Cherokee - Oklahoma

CHEROKEE NATION


STATE:  Oklahoma POPULATION:  140,000
   
PRESENT PRINCIPAL CHIEF:  Chief CHADWICK CORNTASSEL SMITH [Ugista], Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation since 1999.
born 1941, educated at the University of Georgia (B.Ed.), at the University of Wisconsin (M.P.Admin.), and at the University of Tulsa (Juris Doctorate in Law), a practising Attorney in Sapulpa, Oklahoma, he was sworn in as the Principal Chief on 14th August 1999 at the Cherokee Nation courthouse square in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; married 2ndly, Bobbie Gail Scott, daughter of Lincoln and Martha Scott, and has issue, six children.
  • Kiah Smith (by 2nd marriage)
  • Chris Smith (by 2nd marriage)
  • Anaweg Smith (by 2nd marriage)
 
PREDECESSORS AND SHORT HISTORY:  Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation is the title of the chief executive of the Cherokee Nation. Prior to removal, a constitutional republic comprising three departments, legislative, executive, and judicial, had been formed by the Cherokee Nation. The Principal Chief was elected by the Council, which was the legislature of the Nation. After removal to Indian Territory (today in Oklahoma), on the Trail of Tears, a new constitution was put into place, unifying the former Eastern Cherokee with the Western Cherokee, which allowed for direct election of the Principal Chief. Cherokee Indian self-government came to an end on 24th April 1906. After Oklahoma statehood in 1907, the Chief of the Cherokee Nation came under appointment by the United States Federal Government. In 1971, the Cherokee people were again allowed to elect their own Principal Chief, and the first to be so elected was incumbent Chief W.W. Keeler, who had been appointed Chief by Harry Truman in 1949. Principal or Leading Chiefs were...
  • AMADOYA, a leading Chief of the Cherokee, married and had issue.
    • MOYTOY (qv)
    • Nancy Moytoy, married White Owl [Raven], possible an Algonquin, and had issue.
      • ATTAKULLAKULLA [Little Carpenter] (qv)
      • Killaneca [A-gi-lv-ni-ga]
      • Killaque, died after May 1757.
      • Tame Doe, married Fivekiller [Skayagustuegwo], possibly a Delaware Indian, and had issue. She died about 1760.
        • Long Fellow [Dasgigidihi], died around 1836.
        • Nanye'hi [Nancy Ward/Ghigau], born 1738, married 1stly, Kingfisher [Tsula], died 1755 in Georgia, married 2ndly, Bryan Ward, died 15th August 1815 in Georgia, and had issue. She died 1824 in Cherokee Nation East.
          • Catherine Kingfisher [Ka-ti] (by 1st husband), born about 1753, married 1stly, Ellis Harlan, married 2ndly, Samuel Candy, born about 1758, died 6th July 1837, married 3rdly, John Walker, and had issue. She died after 1825.
            • Nancy Harlan (by 1st husband), born 1775, married 1790, Caleb Starr, born 1758, died 1843, and had issue. She died 1841.
            • Samuel Candy (by 2nd husband), married Elizabeth West, and had issue.
            • John Walker (by 3rd husband)
            • Jennie Walker (by 3rd husband)
          • Fivekiller Kingfisher [Hiskytihi/Little Fellow] (by 1st husband), born June 1755, married Catherine Swimmer, and had issue.
            • Tsukawaliska Fivekiller
          • Elizabeth Ward (by 2nd husband), born 18th September 1757, married 1st General Joseph Martin, married 2ndly, (first name unknown) Hughes, and had issue.
        • Sister of Nanye'hi
      • Betsy, married Chief HANGING MAW, and had issue (see below). She died after 1799.
    • OLD HOP [Kanagatoga = Standing Turkey] (qv)
  • MOYTOY [Amahetai = Rain Conjuror], 1st Principal Chief 1730/1753, Cherokee society was fragmented into seven clans each with their own leaders, in order to make dealings with the Cherokee easier, Moytoy was proclaimed Principal Chief or King/Emperor by Sir  Alexander Cuming in 1730; married Woman of Ani'-Ga'Tâge'w (i.e. a woman of the Wild Potato clan),  and had issue. He died about 1753.
    • OCONOSTOTA (qv)
    • Clogoittah, was part of a delegation to King George II in 1730.
    • Kitegista, married and had issue. He died 30th September 1792 at Buchanan's Station, Cherokee Nation East.
      • Betty Kitegista, died 12th June 1793.
    • Great Eagle [Willenawah/Tifftoya], married Woman of Ani'-Wadi, and had issue.
      • Chief Doublehead [Tal-tsu’ska’], Chief of the Lower Cherokee 1802/1807; married 1stly, Creat Priber, married 2ndly, Nannie Drumgoole, born about 1775, died 23rd July 1850, married 3rdly, Kateeyeah Wilson, married 4thly, Jennie Harrison (see below), died circa 1824, and had issue. He was murdered 9th August 1807 in Tennessee.
        • Dukaho Doublehead (by Creat), married Margaret Mounce.
        • Dusgiahute Doublehead (by Creat), married Col. George Colbert. She died circa 1817.
        • Salitsi Doublehead (by Creat), married Col. George Colbert. She died 1st February 1846.
        • Gulustiyu Doublehead (by Creat), married before 1790, Samuel Riley, born 1760, died 1819, and had issue, eleven children, including.
          • Eleanor "Nellie" Riley, married 18th August 1810, Charles Coody, born 1792, died 1st April 1844, son of Arthur Coody and Milcah, and had issue. She died June 1851.
          • Judge Looney Riley, born 12th November 1800 in Georgia, married 1818 in Georgia, Rachel Stuart, born 21st December 1800, died 15th April 1883, and had issue. He died 28th February 1883.
        • Nigodegeyu Doublehead (by Creat), married about 1790/1791, Samuel Riley, born 1760, died 1819, and had issue, five children.
        • Bird Tail Doublehead (by Nannie), born about 1795, married (name unknown) Timson, died circa 1852, and had issue. He died circa 1857.
          • Lucy Doublehead, living 1906.
          • Bird Doublehead, born about 1852, married in Texanna, Maggie Paul, and had issue. He died after 1937.
            • Filey E. Doublehead, born 29th October 1892.
            • Clemmie T. Doublehead, born 19th October 1896.
            • Lettie F. Doublehead, born 5th April 1905.
        • Peggy Doublehead (by Nannie), born about 1799, married 4th April 1824 in Madison Co., Alabama, William Wilson, and had issue. She died circa 1834.
          • Elzrah Wilson, born 22nd May 182x, married, David Hicks, born 13th July 1830, educated at New Spring Place Mission School (1840). She died 6th August 1902.
          • Gilbert Bird Wilson, born 1829, married Eleanor Ophelia Hicks, born 6th October 1827, died 18th December 1894, daughter of George Hicks, and his wife, Lucy Fields, and had issue. She died 29th August 1894.
            • Jennie Ida Wilson, born 29th June 1868, married 3rdly, before 1897, Robert Lee Hicks, born 30th May 1871, living 1906, son of William Hicks, and his wife, Priscilla Thompson, and had issue.
        • Tassel Doublehead (by Kateeyeah), died August 1807.
        • Alcy Doublehead (by Kateeyeah), married Giles McNulty, and had issue. She died after 1838.
        • Susannah Doublehead (by Kateeyeah), married George Chisholm. She died after 1838.
      • Chief OLD TASSEL [Kayatihi] (qv)
      • Pumpkin Boy [Iyatsutsa], married Tsawayuga, and had issue. He died 1793
        • Catherine Pumpkin
      • Nani, married The Badger, son of Principal Chief Attakullakulla (see below), and had issue.
      • Sister of Doublehead, married John Trader Watts, born about 1726, died about 1771, and had issue.
        • John Ganodisgi Watts, Chief of the Lower Cherokee -/1802.
        • Whiteman-Killer Watts
        • Wurteh Watts, married 1stly, Nathaniel Gist, born 1733, died 1815, possibly married 2ndly, married 2ndly, (name unknown) Benge, married 3rdly, Chief Bloody Fellow, died after 1794, and had issue.
          • George Guess [Sequoyah], born 1760, died August 1843.
          • Lucinda "Lucy" Benge, married George Lowrey Jr. and had issue.
