paramara, Ponwar, Puar RELIGION: Hindu - Shaivism
VANSH: Agnivansha GOTHRA: Vashishta VED: Yajurved KULDEVI: Sinchimaay Mata, Durga or Kali

Parmar
        Dynastic TreeHEAD OF HOUSE:
The Head of the Ujjainia Parmar Clan is the Raja Saheb of Dumraon

STATES / ESTATES:
Chitor till 714, Dhar, Ujjain, Abu and Chandrawvati, as well as Agra Barkhera, Ajraoda, Baghal, Baghat, Balsan, Beri, Bhatkhera, Chhatarpur, Danta, Dewas, Dhar, Gangpur, Hapa, Jambugodha, Muli, Narsinghgarh, Pal Lahara, etc.
Akhnoor, Amargarh, Amarkot, Bakhtgarh, Bambori, Bhensola, Bijolian, Chaugain, Dhuwankheri, Dumraon, Jaitsisar, Jhadol, Naharsar, Ranasar, Sonpalsar, etc.
The Ponwar or Puar clan of the Marathas, who ruled the states of Dewas, Dhar, and Rajgarh in Malwa and Chhatarpur in Bundelkhand from the 18th century to the mid-twentieth century, claimed the same descent as the Paramaras.
Rai Shankar, a descendant of Rao Jaggadeva, and some other Paramaras migrated to Punjab via Rajputana as a result of this invasion. Rai Shankar had three sons: Gheo (the ancestor of Ghebas), Teo or Tenu (the ancestor of Tiwanas) and Seo (the ancestor of Sials). Teo's descendants established the Mataur village in present-day Haryana, from where the Tiwanas migrated to other places. Some of them converted from Hinduism to Sikhism and Islam in the later centuries.

BRANCHES:
The Parmar Rajputs have 35 Sakha (branches), including Arjunvarma, Baharia, Barad, Bharsuria, Bholpuria, Chawda, Doda, Jaivarma, Mephawat, Pawar, Sounthia, Sumda, Umath or Umet, Yashoverma, etc.
  1. Mori: to which belonged Chandragupta, and the rulers of Chitor prior to the Guhilot.
  2. Sodha: the rulers of Dhat in the Indian desert.
  3. Sankhla: Chiefs of Pungal, and also found in Marwar.
  4. Khair: its capital was Khairalu.
  5. Umra and Sumra: originally found in the desert, became Muslim converts.
  6. Vihal, or Bihal: Rulers of Chandravati, lost to the Chahamanas.
  7. Mahipawat: of the ancient stock of Dhar.
  8. Balhar: found in the Northern desert.
  9. Kaba: celebrated in Saurashtra in ancient times, a few still found in Sirohi.
  10. Ujjainia:
  11. Umata: Rajas of Umatwara in Malwa, for twelve generations.
  12. Rehwar: petty chiefs in Malwa.
  13. Dhunda: petty chiefs in Malwa.
  14. Sorathia: petty chiefs in Malwa.
  15. Harer: petty chiefs in Malwa.
  16. Gandhawaria: chiefs of Mithila
The remaining branches, are either extinct, unknown, Muslim converts or are found beyond the Indus. They are as follows:- Chaonda, Khejar, Sagra, Barkota, Puni, Sampal, Bhiba, Kalpusar, Kalmoh, Kohila, Papa, Kahoria, Dhand, Deba, Barhar, Jipra, Posra, Dhunta, Rikamva, Taik etc.

ORIGINS: There are three schools of thought regarding the origin of the Parmar Rajput Dynasty.
1. They are said to be one of the four agni kula clans of the Rajputs, along with the Chauhans, Parihars and Solankis.
2. They are thought to be a tribe of Central India that rose to political prominence as feudatories of the Rashtrakuta rulers.
3. They are thought to have been agnatically related to the Rashtrakutas and at an early date they became a separate Rajput clan distinct from the Rashtrakutas.

SHORT HISTORY:

The Paramara / Puar / Panwar dynasty was an early medieval Indian royal Rajput house that originated in the Mount Abu region of Rajasthan and later ruled over the Malwa region in central India, where they established themselves as the rulers in the ninth century, ruling from their capital at Dhārānagara, the present day Dhar city in Madhya Pradesh. The Paramara rulers were appointed as governors by the Kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty when Malwa was conquered by the south Indian Emperor Govinda III. The Paramara kingdom was established by the Rashtrakuta dynasty of southern India as governors of Malwa when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty conquered Malwa. Malwa was an Indo-Aryan kingdom in west-central India - the tableland to the north of the Vindhya Range, ruled by the Parmar Rajputs.

King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was a great polymath and philosopher king of medieval India; his extensive writings cover philosophy, poetry, medicine, veterinary science, phonetics, yoga, and archery. Under his rule, Malwa became an intellectual centre of India. Bhoj also founded the city of Bhopal to secure the eastern part of his kingdom. In the early fourteenth century (1305) Allaudin Khalji overran Malwa, although an inscription from Udaipur indicates that the Paramara dynasty survived until 1310, at least in the north-eastern part of Malwa. A later inscription shows that the area had been captured by the Delhi Sultanate by 1338.

