BURMA (Kingdom)

AREA: 595,000 km2 (1725)
RELIGION: Theravadda Buddhist
STATE: Burma POPULATION: 2,000,000 (1635 est'd.)
DYNASTY: Tungoo Dynasty
CAPITALS: Tungoo 1486/1539, Pegu 1539/1599 and Ava 1599/1752
PREDECESSORS AND SHORT HISTORY: The dynasty was founded in January 1486 at Tungoo, and became independent of Ava on 16th October 1510. Its early kings, Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung succeeded in reunifying the Pagan Empire for the first time since 1287, and in incorporating the Shan States for the first time. At its peak, the First Toungoo Empire also included Manipur, the Chinese Shan States, Siam, and Lan Xang, but the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia collapsed in 1599. The dynasty quickly regrouped under the leadership of Nyaungyan and his son Anaukpetlun who succeeded in restoring a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Burma, Upper Burma, Shan States and Lan Na by 1616. The Restored Toungoo kings, now based in Ava (Inwa), created a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into 19th century. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years. Thereafter it entered a gradual decline, and in 1740 the Mon began a rebellion and founded the restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom, which captured Ava in 1752, and ended the Tungoo dynasty, Rulers were...
  • General Prince Sithu Kyawhtin, Governor of Tungoo 1470/1481, in 1470, he was ordered by King Thihathura of Ava to put down a rebellion by Tungoo in an alliance with Hanthawaddy Pegu Kingdom, in which he was successful and he was left in charge of Tungoo; when the King of Ava died in 1481, the new king was beset by rebellions by two of his brothers, and General Sithu Kyawhtin was ordered to attack Yamethin, he engaged the troops and was successful in the first battle but he was defeated and killed in a second battle; married (amongst others), Princess Min Hla Htut, and had issue. He died 1481.
    • (Prince) Min Sithu [Sithunge] (by Min Hla Htut), Governor of Tungoo 1481/1486, married Princess Min Hla Myat, and had issue. He was killed by his nephew in January 1486.
      • Queen Soe Min, married January 1486, her cousin, King Minkyinyo of Tungoo (qv)
      • Prince Uzana 
      • Prince Min Hla
    • Princess Min Hla Nyet, married Prince Maha Thinkhaya, a descendant of King Kyawswa I of Pinya, and had issue.
      • King Minkyinyo, 1st King of Tungoo (qv)
    • Princess Min Htwe

  1. King MINKYINYO [Maung Nyo], 1st King of Tungoo [16.10.1510] - [xx.1.1531], born 1459 in Ava?, Viceroy of Tungoo [xx.1.1486] - [xx.10.1510], under his 45-year leadership, Tungoo grew from a remote vassal state of Ava Kingdom to a small but stable independent kingdom; in January 1486, he murdered his uncle and seized the Governorship of Tungoo, he was recognized as Governor by the King of Ava, who was facing a rebellion by his brother, and solicited the help of Tungoo in controlling it; he styled himself as Thiri Zeya Thura, after receiving recognition (from Hanthawaddy and Lan Na) and tribute (from the Karenni); in 1491 he built a new fortified city called Dwayawaddy (still near Toungoo), at the estuary of the rivers Kabaung and Paunglaung; he attacked Hanthawaddy who retaliated and laid siege to the new city only partially successfully; his title was enhanced to Maha Thiri Zeya Thura by the King of Ava, for surviving the Hanthawaddy attack; he remained nominally loyal to Ava, but did not provide help in their war against invading Shan forces and actively supported the rebellion of the princes of Nyaungyan and Prome, further successes led him to formally declare his independence on 16th October 1510 and he thereafter managed to keep the new kingdom out of trouble; married (amongst others), January 1486, his cousin (a), Queen Soe Min, daughter of (Prince) Min Sithu, Governor of Tungoo, married (b), Queen Khin Nwe, married (c), Queen (Yazadewi) Khin Oo, married (d), 1503, a daughter of King Shwenankyawshin of Ava; and had issue. He died in January 1531 in Tungoo.
    • King Tabinshwehti (by Khin Oo) (qv)
    • Princess Atulathiri, after her marriage she was styled as Agga Mahethi Atula Thiri Maha Yaza Dewi, married Kyaw Htin Nawrahta, who later succeeded as King Bayinnaung (qv)

  2. King TABINSHWEHTI [Prince Mintaya], King of Burma and Tungoo [xx.1.1531] - [30.4.1550], born May 1512, in 1538, he overcame the defences of Pegu, and occupied the capital of the Mon kingdom; he unified Burma in 1539 and was the founder of the Second Burmese Empire; he moved his capital from Tungoo to Pegu in 1539; he later in 1541 turned his attention to Prome and after a long siege, the city fell; in 1544, he was crowned as king of all Burma at the ancient capital of Bagan; in 1545 he took Pagan and Salin and then attacked Arakan and Ayutthaya with limited successs; he returned to his capital and there, he was assasinated by Mon members of his own court; married 1stly, Queen Khin Hpone Soe, married 2ndly, Queen Khin Myat. He died 30th April 1550.