            • Susan Lowrey, born 25th February 1793, married Andrew Tolstama Ross, born 19th December 1798, died 29th November 1840, son of Daniel Ross, and his wife, Mary "Mollie" McDonald, and had issue.
            • Rachel Lowrey, married David Brown, son of Chief John Brown, and his wife, Sarah, and had issue (see below).
          • Utana (by 3rd husband), died 1838.
          • Chief Talonutisgi, Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee 1818/1819, married 1stly, Jennie Lowrey, married 2ndly, Cherokee Woman, and had issue. He died 1819.
      • Sister of Old Tassel, married Talontisgi, died about 1795, and had issue.
      • Brother of Pumpkin Boy
      • LITTLE TURKEY [Ganagadoga = Standing Turkey] (qv)
    • Ounaconoa
    • Skalilosgen
    • Oukail Oukah
    • Amasgosite [Bad Water], claimed the title in succession to his father in 1753 but was not selected.
    • Anuwegi, maried 1stly, (name unknown), married 2ndly, Cornelius Dougherty, died about 1779, and had issue.
      • Sister of Raven (by 1st husband), married John Vann, and had issue. She died after 14th March 1819.
        • John Cherokee Vann, married Polly Terrapin (see below), and had issue.
      • Sour Mush (by 1st husband), died about 1820.
      • Raven of Chota [Sawanugi / Savanukah] (by 1st husband), acting War Chief during the Second Cherokee War in 1776, he became First Beloved Man of the Cherokee in the fall of 1781, but two years later he was ousted by the elders of the Overhill towns in 1783 in favor of the more pacifist Old Tassel; died after 1783.
      • Prachey (by 1st husband)
      • Jennie Dougherty (by 2nd husband), died after 1826.
    • Raven of Hiwassie [King of the Valley/Raven of the Valley], married and had issue.
      • Moytoy II [Amahetai]
      • Sigena
      • Pigeon
      • Sigiago [Weyi]
  • OLD HOP [Kanagatoga = Standing Turkey], Principal Chief 1753/1760, married Sugi, and had issue. He died August 1760 in Chota, on Little Tennessee River.
    • Granny Hopper, married William David Daniel Sr., and had issue.
      • Catherine Katie McDaniel, born 1763, died after 1823.
      • Alexander McDaniel, died 1835 in Kentucky.
      • William McDaniel Jr., died after 1842.
  • ATTAKULLAKULLA [= Leaning Wood/Little Carpenter], Principal Chief circa 1760/1775, born about 1700, son of White Owl [Raven] and Nancy Moytoy (see above), Peace Chief of the Cherokee, married Alianiwaya, and had issue. He died shortly after July 1777.
    • Dragging Canoe [Tsi’yi-gunsi’ni], born about 1734, war chief of Amo-yeli-egwa, Great Island, one of the smaller Cherokee towns, married Leaf, and had issue. He died 1st March 1792.
      • Young Dragging Canoe
    • Datsi, married 1stly, Elisi, married 2ndly, Susannah Catherine, and had issue. He died after 1828.
      • Ulutsa, married Chief John Bowles Sr.[Duwa'li, The Bowl, Bold Hunter, Colonel Bowles], son of a Scottish trader and a Cherokee woman, signed the treaty of Holston in 1791, died 16th July 1839 in Texas, and had issue.
        • Lightningbug Bowles
        • Dununesgi Bowles
        • Standing-Man Bowles
        • Quatini Bowles
        • Tsagina Bowles
      • Giyosti
      • Nettle Carrier [Taledanigiski]
    • The Badger [Oguma] (by Alianiwaya), married Nani, daughter of Chief Great Eagle, and had issue. He died after 1792.
      • Nancy Oguma, born 1768, died 1860.
      • Jinnie Oguma, died 1838.
      • Johnson Oguma
      • Badger
      • John Welch Oguma, born 1783, married Betsy Que-di-si Gi-tle-u-s-di, born 1790, died 1865, and had issue. He died 1837.
        • Wilsoneh Oguma, born 1825, married Jennie Yonugayasgi, daughter of Drowning Bear and So-gi-ni, born 1829, died after 1882, and had issue. He died bef 1882.
          • Gunuta Oguma
          • Annie Oguma, born 1848.
          • Maggie Galilohi Oguma, born 1850, Soco Creek, Jackson Co, North Carolina.
          • Negi Oguma, born 1852.
          • James Saloliwodi Oguma, born 1855 in North Carolina.
          • Caroline Oguma, born 1857.
          • Nicie Oguma, born 1860.
          • Alex Utsala Oguma, born 1865 in North Carolina.
          • Yonagusga Oguma
        • Gadauyoda Oguma
    • Little Owl, died 30th September 1792 at Buchanan's Station.
    • Blackfox, married Sister of Gigonelli, daughter of Ulutse, and had issue.
      • Mother of Looney, married and had issue.
        • Chief John Looney, married Susan, and had issue. He died 16th May 1846 in Washington, D.C.
          • Eleanor Looney, married Stand Watie, and had issue (see below).
      • Chief BLACKFOX [Enoli] (qv)
    • Turtle-At-Home [Saligugi], married Ayaqui, and had issue. He died after 1814.
      • Ayaqui Turtle-At-Home, married John Datsitsi Boggs.
    • Watage, married Chief John Ganodisgi Watts II, died 1808, and had issue.
    • Ollie-Mollie, married 1stly, Alexander Cameron, married 2ndly, (first name unknown) Lovett, married 3rdly, Thomas Harrison, married 4thly, (first name unknown) Dougherty, and had issue. She died about 1818.
      • Susannah Lovett (by 2nd husband), married John Brown Jr., born 1795, died 2nd February 1822, son of Chief John Brown, and his wife, Sarah, and had issue (see below).
      • Jennie Harrison (by 3rd husband), married (as his fourth wife), Chief Doublehead [Tal-tsu’ska’] (see above), died 9th August 1807 in Tennessee. She died circa 1824.
  • OCONOSTOTA [Groundhog Sausage], Principal Chief 1778/1780, War Chief of the Cherokee Indians, commissioned as Captain in the French Army at New Orleans on 27th February 1761, became a member of St. Andrew's Society at Charleston on 30th November 1773, one of the signers of Henderson's Treaty in March 1775, married 1stly, Woman of Ani'-Wa'Ya, married 2ndly, Quatsis Ani'-Wâ'di, and had issue. He died March 1783.
    • Ali Ani'-Wa'ya (by 1st marriage)
    • Jennie Ani'-Wa'ya (by 1st marriage), married Johann Conrad, died about 1754, and had issue.
      • Nayehi Conrad, married Nathan Hicks Sr., a white trader, died 1829 in Georgia, and had issue. She died about 1797.
        • Sarah Hicks, died 24th September 1816 in Cherokee Nation East.
        • Nathan Hicks Jr.
        • Elizabeth Hicks
        • CHARLES RENATUS HICKS (qv)
        • WILLIAM ABRAHAM HICKS Sr. (qv)
      • Gundrod Conrad, married Ali, and had issue. He died 1810/1817
        • Rattling Gourd Conrad, died about 1837.
        • Youngwolf Conrad, died 1814.
        • Quatie Conrad
        • Hair Degoska Conrad, died 2nd November 1844.
        • Terrapinhead Conrad
    • The Bark (by 2nd marriage), belonged to the Red Paint Clan, married and had issue.
      • Son of Bark, died 20th December 1806 of smallpox.
    • The Terrapin (by 2nd marriage), married Old Jennie, and had issue. He died after 1809.
      • Polly Terrapin,  married 1stly, John Cherokee Vann III, son of John Vann and Sister of Raven, died about 1805, married 2ndly, (name unknown), and had issue. She died after 1833.
        • George Vann, born 1793, died after 1851.
      • Brother Terrapin, fl.1814
    • David Oowatie [Uwatie], married Susannah Reese, died 21st October 1832, daughter of Charles Gullet Reese, and Nancy Deer, and had issue.
      • Elias Boudinot [Gallegina/Killekeena "Buck" Watie], born 1804, started and edited the Cherokee tribe's first newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, published in Cherokee and English, resigned as editor in 1832, after John Ross refused to allow him to write editorials which suggested removal as an option for the nation, as a member of the Ridge Party, he signed the Treaty of New Echota on 29th December 1835, married 1stly, Harriett Ruggles Gold, born June 1805, died 15th August 1836, married 2ndly, Delight Sargent, born 1801, died 12th December 1893, and had issue, all by the first wife. He was assassinated 22nd June 1839 in Park Hill, Oklahoma.