Around this time, the Ujjainia Rajputs migrated to the east and settled at different places in Bihar-Dawa, Matila, Bhojpur and Jagdishpur (all in Shahabad district). They were locally known as Ujjainya Rajputs because of the place of their origin. By the early 16th century the Ujjainia rajputs had split into mutually hostile and warring groups. Out of this fratricidal struggle, Bhojpur was divided into three parts, namely, Jagdishpur, Dumraon and Chaugain, the latter falling to Kanwar Pratap Singh, who became the first independent Raja of Chaugain.

Not one remnant of independence exists to mark the greatness of the Paramaras, ruins are the sole records of their power. Today, they are mainly found in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and are one of the Thirty-Six Royal Races.

JALORE and SIWANA:

Jalore and Siwana, were betrayed into Chauhan Rao Kirtipala's hands by their own servants, the Dahiyas.

JALOD:

CHANDRAWATI and ABU:

ABU: The ancient name of Mount Abu is Arbudaanchal. In the Puranas, the region has been referred to as Arbudaranya ("forest of Arbhuda") and 'Abu' is a diminutive of this ancient name. Abu was ruled by the Parmar rajputs from at least the 10th century, and continued in their possession till the conquest of Mount Abu in 1311 by Rao Lumba of the Deora-Chauhan dynasty brought to an end their reign there and marked the decline of Mount Abu. He shifted the capital city to Chandravati in the plains. After the destruction of Chandravati in 1405, Rao Shasmal made Sirohi his headquarters. The Arbuda Mountains (Abu Parvat ' Mount Abu) region is said to be the original abode of the Gurjars. These Gurjars (Gujars or Gujjars) migrated from the Arbuda mountain region. As early as sixth century, they set up one or more principalities in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Almost all or a larger part of Rajasthan and Gujarat had been known as Gurjaratra (country ruled or protected by the Gurjars) or Gurjarabhumi (land of the Gurjars) for centuries before the Mughal period.
CHANDRAWATI: Chandravati was the major city in past said to once been eighteen miles in circuit. Its prosperity seems to have lasted from the seventh to the beginning of the fifteenth century. Tradition gives it an earlier origin than Dhar, making it the metropolis of Western India, when the Parmara was paramount lord to whom the nine castles of the desert were the grand subordinate fiefs. In the seventh century, then subordinate to Dhar, it proved a place of refuge to Raja Bhoj, when, by some northern invader, he was forced to flee from his capital. From the Parmars it was wrested by the Chauhan chieftains of Sirohi, and, on the establishment of the Chaulukya dynasty of Anhilwad Patan (942) the rulers of Chandravati became its vassals. The remains at Chandravati and on mount Abu seem to point to the eleventh and twelfth centuries as the time of greatest wealth and splendour. The materials recovered by excavation suggested that it was established around 7th century and expanded into a large settlement (about 50 hectare) around 10th or 11th century when it was a capital township. In 1024 AD, Chandravati was attacked and plundered by Mahmud Ghazni when he passed through Rajasthan to attack Anhilwad Patan. After defeating Prithviraj III in 1192 AD, the Muslim army also attacked Chandravati. In 1197, its rulers Prahladan and Dharavarsh, as feudatories to Bhimdev II (1178 - 1243) of Anhilwad, encamping near Abu, attempted to hold the entrance into Gujarat against Kutb-ud-din Aibak (1192 -1210). Notwithstanding their strong position they were attacked, defeated, and put to flight. Great wealth fell into the victor's hands, and, as he passed on and took Anhilvada, it is probable that, on his way, he plundered Chandravati. Kutb-ud-din's expedition was little more than a passing raid, and Dharavarsh's son succeeded him. He, or his successor, was about 1270 defeated and driven out by the Chauhans of Nadol.He, or his successor, was about 1270 defeated and driven out by the Chauhans of Nadol.  In about 1315 AD Chandravati passed into the hands of Deora Chauhans. Then (1304) came Alauddin Khilji's final conquest of Gujarat, and Chandravati, with Anhilwad as the centre of Muslim power, lost almost all independence. Another hundred years completed its ruin. In the beginning of the fifteenth century, by the founding of Sirohi (1405), Chandravati ceased to be the seat of a Hindu chief, and, a few years later (1411 - 1412), its buildings and skilled craftsmen were carried off to enrich the new capital of Sultan Ahmed Shah I (1411 - 1443) of Gujarat Sultanate. Since then Chandravati has remained forsaken and desolate. Even its ruins, sold and carried off as building materials, have all but disappeared. Though some are more modern, most of the Chandravati remains belong to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the best period of Abu architecture (1032-1247). Sahasamala Devada shifted his capital to Sirohi around 1450 AD, and from then on Chandravati lost its glory.

JAGNER:

BHINMAL:

The Parmar rulers of Bhinmal (also known as Kiradu), are a branch of the rulers of Chandrawati.

1. "The Growth Of The Paramara Power In Malwa" by Dr. K.N. Seth M.A., Ph.D., Progress Publishers, Bhopal; 1st Edn. 1978