GWALIOR (Princely State) (21 gun salute)

LOCATION: Madhya Pradesh AREA: 68,291 km² VILLAGES: xx POPULATION: 4,006,159 (1941) RELIGION: Hindu
REVENUE: Rs 2,66,60,000 (1940/41) DYNASTY/LINEAGE: Scindia - Maratha SEAT: Gwalior City ACCESSION: 15th June 1948
AGENCY: Gwalior Residency 1782/1854; Gwalior Agency 1854/1896; Gwalior Residency 1896/1947 PRIVY PURSE: Rs 2,500,000
STATE MOTTO: Alī Jāh "Of Exalted Rank"  

PRESENT RULER: HH Maharaja Scindia JYOTIRADITYA RAO SCINDIA, 11th Maharaja of Gwalior, since 30th September 2001 (Jai Vilas Palace, Gwalior - 470 004, Madhya Pradesh, India)
born 1st January 1971 in Mumbai, B.A., M.B.A., educated at Doon School, Dehradun; Harvard University, Cambridge (UK) and Stanford University, California (USA), elected to the 13th Lok Sabha in 2002, Member of the Committee on Finance 2002/2004, re-elected to the 14th Lok Sabha in 2004, Member of the Committees on Estimates, Petitions and Finance; interests include: cricket, swimming, reading and wild life conservation, Member of the Delhi Gymkhana; the India International Centre; and the India Habitat Centre, as well as several golf clubs in India, married 12th December 1994, HH Maharani Priyadarshini Raje Scindia, daughter of Maharaj Kumar Sangramsingh Gaekwad of Baroda, and his wife, Rani Asharaje Gaekwad, daughter of General Sri Arjun Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana, and has issue, one son and one daughter.
PREDECESSORS and SHORT HISTORY: Gwalior is the premier Maratha state in Central India and was founded in 1731, by Shrimant Ranoji Scindia, who held military rank under Shri Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, the paramount ruler of the Maratha Empire, and established his headquarters at Ujjain. In 1782, Maharaja Mahadji Scindia was recognized by Warren Hastings as an independent ruler. In 1886, Gwalior Fort was restored to Maharaja Scindia by Lord Dufferin. The Maharaja maintained a military force of 5,504 cavalry, 11,040 infantry and 48 cannons (in 1893). Rulers were...

  1. Maharaja Scindia RANOJIRAO SCINDIA, 1st Maharaja of Gwalior 1731/1745, he was placed in charge of the Maratha armies in Malwa by the Peshwa, and conquered much of it from the Mughal Empire, he fixed his headquarters in the ancient city of Ujjain, which ultimately became the capital of the Shinde dominion, which became known after its later capital of Gwalior; married and had issue, three sons, as well as further issue, two natural sons. He died 19th July 1745 at Shujalpur in Central India.

  2. Maharaja Scindia JAYAPPARAO SCINDIA, 2nd Maharaja of Gwalior 1745/1755, he was constantly engaged in campaigns, playing a conspicuous part in the war with the Rohillas (1748), the succession struggles in Hyderabad (1752) and the expedition against Delhi (1755), married and had issue. He was assasinated in 25th July 1755 (Savan Badi 8th, VS 1812) at Nagaur.

  3. Maharaja Scindia JANKOJIRAO I SCINDIA, 3rd Maharaja of Gwalior 1755/1761, he was taken prisoner at the Third Battle of Panipat against the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 and put to death. He was killed on 15th January 1761.

  4. Maharaja Scindia MADHAVRAO I SCINDIA, 4th Maharaja of Gwalior 1761/1794, born 1730, privately educated in the use of arms and ammunitions and in military strategy, he also was taught Persian and Sanskrit; he fought at Panipat but managed to escape though severely wounded in the leg, leaving him with a permanent limp; afterwards, in the aftermath of Panipat from 17694 to 1769, he turned Gwalior into the chief military power in the Maratha confederacy, developing a well-trained modern army under the command of Benoît de Boigne; he signed the Treaty of Salbai with the British on 17th May 1782, by which the British were acknowledged as supreme but also maintained Maharaja Scindia as an independent chief; (amongst others) (a), Maharani Lakshmi Bai, married (d), Maharani Bhagirathi Bai, and had issue, as well as adopted issue. He died 12th February 1794 at Poona.

  5. Maharaja Scindia DAULATRAO SCINDIA, 5th Maharaja of Gwalior [12.2.1794] - [20.3.1827], born 1779, he aimed at increasing his dominions at all costs, and seized territory from the Maratha Puars of Dhar and Dewas, but in July 1801, Maharaja Holkar appeared before Sindhia's capital of Ujjain, and after defeating some battalions under John Hessing, extorted a large sum from its inhabitants, but did not ravage the town, in October, however, Sarje Rao Ghatge took revenge by sacking Indore, razing it almost to the ground, and practicing every form of atrocity on its inhabitants; a period of unrest followed until the Peshwa signed the Treaty of Bassein on 31st December 1802, by which the British were recognized as the paramount power in India; he evaded all attempts at negotiation with the British until his power was broken in both western and northern India by the British victories at Ahmadnagar, Assaye, Asirgarh, and Laswari; he signed the Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon on 30th December 1803 forcing him to give up his possessions between the Yamuna and the Ganges, the district of Bharuch, and other lands in the south of his dominions; in 1811, he annexed the neighboring kingdom of Chanderi and in 1817 he signed the Treaty of Gwalior by which he promised full cooperation in the suppression of the Pindaris; married (amongst others) (a) in March 1798, Shrimant Maharani Baijabai, she died 1862 in Gwalior, daughter of Shrimant Sakharam Ghatge Sarjerao (died 26th July 1809), Chief of Kagal, and had issue, as well as adoptive issue. He died spm 20th March 1827

  6. Maharani Scindia Baija Bai 1827/1833 (Maharani Regent) married Maharaja Scindia Daulatrao Scindia (see above), and had adoptive issue. She died after 1833.