        • Eleanor Susan Boudinot, born 4th May 1827, died 1856.
        • Mary Harriette Boudinot, born 5th October 1828, died 1853.
        • William Penn Boudinot, born 4th February 1830, moved to Cherokee Nation West with other members of his family in 1836, Clerk of the Cherokee National Council 1851, served with Chief Stand Watie's Regiment during the American Civil War, later  in life he practised as a lawyer; married 26th May 1853, Caroline Matilda Rogers Fields, born in Georgia, and had issue. He died 1896.
          • Elias Cornelius Boudinot, born 2nd January 1854, Newspaper Editor and Lawyer, married 26th May 1880, Susan Adelaide Foreman, born 21st August 1858, died after 1906, and had issue. He died 1896.
          • Richard Fields Boudinot, born 7th June 1856, married Mary Catherine Treppard, daughter of James Treppard and Rachel Adair, born 28th August 1873, and had issue. He died after 1906.
            • Caroline Mary Boudinot, born 22nd March 1891.
            • Eleanor Margaret Boudinot, born 25th October 1893.
            • Harriet Gold Boudinot, born 25th November 1897.
            • William Penn Boudinot II, born 23rd November 1900.
            • Rachel Catherine Boudinot, born 24th September 1903.
          • Eleanor Margaret Boudinot, born 8th March 1862, married 2nd September 1890, John Henry Meigs, and had issue.
          • Henry French Boudinot, born 1865, married Elizabeth Jane Starr, born 13th January 1869, daughter of George "Hop" Starr and Mary Ellen Scott, and had issue. He died 23rd February 1897.
          • Franklin Josiah Boudinot, born 20th August 1866, educated at the Flint High School, Michigan (graduating in 1887; the Baptist Indian University, Muskogee and at Michigan State University, Anna Arbor (Law), later practised as an Attorney at Law, married 23rd July 1897, Annie Stapler Meigs, born 28th June 1873 in Fort Gibson, daughter of Henry Meigs and Josephine Bigelow, and had issue. He died after 1906.
            • Franklin Josiah Boudinot Jr., born 16th January 1899, died 1986.
            • Henry Meigs Boudinot, born 1907, died October 2000.
          • Caroline Mary Boudinot, born 1873 in Cherokee Nation West, married 1890,  Archibald Spears, and had issue. She died 19th December 1892.
        • Elias Cornelius Boudinot, born 1st August 1834, died 27th September 1890.
      • Brig.-Gen. Stand Taketaukeh Watie [Isaac S. Watie/Degataga = Stand Firm], born 12th December 1806, a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, he served on the Cherokee Council 1845/1861, serving part of that time as speaker, he was commissioned as a colonel in the First Cherokee Mounted Rifles in October 1861, later promoted to Brigadier-General by General Samuel Bell Maxey, and was given the command of two regiments of Mounted Rifles and three battalions of Cherokee, Seminole and Osage infantry, he was elected principal chief of the Confederate or Southern Cherokee in 1862, married  2ndly, about 1838, Eleanor Looney, daughter of Chief John Looney and Susan, married 3rdly, about 1840, Elizabeth Fields, daughter of John Wickett Fields and Susannah Halfbreed, married 4thly, 15th September 184s, Sarah Caroline Bell, born 11th March 1820 in Cherokee Nation East, died 3rd February 1882, and had issue. He died 9th September 1871, buried in Polson Cemetery, near Southwest, Missouri.
        • Susannah Watie (by Eleanor or Elizabeth), married Charles Woodall.
        • Saladin Ridge Watie, born 1847,rose to the rank of captain in his father's Confederate Indian Brigade. He was cited for exceptional bravery by General D. H. Cooper at the 1864 attack on Union forces at Fort Smith, Arizona. He served on the Southern Cherokee delegation to Washington in 1866, died unmarried 13th February 1868 at Webber's Falls.
        • Solon Watica Watie, born 1849, educated at Cane Hill College, Arkansas 1868, died unmarried 9th April 1869 in Cane Hill, Arkansas.
        • Eugene Cuminsky Watie, born 1851, died young about 1863.
        • Minnehaha Josephine Watie [Nancy/Ninnie], born 1853, married John Martin Daniel. She died 27th February 1875.
        • Caroline Jackoline [Jessie] Watie, born 9th October 1854, educated at Webbers Falls and at Clarke's Academy, Arkansas, died 17th March 1875.
      • Nancy Paschal "Nannie" Watie, born 1808, died 17th February 1852.
      • Mary Anne Watie, born 1814, married 11th March 1832, John Walker Candy, born 1807, son of Samuel Candy and Elizabeth West, died July 1868. She died May 1844.
      • Thomas Black Watie, died 14th November 1845.
      • Elizabeth Watie, born about 1818, married about 1854, George Washington Candy, born 1805, died 9th May 1856, son of Samuel Candy and Elizabeth West. She died about 1860.
      • John Alexander Watie, died 16th October 1873.
      • Charles Edwin Watie, born 1829, died 27th May 1877.
    • Major Ridge, born 1770/1771 into the Deer clan in the Cherokee town of Hiwassee (later part of Tennessee), served alongside General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend during the Creek War, as well as in the First Seminole War in 1818, leading Cherokees against the Seminole Indians. He was one of the signers of the Treaty of New Echota on 22nd December 1835, which was ratified by the U.S. Senate. He married in 1792, Susie Wickett, and had issue. He was assassinated 22nd June 1839 in Park Hill, Oklahoma, buried in Polson Cemetery, near Southwest,  Missouri.
      • John Ridge, born 1800, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1810 and at Brainerd Mission School 1817,  a member of the Ridge Party, a group that advocated for the removal of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma, married 27th January 1824 in Cornwall, Connecticut, Sarah Bird Northrup, and had issue, 7 children. He was assassinated 22nd June 1839 in Park Hill, Oklahoma, buried in Polson Cemetery, near Southwest,  Missouri.
        • John Rollin Ridge [Tsisquatalani/Cheesquatalawny = Yellow Bird], born 19th March 1827 in New Echota, Georgia, considered to be the first Native American novelist, educated at Geat Barrington School, Massachusetts and at Fayetteville, Arkansas, where he studied law, worked as a newspaper editor and writer for the Sacramento Bee and the San Francisco Herald, amongst other publications, je headed the Southern Cherokee delegation in postwar treaty proceedings, author of (amongst others), The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta, the Celebrated California Bandit (San Francisco: W.B. Cooke and Company, 1854), which later inspired the Zorro stories, he married in 1847, Elizabeth Wilson, and had issue, 1 daughter. He died 5th October 1867 in Grass Valley, California.
          • Alice Bird Ridge, born 1848, married Francis G. Beatty, died 1906. She died 1912.
        • Clarinda Ridge
        • Hermann D. Ridge, died 8th November 1863 at Honey Creek.
        • Susan Catherine Ridge, maried Josiah Woodward Washbourne, died 27th December 1871, and had issue. She died 21st August 1871.
        • Aeneas Ridge Sr., married Mavia Saunders, and had issue.
          • Aeneas Ridge Jr.
        • Andrew Jackson Ridge [Ulunigida], born 19th February 1835 near Rome, Georgia, married 10th November 1856 in Austin, Texas, Helen Caroline Doom, born 10th January 1841 in Bevilport, Texas, died 27th October 1921 in Nevada Co, California, buried Grass Valley, California, and had issue. He died 17th August 1900, buried Grass Valley, California.
          • John Randolph Ridge, 3rd December 1894.
          • Nannie Northrup Ridge, born 1860.
          • Darsie Redgauntlet Ridge, born 1862 in Texas.
          • Jessica Bird Ridge, born 1st January 1864 in Lampasas, Texas, died 1907.
          • Andrew Rollin Ridge, died 12th November 1870.
        • Flora Chamberlin Ridge, married William Davis Polson Sr., and had issue.
  • OLD TASSEL [Kayatihi], Principal Chief 1780/1788, also Peace Chief, married Hanging Maw's Sister, and had issue. He died June 1788.
    • Doublehead Tassel
    • Corn Tassel
    • Martha Rogers
  • HANGING MAW [Uskwaliguta], Principal Chief 1788/1792, fought with President George Washington in the French and Indian wars, married Betsy, daughter of White Owl [Raven] and Nancy Moytoy (see above), and had issue. He died April 1794.
