"Burma" before 1948 consisted of the British colonial territory (covering the extinct kingdoms of "Burma," Talaing (Pegu), and Arakan, as well as some minor lands), together with two groups of states, whose status was similar to that of the Indian states: the Shan states and the Karen states. "Shan" is a Burmese word, cognate with "Siam"; the Shan states are ethnically Tai, closely related to the majority population of Thailand; for a time they formed the "Shan State" in independent Burma. The Karenni states formed for a time the "Kayah State" in independent Burma.
The British authorities form a protectorate over the Shan States in 1887; the Federated Shan States are formed by the U.K. government on 1st October 1922, comprising 34 northern and southern Shan states (not including the Wa States); the Karenni (Kayah) states are placed under the administration of the Shan States on 10th October 1922; by the Burma Act, the Shan State is administratively separated from Burma proper and put under a second administrative circle on 1st April 1937; the Shan states are occupied by Japanese military forces 1942/1943, while Thailand occupies 1942/1945 parts of Shan States (Kengtung and Möngpan) which are annexed by Thailand on 1st August 1943; the Shan States become part of the Republic of Burma 1943/1945, and then part of the Independent Union of Burma on 4th January 1948.

RANKNAME/S AREA km²POPULATIONETHNICITY TITLENOTE/S

1KENGTUNG (Kyaingtong)31,080.0 (1901)190,698 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha 9 gun salute; classical name was Khemarata Tungaburi; had 2,338 villages
2HSIPAW (Thibaw)13,172.2 (1901)104,700 (1901)Northern Shan Saopha 9 gun salute; classical name was Dutawadi; had 1,661 villages
3MÖNGNAI (Monè)7,037.644,252 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha 9 gun salute; classical name was Saturambha/Nandapwa; had 981 villages
4YAWNGHWE (Nyaungshwe)3,605.3 (1901)95,339 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha 9 gun salute; classical name was Kambawsarata; had 1,091 villages
5TAWNGPENG (Taungbaing)2,015.022,681 (1901)Northern Shan Saopha capital was Nam Hsan; classical name was Pappatasara; had 274 villages
xHSENWI (Theinni)xxxNorthern Shan Saopha classical name was Sivirattha
6- South Hsenwi (aka Mongyai)6,216.0 (1901)67,836 (1901)Northern Shan Saopha had 961 villages
7- North Hsenwi16,394.7 (1901)118,325 (1901)Northern Shan Saopha had 939 villages
8MÖNGMIT (Momeik)9,687.1xxNorthern Shan Saopha classical name was Gandhalarata
9MÖNGPAI (Mobye)1,709.419,358 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha had 158 villages
10LAWKSAWK (Yatsauk)5,690.2 (1901)24,839 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha classical name was Hansawadi?; had 397 villages
11LAIHKA (Lègya)3,711.525,811 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha classical name was Hansawadi; had 531 villages
12MAWKMAI (Maukme)7,218.329,454 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha classical name was Lawkawadi; had 443 villages
13MÖNGPAN5,957.016,629 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha classical name was Dhannawadi; had 196 villages
14MÖNGPAWN (Maing Pun)960.913,143 (1901)Southern Shan Saopha classical name was Rajjawadi; had 212 villages
15MANGLÖNxxxNorthern Shan Saopha major Wa state; classical name was Jambularata
16KANTARAWADI6,475.0xxEastern Karenni Saopha updated 5-11-2012
17SAMKA (Saga)924.617,643 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 241 villages
18MÖNGKÜNG4,255.430,482 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 627 villages
19NAWNGWAWN (Naungmon)108.84,805 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza amalgamated with Möngpawng in 1931; had 78 villages
20MÖNGNAWNG4,079.339,102 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza classical name was Nandawadi; had 777 villages
21MÖNGSIT (Maingseik)784.89,013 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 184 villages
22KEHSI MANSAM (Kyithi Bansan)1,636.822,062 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 378 villages
23MAWNANG (Bawnin)103.83,755 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 43 villages; amalgamated with Hsa Möng Hkam in 1934
24LOILONG (Lwelong)4,144.030,731 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 437 villages
25HSAHTUNG (Thaton)1,222.510,584 (1901)Shan Myoza had 159 villages
26WANYIN (Banyin)567.211,297 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 158 villages
27HOPONG (Hopon)600.911,140 (1901)Shan Myoza had 177 villages
28NAMHKOK (Nankok)274.56,687 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza amalgamated with Möngpawng in 1931; had 78 villages
29SAKOI (Sagwe)266.81,387 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 27 villages
30MÖNGHSU and MÖNGSANG424.817,480 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 265 villages
31KENGLÖN (Kyainglon)111.44,259 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 69 villages; amalgamated with Kehsi Mangam in 1926
32BAWLAKE518.0xxWestern Karenni Myoza updated 5-11-2012
33KYEBOGYI906.5xxWestern Karenni Myoza updated 5-11-2012
34HSA MÖNG HKAM769.212,561 (1901)Shan Myoza had 196 villages
35BAW (Maw)1,424.57,743 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 70 viilages; amalgamated with Hsa Möng Hkam in 1934
36PWEHLA (Poila)264.27,866 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 62 villages
37YWANGAN (Yengan)1036.0xxSouthern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 71 villages
37KYWAKHTAP127.0xxSouthern Shan Ngwegunhmu updated 5-11-2012
38PANGTARA (Pindara)518.01,632 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 91 villages
39PANGMI (Pinhmi)75.113,456 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 29 villages
40LOI-AI (Lwe-E)518.05,442 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 70 villages; amalgamated with Hsa Möng Hkam in 1930
41KYAWKKU HSIWAN (Kyaukku)243.54,771 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 33 villages; amalgamated with Pwehla in 1928
42LOIMAW (Lwemaw)126.94,576 (19201)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 59 villages: amalgamated with Yawnghwe in 1928
43KYONG62.22,340 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 20 villages
44 NAMTÖK (Nantok) 51.8778 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 12 villages; amalgamated with Loi Long in 1931
xxHKAMTI LONGxxxxChindwin Saopha 1st Class state, also known as Kantigyi
xHSAWNGHSUP1427.3xxShan Ngwegunhmu located in Upper Chindwin District
xHSIHKIP (Thigyit)xxxSouthern Shan Myoza updated 5-11-2012
xKENGCHENG (Kyaingchaing)xxxSouthern Shan -- updated 5-11-2012
xKENGHKAM (Kyaingkan)432.55,458 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 52 villages
xKENGTAWNGn/an/aSouthern Shan n/a merged into Möngnai before 1910; data included with that state
xKOKANGxxxSouthern Shan Myoza updated 5-11-2012
xMAWSÖN (Bawzaing)103.83,557 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 31 villages
xMÖNGKAWNG (Mogaung)xxxSouthern Shan Saopha updated 5-11-2012
xMÖNGLENG (Mohlaing)xxxSouthern Shan Myoza ceased to exist before 1910
xMÖNGLONGxxxSouthern Shan Myoza updated 5-11-2012
xMÖNGMAOxxxSouthern Shan -- updated 5-11-2012
xMÖNGPING (Maingpyin)xxxSouthern Shan -- updated 5-11-2012
xMÖNGTUNG (Maington)xxxSouthern Shan Myoza ceased to exist before 1910
xMÖNGYANG (Mohnyin)xxxSouthern Shan Myoza updated 5-11-2012
xMÖNGYAWNGxxxSouthern Shan Myoza updated 5-11-2012
xNAMHKAI (Nanke)194.66,780 (1901)Southern Shan Ngwegunhmu had 76 villages
xNAMHKOM (Nankon)10.3xxSouthern Shan -- updated 5-11-2012
x NAMMEKON 145.0xxWestern Karenni Myoza updated 5-11-2012
xNAUNGPALE77.9xxWestern Karenni Myoza updated 5-11-2012
xPANGLAWNGxxxSouthern Shan --updated 5-11-2012
xSINGALING HKAMTI 2,546.02.048 (1901)Southern Shan Myoza had 24 villages in Upper Chindwin District; aka Zingalein Kamti in Burmese
xWANMAW (Bhamo)xxxSouthern Shan Saopha updated 5-11-2012
xWUNTHOxxxSouthern Shan Saopha rebelled in 1891 and incorporated into Katha District