  7. Maharaja Scindia JANKOJIRAO II SCINDIA, 6th Maharaja of Gwalior 1827/1843, born 1816, married (amongst others), Shrimant Maharani Tara Bai Raje Saheb Scindia, born 1829, and had adoptive issue. He died 7th February 1843.

  8. HH Maharaja Scindia JAYAJIRAO SCINDIA, 7th Maharaja of Gwalior 1843/1886, born 1834 as Shrimant Bhagirathrao Hanwantrao Shinde, he was granted powers of administration in January 1853, he displayed great courage and loyalty during the Mutiny of 1857, when his army went over to the mutineers, and he himself and his Minister, were compelled to flee to Agra, he was restored and brought back to Gwalior by Sir Hugh Rose on 19th June 1858, and received many great and well-deserved honours during the rest of his long reign; he was granted or awarded the right of adoption (1862), a personal 21 gun salute (1877), numerous titles, extensive grants of additional territory, and an increase to his army, he also became successively an Honorary General in the British army, a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, a Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India (1861), and a Companion of the Indian Empire; married 1stly, 19th May 1843, a daughter of Sardar Mamasaheb Kadam, married 2ndly, a lady from Jodhpur, married 3rdly, a lady from Jodhpur, married 4thly, 1875, HH Maharani Sakhiya Bai Raje Sahiba, she died after 1910, a daughter of Sardar Jadhav, and had issue, as well as further issue. He died 20th June 1886.

  9. HH Maharaja
                    Scindia MADHAVRAO II SCINDIA (1876-1925)Colonel HH Mukhtar-ul-Mulk, Azim-ul-lqtidar Rafi-ush-Shan Wala Shikoh Muhtashaim-i-Dauran, Umdat-ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraj Alijah Hisam-us-Saltanat Maharaja Shrinath MADHO RAO II Scindia Bahadur Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidwi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Muazzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan G.C.S.I., G.C.V.O., LL.D., 8th Maharaja of Gwalior 1886/1925, born 20th October 1876, he succeeded to the gadi as a minor on 3rd July 1886; he was made a G.C.S.I. in 1895, he was made an Honorary Colonel in the British Army in 1898; and an A.D.C. to the King-Emperor in 1901; made a G.C.V.O. in 1903; he attended the coronation in London and received an Honorary LL.D. from Cambridge University; made an Honorary Colonel of the 1st Regiment of Skinner's Horse in 1905; he was granted a salute of 21 guns within his own State; married 1stly, 1891, HH Maharani Chinkuraje, died 23rd November 1931 at Bombay, she was awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind Medal in 1900 and the Order of the Crown of India in 1928, daughter of Sardar Madho Rao Balwant Rao Mohite, married 2ndly, 8th August 1913, HH Maharani Gajraje Sahiba, daughter of the Sar Desai of Sankli, died 1943, and had issue, one son and one daughter. He died 5th June 1925 in Paris.

  10. Lt.-Col. HH Mukhtar-ul-Mulk, Azim-ul-lqtidar Rafi-ush-Shan Wala Shikoh Muhtashaim-i-Dauran, Umdat-ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraj Alijah Hisam-us-Saltanat Sir JIVAJIRAO Scindia Bahadur Srinath Mansur-i-Zaman, Fidwi-i-Hazrat-i-Malika-i-Muazzama-i-Rafi-ud-Darja-i-Inglistan G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., 9th Maharaja of Gwalior 1925/1961, born 26th June 1916, he succeeded to the gadi on 27th September 1925, and assumed ruling powers on 2nd November 1936; educated privately and at Victoria College, Gwalior; he received Settlement and Revenue training at Lyallpur, Punjab, Administrative Training at Bombay and Bangalore and Military training at Poona; he was appointed "Associate Knight" of the Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem in June 1937; he was elected Vice-President of the East India Association, London in November 1937; he was created a G.C.I.E. on 1st January 1941; married 21st February 1941 Maharani Vijaya Raje, born 12th October 1919, as Lekha Divyeshwari Devi, daughter of Thakur Mahendra Singh of Kotla, and his 1st wife, Thakurani Chuda Deveshwari, she was Member of the Lok Sabha 1957/1967 and 1971/1977, Member of the Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha 1967/1971 and the Rajya Sabha 1978/1989; Vice-President of the Jana Sangh 1973 and the B.J.P., died 25th January 2001, and had issue, one son and four daughters. He died 1961.

  11. HH Maharaja Scindia MADHAVRAO III SCINDIA, 10th Maharaja of Gwalior 1961/2001, born 10th May 1945 in Bombay, married 9th May 1966, HH Maharani Pratima Rajya Laxmi Devi [Madhavi Devi, born as Kiran Rajya Laxmi Devi], daughter of General Shri Yuvraj Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana of Nepal, and his wife, Rani Indira Kumari, and had issue. He died in a plane crash near Motta, 30th September 2001 and was cremated at Amma Maharaj Ki Chhatri, Gwalior on the 4th October 2001.

  12. HH Maharaja Scindia JYOTIRADITYARAO SCINDIA, 11th Maharaja of Gwalior (see above)
1. "The Golden Book of India"; by Sir Roper Lethbridge, MacMillan & Co., 1893 p. 511
2. The entry for Bhaiyya Saheb in Amal Das Sharma's "Musicians of India"