    • Willicoe Maw [Willioki Maugh], married Eliza Quedi, died circa 1850, and had issue.
      • (first name unknown) Maw, married Susi, and had issue.
        • Ruth Maw
        • Ahima Maw, born 1850, married Frank Conseen, born 1845, died 1899, and had issue.
        • Betsy Maw
      • Susie Maw, married (as his first wife), James Starr, son of Caleb Starr and Nancy Harlan, born 1796, died 1845, and had issue.
      • Nellie Maw, married (as his second wife), James Starr, son of Caleb Starr and Nancy Harlan, born 1796, died 1845, and had issue.
      • Ruth Maw, married Thomas Lewis Rogers, and had issue.
    • Daughter of Hanging Maw, married John Watts III, and had issue.
  • LITTLE TURKEY [Kanagadoga = Standing Turkey], Principal Chief 1792/1801, born 1738, died 1838.
  • BLACK FOX [Enoli], Principal Chief 1801/1811, son of Blackfox, and his wife, Sister of Gigonelli. He died 22nd July 1811.
  • PATHKILLER [Nunnadihi], Principal Chief 1811/1827, born 1749, fought in the Revolutionary War for Britain and in the wars against frontiersmen from 1783 to 1794,  after 1813 his authority was eroded by Associate Chief Charles Hicks. He died January 1827, buried in New Echota Cemetery in New Echota, Georgia.
  • CHARLES RENATUS HICKS, Principal Chief in 1827 for two weeks, Assistant Principal Chief 1811/1827, born 23rd December 1767 on the Hiwassee River in Cherokee Nation East, joined the Church of the United Brethren at Spring Place and was baptised on 10th April 1813 receiving the additional name of Renatus; he served as interpreter to U.S. Agent Return Jonathan Meigs, and acted as treasurer for the Cherokee Nation, and fought against the Creek Red Sticks in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814; married 1stly, (name unknown), married 2ndly, Nancy E. Broom, baptised in 1821 with the additional names of Anna Felicitas, daughter of Chief Broom and Atsostaha, and had issue. He died 20th January 1827 in Fortville, Cherokee Nation East, buried 22nd January 1827 at Spring Place.
    • John Hicks (by 1st marriage)
    • Nathan Wolf Hicks (by 1st marriage), born 1794, died about 1838.
    • Elsie Hicks (by Nancy)
    • Charles Renatus Hicks Jr. (by Nancy)
    • Elijah Hicks (by Nancy), born 21st June 1797, married Margaret Ross, daughter of Daniel Ross and Mary "Mollie" McDonald, and had issue. He died 6th August 1856 in Claremore, Oklahoma.
      • John Ross Hicks
      • Daniel Ross Hicks
      • Mary Anna Hicks, born 16th September 1829, married 16th December 1851, Joseph Rogers McCoy, born 1824, died 4th July 1866, and had issue.
        • Nannie Rider McCoy, born 25th March 1865,  married 31st December 1890, Walter Adair Mayes, son of George Washington Mayes, and his wife, Charlotte Bushyhead, and had issue.
    • Elizabeth Betsy Hicks (by Nancy), born 20th June 1798, married 5th December 1817 in Mount Joy, Archibald Fields, born 1796, died 1842/1851, and had issue. She died after 1857.
    • Sarah Elizabeth Hicks (by Nancy), born 11th June 1800, died about 1861.
    • Jesse Hicks (by Nancy), born 11th May 1802, died after 1842.
    • Leonard Looney Hicks (by Nancy), born 24th December 1803, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1813, married Dayeni. He died after 1842.
    • Edward Hicks (by Nancy), born 16th October 1805, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1813, died 1831.
  • WILLIAM ABRAHAM HICKS Sr., Principal Chief 1827/1828, born about 1769, married 1stly, Lydia Qualayuga Halfbreed, daughter of  Big Halfbreed and Qualayuga Crittenden, baptised in 1820 at Spring Place, died 1849, married 2ndly, 1804 in Tennessee, Sallie Forman, daughter of  John Foreman and Susie Titasgisgi, died 1st September 1839 in Fairfield, Cherokee Nation West, and had issue. He died November 1837.
    • George Augustus Hicks (by Lydia), born 1793, died after 1858.
    • Eli Hicks (by Sallie)
    • Judge Jay Gadagisgi Hicks (by Sallie), born 1811, died 29th January 1867.
    • Wiliam Hicks Jr. (by Sallie)
    • Ruth Hicks (by Sallie), born 1814.
    • Carrington Wheeler Hicks (by Sallie), born 1816, educated at Spring Place Mission School 1826, died 1852 in Oklahoma.
    • Margaret Harriet Hicks (by Sallie), born 1817 in Cherokee Nation East.
    • Abijah Salutiwisgi Hicks  (by Sallie), born 2nd March 1819, died 4th June 1862.
    • Ellah Hicks (by Sallie), born 2nd March 1819, died 18th August 1898.
    • Anna Rosina Hicks (by Sallie), born 22nd June 1822 in Sumac Town, Georgia, died 1856.,
    • Joseph Hicks (by Sallie), born 1823/1824.
    • Charles Hicks (by Sallie), born 25th August 1825, died in Cincinnati, Ohio.
    • John J. Hicks (by Sallie), born 1828, died in California.
    • Sarah Rosalie Hicks (by Sallie), born 27th May 1832 in Georgia, died 20th September 1908 in Vinita, Oklahoma.
    • Nancy Ellen Hicks (by Sallie), born 15th April 1835, died January 1895.
  • JOHN ROSS, Principal Chief 1828/1866, born 3rd October 1790 near Lookout Mountain in Tennessee, son of Daniel Ross and Mollie McDonald, educated privately, tutored by Reverend Gideon Blackburn and at an academy in South West Point, Tennessee; he was appointed as Indian agent to the western Cherokee, served as an adjutant in a Cherokee regiment during the War of 1812 and participated in fighting at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend against the British-allied Creek tribe. In 1816 he founded Ross's Landing (later renamed Chattanooga). In 1827, he moved to Coosa to be closer to New Echota, the Cherokee capital, and the other leading figures of the nation. Elected as a member of the National Council in 1817, becoming its President in November 1818, and remaining in that position till 1827. Following the death of the Cherokee Principal Chief in that year, he succeeded him as Chief designate, and was elected in October 1828, his failure to prevent the American Government from pursuing its policy of Indian Removal, resulted in a split of leadership, with a rival faction, the Ridge Party, eventually signing the treaty on 29th December 1835, against the will of the majority of Cherokees. The enforced removal of the Cherokees was known as the "Trail of Tears" and thousands of Cherokee lost their lives. He married 1813, Elizabeth Brown [Quatie],born about 1791, died March 1839, and had issue, 4 sons and 2 daughters. He died 11st August 1866 in Washington.
    • Mary A. Ross
    • James McDonald Ross, born 1814, married and had issue. He died 1864.
      • Gilbert Russell Ross, born 1849, married and had issue. He died 1916.
        • George F. Ross, born 1873.
        • Robert J. Ross, born 1886.
        • Rufus G. Ross, born 1890.
        • James Russell Ross, born 1901.
      • James Ross, born 1851.
      • Susan Coody Ross, born 1852, died 1912.
    • William Allen Ross, born 1817, married and had issue. He died 1891.
      • Lucinda Ross, born 1836.
      • Victoria Ross, born 1839.
      • Susan Hicks Ross, born 1840.
      • Rufus O. Ross, born 1843.
      • Robert Bruce Ross, born 1845, married and had issue. He died 1930.
        • Charles McClelland Ross, born 1868.
        • William Wallace Ross, born 1871, died 1944.
        • Rufus Daniel Ross, born 1873, died 1906.
        • Lulah Victoria Ross, born 1876.
        • Frances Vann Ross, born 1879.
        • Jennie Fields Ross, born 1881.
        • Susan Mary Ross, born 1884.
        • Robert Bruce Ross, born 1887, died 1964.
        • Anna Phillips Ross, born 1892.
      • Louisa Ross, born 1847.
      • Emily Ross, born 1849.
      • William Wallace Ross, born 1851.
      • Elizabeth Ross, born 1855.
      • Annie Brown Ross, born 1858.
    • Jane "Jennie" Ross, born 1821, died 1894.