  3. INTERREGNUM [30.4.1550] - [11.1.1551], under Mon control.

  4. King BAYINNAUNG [Prince Shin Ye Htut], 3rd King of Burma [11.1.1551] - [9.11.1581], born 13th February 1516, son of Mingyi Swe, and his wife, Shin Myo Myat; Crown Prince of Burma [xx.1.1531] - [xx.5.1550], crowned King on 12th January 1554, he launched a campaign of conquest, including Manipur (1560) and Ayutthaya (1569) and made Taungoo the most powerful state in Southeast Asia, he had extended his borders from Laos to Ayutthaya, near Bangkok, although his greatest legacy was the integration of the Shan States into the Irrawaddy-valley-based Burmese kingdoms, which eliminated the threat of Shan raids into Upper Burma, an ongoing concern to Upper Burma since the late 13th century; married 1stly, Mahayazadewi (Queen) Atulathiri, daughter of King Minkyinyo of Tungoo (see above), married (b), Sandadewi (Queen) Thiri Hponhtut, former wife of King Minkhaung of Prome (see above), married (c), Queen Yazadewi, married (d), Lady Khin Pyezon, a commoner, and had issue. He died on 9th November 1581 in Pegu.
    • Princess Inwa Mibaya, born in or about January 1535, married 1555 (her step-uncle), Prince Thado Minsaw, fl. xx.6.1583, son of Mingyi Swe, and his wife, a younger sister of Shin Myo Myat.
    • King Nandabayin (by Atulathiri) (qv)
    • King Nyaungyan (by Khin Pyezon) (qv)
    • Prince Minye Thihathu, Viceroy of Tungoo to July 1609; he rebelled against his brother and proclaimed himself King of Tungoo around 1602; married Lady Khin Saw, and had issue. He died in 16th August 1609.
      • Prince Natshinnaung [Thiha Thura](by Khin Saw), Viceroy of Tungoo [16.8.1609] - [xx.11.1610], born between December 1578 and February 1579, Crown Prince of Tungoo [1602] - [xx.7.1609], he was a noted poet and an accomplished musician, as well as an able military commander, who advanced many military strategies and tactics; he took part in King Nanda's campaigns to reconquer Siam in the early 1590's, and took part in his father's sacking of Nanda's capital Pegu in 1599; in November 1610, King Anaukpetlun attacked Tungoo and succeeded in taking it, after which he was confirmed as Viceroy of Tungoo; he tried to incite the Portuguese ruler of Thanlyin to attack Tungoo, but it failed and in retaliation, Thanlyin was itself attacked and captured in April 1613; he converted to Roman Catholicism and was baptized by a priest from Goa in the last days of the siege of Thanlyin; married 22nd March 1603 (amongst others), Queen Yaza Datu Kalyani, died about October 1603 (seven months after the marriage), and had issue, six sons and three daughters. He was executed on 9th April 1613 at Thanlyin.
    • Prince Nawrahta Minsaw [Mintha Sit], he was 18th King of Lan Na 1578/1607 as Sawathi Noratra Mangsosi (see Chiang Mai)
    • Queen Khin Hpone Myat, married her half-brother, King Nyaungyan, and had issue (see below).

  5. King NANDABAYIN [Zeya Thiha], King of Burma [9.11.1581] - [19.12.1599], born 9th November 1535 in Tungoo, Crown Prince of Burma [11.1.1551] - [9.11.1581], he took part in battles against Lanna and Vientiane in 1565 and against Ayutthaya in 1564 and 1569; in 1584, he sent his armies into Siam led by the crown prince Mingyi Swa to subjugate the country, but failed, he tried again in 1586, equally without success and in 1590, he marched into Siam again with Mingyi Swa in the vanguard, but the crown prince was again defeated by the Siamese, in 1592, he mustered all available forces at his disposal aganist the Siamese, but the crown prince was killed, in 1594, the Siamese and Mon rebels, marched towards Pegu and laid siege to the city but then retreated, in 1595, his son, the viceroy of Prome, led a huge rebellion taking Tungoo and a large northern portion of the kingdom, proclaiming himself as an independent king; tiring of the rebellions and defeats suffered, he abdicated the throne in favour of King of Tungoo in 1599 and was placed in captivity in Tungoo where he was assassinated by Natshinnaung a year later; married (amongst others), Prfincess Min Taya Medaw, daughter of Lord Thado Dhamma Yaza II, Viceroy of Prome, and his Chief Queen, Queen Salin Mibaya; and had issue. He was assassinated by Prince Natshinnaung in 30th November 1600 in Tungoo.
    • Prince Mingyi Swa [Minchit], Crown Prince of Burma [9.11.1581] - [1592], married a daughter of Prince Thadominthaw, Viceroy of Ava. He was killed in a battle against the Siamese in 1592.
    • Prince Minyekyawswa I, Viceroy of Ava, appointed Crown Prince of Burma in 1592.
    • Prince Mingyi Hnaung, he succeeded as Thado Dhamma Yaza III, Viceroy of Prome (qv)
    • Raja Mong Saw Pru, 1st Governor of the Boh Mong circle 1599/1631, in the Chittagong Hills Tract (now in Bangladesh).