NOTES:
1
. Names in brackets are the Burmese equivalents.
2. Three ranks of chiefs were recognized by the Burmese king and later by the British administration. These ranks were Saopha or Chaofa (Shan for king or chieftain) or Sawbwa in Burmese, Myosa/Myoza (duke or chief of town), and Ngwegunhmu (silver revenue chief).
3. The rank given is in order of the precedence, at the time of the British annexation of the Shan States.
SOURCES:
a). "Burma, A Handbook of Practical Information" by Sir James George Scott, C.I.E., 3rd ed. 1921, mostly a copy of the 1st and 2nd editions (1906 and 1911)
b). "Memoranda on Native States in India" 1911 edition (much has been copied from "A Gazetteer of Upper Burma and The Shan States" 1880's)
The help of John Duncan McMeekin, is gratefully acknowledged, November 2012 and July 2014.

AWARDS:
O.B. = The Order of Burma 1940-1948
B.G.M. = The Burma Gallantry Medal 1940-1948
A.M.P. = Aga Maha Pandita (The Great Learned One) since 1915
K.S.M. = Kyet thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min (Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour) 1885-1948
T.D.M. = Thuye gaung ngwe Da ya Min (Recipient of the Silver Sword for Bravery) 1885-1948
A.T.M. = Ahmudan gaung Tazeik ya Min (Recipient of the Medal for Good Service) 1885-1948
T.P.S. = Taing kye Pyi kyo Saung (One who has promoted the welfare of his Country) 1916-1948

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