    • Silas Dinsmore Ross, born 1829, died 1872.
    • George Washington Ross, born 1830, died 1870.
    • John Ross Jr., born 1832, married and had issue.
      • Emily Jane Ross
      • Mary Ellen Ross
      • Ida Ross
      • Floyd Freeman Ross
    • Annie Bryan Ross, born 1845, died 1876.
    • John Melvin Ross, born 1847, married Victoria, and had issue. He died 1905.
      • Addie Roche Ross
      • Leonidas Cookman Ross
      • Mary Ross
  • WILLIAM POTTER ROSS, Principal Chief 1866/1867 and 1872/1875, elected by the National Council on 19th October 1866, and served two terms, writer, orator and statesman, he was eldest son of John Golden Ross  and Elizabeth "Eliza"  Ross, born at the base of Lookout Mountain, on the Tennessee river, some seven miles south of Chattanooga, Tennessee, on 20th August 1820, educated privately at home, and then at the Presbyterian Mission School at Will's Valley, Alabama; later he attended the academy at Greenville, Tennessee and, in 1837, entered Hamil's Preparatory School at Lawrenceville, New Jersey. He subsequently enrolled at Princeton, from which he graduated in 1842, he taught school at Fourteen-mile creek (now Hulbert, Oklahoma) in a Methodist log church 1842/1843, elected clerk of the senate of the National Council in 1843, first editor of the "Cherokee Advocate", continuing in that capacity for four years, he became a merchant and and later engaged in the practice of law. He served as senator from the Tahlequah District to the National Council in 1849, 1851, 1853, 1855, and 1857. He was secretary to his uncle Lewis Ross, the National Treasurer, in 1860. Enlisted in, and became Lt. Colonel in the 1st Cherokee Regiment of Mounted Rifles, Field and Staff, in the Confederate army on 4th October 1861, he was a member of the Cherokee delegation to the peace conference at Ft. Smith, Arkansas, in 1865, elected as Principal Chief on 19th October 1866, serving till 5th August 1867, re-appointed on 11th November 1872, and served till 2nd August 1875, became editor of the "Indian Journal", at Muskogee, in 1875-1876. He later edited the "Indian Chieftain" at Vinita and the "Indian Arrow" at Ft. Gibson and Tahlequah. He was a member of the board of education and was a senator from the Illinois District, as well as Mayor at Ft. Gibson, he married on 16th November 1846 at Park Hill, Mary Jane Ross, a daughter of Lewis Ross and Fannie Holt, born 5th November 1827 at Charlestown, Tennessee, educated in Washington, D. C., died at Ft. Gibson on 29th July 1908, buried at Ft. Gibson, and had issue. He died at Ft. Gibson on 20th July 20 1891, and is buried in the Citizens' Cemetery.
    • William Dayton Ross, born 1848.
    • Emma Lincoln Ross, born 1854.
    • Cora Ross, born 1856, died 1879.
    • Mary Ross, born 1863, died 1899
    • Hubbard Ross, born 1867, married and had issue.
      • Marjorie Ross, born 1900.
      • Mayme Elizabeth Ross, born 1903.
      • Jennie Pocahontas Ross, born 1904.
      • Ruby Aileen Ross, born 1907.
    • Phillips Ross, born 1870, died 1893.
  • Reverend LEWIS DOWNING [Lewie-za-wau-na-skie], Principal Chief 1867/1872, son of Samuel Downing and Elizabeth Dougherty, born 1823 in Eastern Tennessee, educated at the Valley Town Mission and later at the Baptist Mission, where he became a convert and was ordained a Baptist Minister, chosen as pastor of the Flint Baptist Church in 1844, elected senator from Goingsnake District in 1845, elected to the senate in 1851, and again in 1859, after the start of the Civil War, he was named chaplain of companies F. and S. of the Regiment of Cherokee Mounted Rifles for the Confederate service which was formed by Chief John Ross in 1861, later  served in the Union army in the Third Indian Home Guards as Lieut. Colonel, after the Civil War he was elected president of the Union tribal council, served as Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1st August 1866 to 19th October 1866, elected as Principal Chief on 5th August 1867, represented the Cherokees in Washington as a delegate in 1869 and in 1870, re-elected as Principal Chief on 7th August 1871, married 1stly, Lydia Price, married 2ndly, Lucinda Griffin, married 3rdly, Mary Eyre, died about 1874, and had issue. He died 9th November 1872 at Tahlequah, buried in the old Ned Adair cemetery in present day Mayes County, Oklahoma.
    • Samuel Houston Downing (by Lydia), born 1846, married Minerva Penelope Wolf, born 1848, and had issue. He died 1895.
      • Lewis Downing, born 1877.
    • Susan Ann Downing (by Lydia), born 1848.
    • John Downing (by Lydia), born 1850, married Rosella Adair, born 29th March 1853, died after 1906, and had issue.
      • Anna Downing, born 1871, died 1906.
    • Jennie Downing (by Lydia), born 1852, married Charles Kiper.
    • Catherine Downing (by Lucinda), born 1856, married 1stly, Perry Wolf, married 2ndly, Samuel Whirlwind. She died 1880/1890.
    • Lewis James Downing (by Mary), born 1854.
    • William Downing (by Mary), born 1855.
  • Reverend CHARLES THOMPSON [Oochalata], Principal Chief 1875/1879, born in the Cherokee country in the East sometime during the early decades of the last century, son of a full blood Cherokee Indian and a white woman, who may have been taken captive as a child, educated at the  Baptist Mission near the present town of Westville, joined the noted Keetoowah Society upon its organization in 1859, served in the Confederate army having enlisted in the First Regiment of Cherokee Mounted Rifles at Park Hill, on 4th October 1861, later changed allegiance and served with the Union army, having enlisted in the Third Indian Home Guards as a Corporal  on 11th July 1862, elected as senator from the Delaware District to the Cherokee National Council  and served 1867/1873, about this time he assumed the name of Charles Thompson, retired to his farm and his preaching, married Rachel Sudee.  He died 22nd June 1891, and is buried in the old Indian cemetery at Eucha.
  • DENNIS WOLF BUSHYHEAD, Principal Chief 1879/1887, born 18th March 1826 in Cherokee Nation East, son of Rev. Jesse Bushyhead Sr. and Eliza Wilkerson, educated at Candy Creek Mission School 1833, at Valley River Mission School 1835, at Park Hill Mission School 1839 and at Princeton University for two years and then joined the '49ers in the gold rush to California, after which he returned to enter Cherokee politics, married 1stly, September 1869, Elizabeth Alabama Scrimsher, born 22nd October 1837, died 31st October 1882, daughter of Martin Matthew Scrimsher and Elizabeth Hunt Gunter, and a sister of the mother of William Penn Adair Rogers (Humorist), married 2ndly, 31st October 1883 in Cherokee Nation, Eloise Perry Butler, a grandniece of the famed Commodore Oliver Perry, born 14th August 1859 in Tahlequah District, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, died 14th May 1940 and was buried in Tahlequah City Cemetery, Tahlequah, Cherokee, Oklahoma, and had issue. He died 4th February 1898 in Tahlequah, Indian Territory, and was buried in Tahlequah City Cemetery, Tahlequah, Cherokee, Oklahoma.
    • Jesse Crary Bushyhead, born 29th June 1870, married 28th September 1898 in Cane Hill, Arkansas, Fay Ione Reynolds, born 23rd September 1869, died 21st June 1950, daughter of Capt. John Thomas Reynolds, and his wife, Emma Elizabeth Cozart, and had issue. He died 12th July 1942.
      • Oowala E. Bushyhead, born July 1899, died 1958.
      • Edward R. Bushyhead, born 12th October 1901, died 24th May 1925.
      • Jesse C. Bushyhead, born 1st November 1902, died 6th July 1992.
      • Dennis Bushyhead, born 1905, married Christine Ratliffe. He died 1966.
      • George D. Bushyhead, born 30th January 1908, died September 1980.
    • Mary Elizabeth Bushyhead, born 13th December 1873, married 25th August 1894, Thomas William Triplett, born 24th May 1869.
    • Sarah Catherine Bushyhead, born 8th October 1876 in Cherokee Nation West.
    • Dennis Wolf Bushyhead Jr., born 11th April 1880, married Hellen Paralee Hern, born 23rd October 1884.
    • James Butler Bushyhead, born 6th October 1884 in Tahlequah, educated at the University of Missouri, married 1912, Nina Rubey Walker, born 1886, died 1922, daughter of Henry Rubey Walker, and his wife, Nina Young, and had issue. He died April 1973 in Claremore, Rogers, Oklahoma.
      • Henry R. Bushyhead, born 1913, died 1945.
      • James Butler Bushyhead, born 23rd December 1914, executive vice president of Moog Industries, in St. Louis; served as a special agent with the FBI in World War II, married and had issue. He died February 1982 in Saint Louis, Missouri.
        • Robert Bushyhead, educated at Southern Methodist University,
      • Jack S. Bushyhead, athletic director in the Parkway School District, served in the Southwest Pacific theatre during WWII.
      • Frances Taylor Bushyhead
    • Frances Taylor Bushyhead, born 10th May 1887 in Tahlequah, married 14th November 1906, James Knox Gibson Jr., and had issue. She died 18th December 1929, buried in Tahlequah City Cemetery, Oklahoma. 
  • JOEL BRYAN MAYES, Principal Chief 1887/1891, older son of Samuel Mayes and Nancy (Nannie) Adair, born 2nd October 1833 in Bates Co., Georgia, educated at public schools till 1851, and at Male Seminary at Tahlequah 1851/1855, entered the Confederate service, First Indian Brigade, as a private, but he was rapidly promoted to the offices of Captain and Assistant Quartermaster of the 2nd Regiment of Cherokee Mounted Volunteers, and later he was appointed Major and Brigade Quartermaster, he returned to farming after the Civil War, clerk of the district court of Cooweescoowee District 1869/1873, Clerk of the District Court 1879/1883, elected Judge of the Northern Circuit of the Nation 1883/1888, Clerk of the Commissioners' Court 1888/1890, Clerk of the National Council 1890, elected Supreme Judge, and later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, nominated and elected Principal Chief in 1st August 1887, and was re-elected on 3rd August 1891, he married 1stly, 1855/1857, Martha Jane Candy, born 1836 in Flint District, Cherokee Nation, died 1857/1860, daughter of George Washington Candy, and his first wife, Elizabeth Hughes Bell, married 2ndly, 1863, Martha M. McNair, died 1866, married 3rdly, 1869, Mary Vann, daughter of David Vann and Martha McNair, born 21st June 1838, died 3rd August 1912, and had issue (died young). He died 14th December 1891, in Tahlequah, Indian Territory, without surviving issue.
  • COLONEL JOHNSON HARRIS, Principal Chief 1891/1895, son of William Harris and Susan Collins, born 19th April 1856 in Georgia, educated in Canadian District and Male Seminary, elected Senator from Canadian District in 1881, 1883 and 1885; President of the Senate 1883/1885, delegate to Washington in 1886 and 1895, Treasurer 1891, Principal Chief, elected on 23rd December 1891, Senator from Tahlequah District in 1899, married 1stly, 12th August 1877, Nannie E. Fields, daughter of Richard F. Fields and Rachel Elizabeth Goss, born 7th October 1849, died 14th November 1887, married 2ndly,4th March 1891, Mary Elizabeth Adair, daughter of William Penn Adair and Sarah Ann Adair, born 12th June 1864, died 11th November 1902, married 3rdly, Caroline Alice Collins (née Hall), and had issue.He died 25th September 1921 at Muskogee.
    • Buena Vista Harris, born 26th October 1877, married 4th December 1898, Bascom Porum Rasmus, son of William Rasmus, and his wife, Josephine Dannenberg, born 22nd August 1869, and had issue, three daughters.
    • William Richard Harris, born 23rd January 1880, graduated from Male Seminary in 1900, died 24th October 1917.
    • Colonel Johnson Harris, born 22nd March 1882, married 22nd February 1910, Caroline Elizabeth Ghormley, born 3rd June 1888, graduated from Female Seminary in 1905, and had issue.
      • Ewing Johnson Harris, born 14th December 1910 in Talequah, Oklahoma, married 3rd November 1941 in Reno, Nevada, Lula Leona Griffin, born 15th May 1913 in Searcy, Arkansas, died 17th September 1980 in Oregon, and had issue. He died 23rd August 1971 in Chalmette, Louisiana.
        • Wanda Darlene Harris, born 13th March 1946, died 23rd March 1969 in New Orleans.
        • Jerry Johnson Harris, born 1st April 1954, died June 1954.
      • Russell Fields Harris, born 27th July 1912 in Talequah, died 11th June 2001 in Fort Smith, Arkansas.
      • Buena Wahlell Harris, born 6th May 1914 in Talequah, died 3rd March 1999.
      • Joe Carey Harris, born 6th October 1916 in Talequah, died May 1988 in Memphis.
      • Nannie Harris, born 6th September 1918.
      • William Richard Harris, born 12th April 1921.
      • Colonel Phil Harris, born 24th November 1925 in Talequah.
    • Joel Adair Harris, born 22nd June 1894, died unmarried 30th June 1915.
    • Caroline Ellen Harris, born 8th November 1896, married 24th September 1919, W. A. Robertson.
    • Charles Hasting Harris, born 15th August 1899.
    • Edwin Blake Harris, born 1901.
  • SAMUEL HOUSTON MAYES, Principal Chief 1895/1899, younger son of Samuel Mayes and Nannie Adair, born 11th May 1845 in Cherokee Nation West, educated at local schools in his native state and the common schools near Bellevue; served as private in Company K of the Confederate Army, Co. C., 1st Cherokee Mounted Volunteers, elected and served as sheriff of Cooweescoowee District from 1880, served as Senator 1885/1891, elected Principal Chief on 5th August 1895, President of the Mayes Mercantile Company, a trustee of the Methodist Church, after his term as Principal Chief, he retired to hisfarm in what is today Mayes County, Oklahoma; a member of the Methodist Church and an affiliate of the Masonic orders; married 1stly, 9th November 1871 at Cooweescoowee, Martha Elizabeth Vann, daughter of David Vann, born 4th October 1852 in New Hope, Oklahoma, died 27th December 1907 in Pryor, Oklahoma, married 2ndly, 18th February 1913, Mrs. Minnie Ball, widow of Owen Harrison Sr., and had issue. He died 12th December 1927 in Oklahoma and is buried in the Fairview Cemetary in Pryor, Oklahoma. 
    • William Lucullus Mayes, born 6th February 1874, married 8th January 1901, Martha Llewellyn Morgan, born 23rd June 1877, daughter of Gideon Morgan, and his wife, Mary Llewelyn Payne, and had issue. He died 26th October 1948.
      • Martha Llewellyn Mayes, born 24th August 1902, married 6th April 1924, James Eben Hart.
      • Cullus Morgan Mayes, born 6th September 1908 in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, died December 1972.
    • Dr. Joseph Francis Mayes, born 21st December 1877, married 14th June 1909 in St Louis, Missouri, Esmeralda Berry, born 4th November 1887, and had issue. He died 1940.
      • Samuel Houston Mayes, born 11th August 1917 in St. Louis, Missouri, studied at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia (graduated in 1937), he began playing as a section cellist in the Philadelphia Orchestra, and in 1938 was asked to become principal cellist of the PSO, under the baton of Leopold Stowkowski, where he stayed for ten years, became principal cellist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1948, taught cello at Boston University, returned to the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1965, taught at the New England Conservatory, Hartt College, Interlochen, the Philadelphia Music Academy and Temple University. Later he moved to the Eastman School of Music, and then to a position with the Los Angeles Philharmonic (1974/1975). He taught at Michigan University. He officially retired in 1984, and in 1987 he was honoured at the Eva Janzer Memorial Cello Center in Bloomington, Indiana, with the Chevalier du Violoncelle award for his lifetime contribution to the cause of cello playing, he married Winifred Schaefer. He died 24th August 1990 in Meza, Arizona.
    • Carolyn Martha "Carrie" Mayes, born 27th January 1880, married 29th January 1909, Clarence E. Samuels, born 23rd March 1876. She died 1957.

  • THOMAS MITCHELL BUFFINGTON, Principal Chief 1899/1903, son of Reverend Ezekiel Buffington Jr. and his wife, Louisa Newman, born 19th October 1855 in the Going Snake district of the Cherokee Nation, educated at Baptist Missions and Cherokee schools, a successful farmer, he was chosen President of the Farmers Alliance, served as circuit judge for four years, Member of the Cherokee Nation Senate for two years 1891/1893, and later became its President, he was interim Principal Chief from 14th December 1891 to 23rd December 1891, Member of the Hillcrest Country Club, Retired to his home at Vinita after his term, married 1stly, 1878, Susie H. Woodall, daughter of Isaac Woodhall, born 30th July 1857, died sp 11th November 1891, married 2ndly, Emma L. Gray, daughter of Adolphus Gray, and had issue. He died 11th February 1938 in Vinita, Craig County, Oklahoma, buried in the Fairview Cemetary, Vinita.
    • Lucille Buffington, born 3rd October 1896 in Vinita, Oklahoma, married Carl Scott. She died 17th March 1968.
    • Sue Nell Buffington, born 30th July 1898 in Vinita, Oklahoma, married 12th November 1920, Clinton Franklin Wood. She died 8th January 1966.
    • Lilian Maxine Buffington, born 25th October 1900, died 4th August 1957.
    • Marie Buffington, born 156th August 1903 in Vinita, Oklahoma, died 21st May 1937.
    • Marguerite Buffington
  • WILLIAM CHARLES ROGERS, Principal Chief 1903/1907 (served until 1917 in various capacities), son of Charles Rogers, and his wife, Elizabeth McCorkle, born 13th December 1849 near Pryor Creek, Cherokee Nation West, married 14th May 1895, Nannie Haynie, and had issue. He died 1917.
    • William Clifford Rogers, born 14th May 1897.
    • Eula Lucille Rogers, born 4th May 1900 in Skiatook.
  • VACANT 1917/1941
  • JESSE BARTLEY MILAM, Principal Chief 1941/1949, appointed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, son William Guinn Milam, born 1860, and his wife, Sarah Ellen Couch, born 1863; born 10th March 1884, graduated from the Metropolitan Business College, Dallas, Texas, on 24th May 1902; President of the Bank of Chelsea, and was appointed as one of the three members of the State Banking Board in 1920, married 6th April 1904, Elizabeth Peach McSpadden, daughter of Joel Cowan McSpadden and Florence Ellen Hoyt, born 27th August 1883 at Chelsea, Cherokee Nation, educated at Chelsea and the Female Seminary at Tahlequah, from which she graduated 9th June 1903, member of the Delphian Club, died 1956, and had issue. He died 8th May 1949.
    • Hindman Stuart Milam, born 16th April 1907 in Nowata, Oklahoma, married Katherine Ida Burris, born 15th January 1909 in Tulsa.
    • Mildred Elizabeth Milam, born 10th May 1910, married Philip Hubbard Viles Sr., born 20th May 1910, and had issue. She died September 1987.
      • Judge Philip Viles Jr., B.Econ., M.B.A., M.L.I.S., juris Doctorate, Chief Justice of the Judicial Appeals Tribunal since 1976, an Air Force veteran and an accomplished public speaker, writer and researcher, works in private practice as an attorney and on the staff of the University of Tulsa.
    • Mary Ellen Milam, born 16th May 1916, married George Joseph Stevenson, and had issue. She died 25th February 2007.
  • WILLIAM WAYNE KEELER, Principal Chief 1949/1975, son of William B. Keeler and Sarah Louisa Carr, born 5th April 1908 in Dalehart, Texas, President of the Phillips Petroleum Co., died 24th August 1987 at Bartlesville, Oklahoma, buried White Rose Cemetary, Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
  • ROSS O. SWIMMER, Principal Chief 1975/1985, educated at Oklahoma University (Bachelor of Arts and Juris Doctor Degree), he resigned to accept the position of Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, within the U.S. Department of the Interior; he served as president of the Cherokee Group, L.L.C., 1995/2001, Director of the Office of Indian Trust Transition 2001/-, Special Trustee for American Indians at the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs; married Margaret (Swimmer).
  • Wilma Pearl MankillerWilma Pearl Mankiller, Principal Chief 1985/1995, born 18th November 1945 in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, daughter of Charley Mankiller, and his wife, Irene; she was elected deputy chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1983, became the first female principal chief in 1985 on the resignation of Chief Swimmer, she was freely-elected in 1987, and re-elected again in 1991 in a landslide victory, she resigned in 1995, due to health problems, she is the recipient of numerous state and national honors, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1998), author of two books, an autobiography, "Mankiller: A Chief and Her People" and "Every Day Is a Good Day", co-editor of "A Readers Companion to the History of Women in the U.S.", married 1stly, 1963 (div. 1974), Hector Hugo Olaya, married 2ndly, 1986, Charlie Soap, (B.Ed.), a Navy veteran and an  accomplished community organizer, trainer, and administrator; and had issue, two daughters (by her first husband). She died of pancreatic cancer on 6th April 2010 in Adair County, Oklahoma.
    • Felilcia Olaya
    • Gina Olaya
  • JOE BYRD, Principal Chief 1995/1999, born in Muldrow, Oklahoma, son of Stand Watie Byrd, and his wife, Lillian; educated at Northeastern State University and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in education in 1978 and a master’s in guidance counseling administration in 1979; prior to becoming Principal Chief, he  served as the education coordinator for the Cross Cultural Education Center, was a field specialist for the Cherokee Nation Education Department and bilingual educator and coach at Bell Community Public School; he also served as a counselor at Stilwell High School; appointed to the Planning Committee of the National Indian Policy Center in Washington, D.C.; former Vice President of the Cherokee Nation Higher Education Foundation; he serves on the Board of Directors of the Native American Diabetes Association; married and has issue, three children.
    • Joseph Byrd
    • Candice Byrd
    • Julia Byrd
  • CHADWICK CORNTASSEL SMITH (see above)

Principal Chiefs of the Western Cherokees

  • THE BOWL [Bold Hunter / Colonel Bowl / Chief Bowles] [Di'wali], 1st Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee 1795/1813 and Chief of the Town of Little Hiwassee, born about 1756, he was one of the leaders of the Cherokee hostile to the U.S.A. during the Chickamauga wars, under Dragging Canoe and later John Watts; he signed the Treaty of Holston in 1791 later he led the first major Cherokee emigration west across the Mississippi River, where he and his followers settled in what later became Arkansas Territory in 1794, the following year he was elected Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation West, serving until his departure for Spanish Texas in 1813, where he became leader of the Cherokee there along with Richard Fields, he signed the Houston Treaty (never ratified) on 23rd February 1836; married 1stly, U-lu-tsa, daughter of Datsi (see above), and his wife, E-li-si, married 2ndly, Jennie Due, born about 1767, daughter of Robert Due, and his wife, Elizabeth Emory, and had issue. He died at the outbreak of war on 16th July 1839 between the Texas Cherokee and the Republic of Texas.
    • Lightningbug Bowles, born 1784, married and had issue.
      • Joseph Bowles, born 1810.
      • Caroline Bowles, born 1812.
      • John Bowles, born 1814,
      • Jefferson Bowles. born 1816.
      • Te-ka-nu-sa Whiskey Bowles, born 1836.
      • Ge-ya-hi Bowles, born 1838.
      • De-ka-que-ka Bowles, born 1840.
    • Du-nu-ne-s-gi Bowles, born 1786.
    • Standing Man Bowles, born 1788, married and had issue.
      • Johnson Bowles, born 1810, died 1895.
      • Etta Bowles, born 1812, died 1895.
      • Elizabeth Bowles, born 1814.
      • Thomas Bowles, born 1816.
    • Qua-ti-ni Bowles, born 1790.
    • Tsa-gi-na Bowles, born 1792.
    • John Bowles, born 1796, married and had issue. He died in July 1839 in Texas.
      • John M. Bowles, born 1832, married and had issue. He died 1865.
        • Malvina Bowles, born 1853, died 1896.
        • Lorenzo D. Bowles, born 1854.
        • Martha C. Bowles, born 1860.
        • John M. Bowles Jr., born 1863, married and had issue. He died 1931.
          • Julie Boles
          • Martha Cora Boles
          • Mary Bell Boles
          • Charles Boles Sr., born 1888, married and had issue. He died 1943.
            • Charles Boles Jr,.
          • Carrie B. Boles
          • Vina Nannie Boles
          • Calvina Boles
          • Minerva Alice Boles
          • Nancy Jane Boles
          • Willie Boles, born 1898, died 1898.
          • Henrietta Amanda Boles
          • Fannie Lillie Boles
    • French Bowles
    • Nellie Bowles
    • Standing Bowles
    • James Bowles, born 1804, married and had issue. He died 1871.
      • Minnie Bowles, born 1869.
      • Richard H. Bowles Sr., born 1870, married 1stly, married 2ndly, Nannie Downing, born 1878, and had issue. He died 1901.
        • Thomas Bowles, born 1891.
        • Leo Bennet Bowles (by Nannie), born 1898.
        • Richard H. Bowles Jr. (by Nannie), born 1900.
    • Standing in the Middle Bowles, born 1809, married and had issue. He died 1895.
      • Thomas  Bowles, born 1836.
      • Lucy Bowles
    • Samuel Bowles, married and had issue.
      • George Bowles
    • Rebecca Du-ga Bowles
    • fnu Bowles, he married and had issue.
      • Asdolati Bowles, born 1834, died 1895.
    • Nannie Bowles, born 1820.
    • Eliza Bowles, born 1823.
    • Rachel Bowles, married Teesey Guess, son of Sequoyah, and had issue.
  • DEGADOGA [Tatoka], Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee 1813/1817
  • TAHLONTEESKEE [Ata'lunti'ski], Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee 1817/1819, son of Robert Due, and his wife, Wurteh Watts; former headman of Cayoka town on Hiwassee Island in the later Hamilton County, Tennessee; migrated to the west in 1809; died 1819.
  • JOHN JOLLY [Ahuludegi], Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee 1819/1838, born 1776, son of Robert Due, and his wife, Wurteh Watts; he had served as headman of Cayuga town on Hiwassee Island in the later Hamilton County, Tennessee after his brother's departure for the west in 1809; during his term of office, the Cherokee Nation West adopted a constitution in 1828 establishing a tripartite government like that previously adopted by the Cherokee Nation East in 1827; also that year, most of the Western Cherokee moved west from Arkansas Territory to the newly established Indian Territory; married Sarah, died 1822, and had issue, as well as adoptive issue. He died 28th December 1838.
    • Girt Jolly, married Naomi, daughter of Risingfawn, and his wife, Gi-go-ne-li, and had issue, one son. He died 1825.
    • Rachel Jolly
    • Sallie Jolly, married Isaac Upton.
    • Golista Jolly, married 1837 (div.1837), Looney Price Jr., born February 1799, died 5th September 1885.
    • Price Jolly
    • Betty Jolly
    • (A) Sam Houston (Ka'lanu = The Raven)
  • JOHN LOONEY, Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee [28.12.1838] - [22.4.1839] and again [xx.7.1839] - [xx.8.1839], son of Mother of Looney, daughter of Chief Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) (see above), he was deposed after the tribe elected John Brown to effect a union with the Latecomers from the Cherokee Nation East after the Cherokee removal of 1838-1839; married 1stly, Susan, married 2ndly, Betsy Weber, daughter of Will Weber, the mixed-blood headman of Willstown during the Chickamauga wars, and had issue. He died 16th May 1846 in Washington, D.C.
    • Eleanor Looney (by Susan), married circa 1838, Brig.-Gen. Stand Taketaukeh Watie (see above).
    • Rachel Looney (by Susan), born about 1818, married John Nave, died May 1847, and had issue. She died 1867.
    • Eliza Abigail Looney (by Betsy), married Daniel Rattling Gourd, died circa 1877, and had issue. She died about 1867.
    • Nancy Looney (by Betsy), married Christopher C. Sage.
  • JOHN BROWN, Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee [22.4.1839] - [xx.7.1839], formerly judge of the Chickamauga District of the Cherokee Nation East, he was elected after the Old Settlers decided to elect new officers to strengthen their position with regard to the Latecomers under John Ross, three months later he was deposed after the Old Settlers decided his administration had not gone far enough to accomplish a compromise with the Ross party; married Sarah and had issue. He died of tuberculosis after 1839.
    • John Brown Jr., born 1795, married Susannah Lovett, born 1790, she was baptised in 1820 at the Creek Path mission, daughter of (name unknown) Lovett, and his wife, Olli-Mollie (see above), and had issue. He died 2nd February 1822.
      • John Brown III
    • David Brown, born 1798, married Rachel Lowrey, born about 1806, died after 1851, daughter of George Lowrey Jr., and his wife, Lucy Benge (see above), and had issue. He died 15th September 1829.
      • John Lowrey Brown [Tsi-s-go-ye = Bug], born about 1827, married about 1855, Anna E. Scrimsher, born 1830 in Alabama, died after 1906, daughter of Martin Scrimsher, and his wife, Nannie Pettit, and had issue. He died 1859.
        • David John  Brown, born 1856, died before 1906.
        • Martin R. Brown, Superintendent of the Cherokee National Male Seminary, born 22nd February 1858 at Fort Gibson, Cherokee Nation West, married 7th April 1888, Nannie E. McNair, born 1864, living 1906, daughter of William McNair, and his wife, Rachel Mayes, and had issue. He died 1905.
          • Annie E. Brown, born 1889.
          • Catherine Brown, born 1891.
          • Charles Brown
          • David Brown
        • Mollie Catherine Brown, born 16th December 1859 in Illinois Dist., Cherokee Nation West, married Dr. Richard O. Trent Sr., born 1854, and had issue.
      • Catherine Brown, born 1829, married William Daniel, living 1851. She died after 1902.
  • JOHN ROGERS, Principal Chief of the Western Cherokee 1839/1840, born 1781, son of John Jack Rogers, and his wife, Elizabeth Emory, married 19th April 1804, Elizabeth Coody, born 1786, died 1846, daughter of Arthur Archibald Coody, and his second wife, Micah, and had issue. He died 12th June 1846.
    • Isaac Rogers, born 1806, died 1895.
    • Cynthia Rogers, born 1808, died 1895.
    • Thomas Lewis Rogers, born 1816, married Ruth Maugh, died after 1851, daughter of Willioki Maw, and his wife, Eliza Ouatee, and had issue.
      • Victoria A. Rogers, born 1846, died after 1902.
    • Charles Coody Rogers, born 13th October 1817, married 1stly, Elizabeth McCorkle, born 1820, died before 1859, married 2ndly, 1877, Jane "Jennie" Harlan, born 27th June 1850, died 23rd July 1896, and had issue. He died 17th June 1886.
      • John Benjamin Franklin Rogers (by Elizabeth McCorkle), born 14th June 1847, died 17th September 1896.
      • William Charles Rogers (by Elizabeth McCorkle) (see above)
      • Mary Ann Rogers (by Elizabeth McCorkle), born 1853.
      • Charles Henry Rogers (by Jennie), born 5th March 1881, married 31st December 1901, Mary V. Brady, born 22nd April 1884, and had issue.
        • Clement Huckleberry Rogers, born 10th December 1902.
    • George Washington Rogers, born 1820, married Malinda Scrimsher, and had issue.
      • John Lewis Rogers, born 1847, married Harriette Meeks, and had issue. He died after 1902.
        • John Lewis Rogers, born 1890.
      • William Wilson Rogers, born 1849, married Martha Frazier, and had issue.
        • John George Rogers, born 1882.
    • W. D. Nelson Rogers, born 1824, married 1stly, Rosanna West, died 1869, daughter of Jacob West, and his wife, Sarah "Sally" Harlan, married 2ndly, Margaret Scrimsher, and had issue. He died 1865.
      • Lewis Rogers (by Rosanna), born 14th November 1840, married Helen Ross, born in May 1843, died 15th March 1906, daughter of Lewis Ross, and his wife, Rosalie Lombard, and had issue. He died 18th August 1923.
        • Rosalie Rogers, born 8th July 1877, married 5th September 1895, Benjamin Franklin Avant, born 6th January 1868 in Gonzales Co, Texas, and had issue, two children.
        • Lewis Rogers, born 15th March 1885.
      • Wellington Rogers (by Margaret), born 1856, living 1906.
    • Granville Rogers, born 1826.
    • Randolph Rogers, born 1828, married Rachel Fields, born 1828, died 1880, daughter of John Wickett Fields, and his wife, Susannah Halfbreed, and had issue. He died 1852.
      • Mary Rogers, born 17th April 1850, living 1906.
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1. Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume 16, No. 1, March 1938, "Eastern Cherokee Chiefs" by John P. Brown