  6. King THARAWADDY MIN [Prince Shin Thitsa, Thiha Thura Dhamma Yaza] [Ngyaung Ram Meng or Nyaungyan Min], 5th King of Burma [19.12.1599] - [3.3.1606], born 6th March 1556, Prince of Nyaungyan -/1599, he was crowned King on 25th February 1600; often referred to as the founder of the Restored Toungoo Dynasty because od his successful efforts to reunify the main parts of his father empire which had famously collapsed under the previous reign, due to a multitude of domestic and external attacks; he was only one of many claimants to the Burmese throne after the kingdom's capital, Pegu, was sacked by combined Arakanese and rebellious Toungoo forces and King Nanda was deposed in December 1599, instead he focused on reclaiming the Shan States and successfully fended off Siamese attacks on the Shan States; married (mongst others) (his half sister), Queen Khin Hpone Myat, and had issue. He died 3rd March 1606.
    • King Anaukpetlun (by Khin Hpone Myat) (qv)
    • King Thalun [Thalwun Mengtara] (by Khin Hpone Myat) (qv)
    • Prince Minyekyawswa II, Governor of Ava, appointed Crown Prince of Burma in 1634, he died on 18th August 1647.

  7. King (Maha Dhamma Yaza) ANAUKPETLUN [Thakin Lat / Mahadhammaraja], 6th King of Burma [3.3.1606] - [9.7.1628], born about May 1578, Crown Prince of Burma [25.2.1600] - [3.3.1606]; he was largely responsible for restoring the Burmese kingdom after it had collapsed at the end of the 16th century and completed the reunification efforts in 1613 that had begun by his father; having inherited  primarily only Upper Burma and the Shan States, he proceeded to conquer Lanna in the east, Lower Burma in the south, from rival Burmese factions and the Portuguese, as well as the Upper Tenasserim from the Siamese; he decided to make Pegu the capital of his dominions in 1617, so he crowned himself as the King of Pegu in that year; married (amongst others), a daughter of the Saopha of Kengtung, married (b), Lady Khin Myo Myat, and had issue. He was killed by his elder son on 9th July 1628, buried in Pegu, Burma.
    • King Minyedaikpa [Minyedeippa / Mengre Dippa] (by Khin Myo Myat)(qv)

  8. King MINYEDAIKPA [Mengre Dippa], 7th King of Burma [9.7.1628] - [19.8.1629], born 1608 in Pegu, he never had any control beyond Pegu, the kingdom's capital, his uncles controlled Upper Burma, much of Lower Burma rebelled against his rule; in 1629, Thalun marched down from Ava to reconquer Lower Burma and in August later that same year, the king was seized by the Commander of Palace Guards, and sent to Thalun, who had him executed on 25th November 1629 in Pegu. 

  9. King THALUN [Thalwun Mengtara], 8th King of Burma [19.8.1629] - [27.8.1648] and Viceroy of Prome [2.11.1620] - [9.7.1628], born on 17th June 1584 as Prince Thakin Gyi, Crown Prince of Burma  [3.3.1606] - [9.7.1628], he successfully rebuilt the war-torn country and instituted many administrative and economic reforms; installed as Governor of Prome by his father in 1608, he moved the capital to Ava, crowned himself as the King of Ava and made his brother, Prince Minye Kyawswa, the crown prince, all in 1634; married (amogst others) (a), Lady Khin Myo Sit, married (b), Lady Khin Thet Hnin of Mone, married (c), Lady Khin Myat Hset of Pinya, and had issue, 11 sons and 20 daughters. He died on 27th August 1648 in Ava and was buried two days later at Inwa Palace.
    • King Pindale (by Khin Myo Sit) (qv)
    • King Pye (by Khin Myat Hset) (qv)
    • Prince Ne Myo Ye Kyaw of Pindale, married (his half-sister) between 10th June/9th July 1649, Princess Khin Ma Min Sit, and had issue.
      • King Minyekyawdin (qv)
    • Princess Khin Ma Min Sit, married (her half-brother), Prince Ne Myo Ye Kyaw of Pindale, and had issue (see above and below).

  10. King PINDALE [Bengtale], 9th King of Burma [27.8.1648] - [3.6.1661], born 23rd March 1608 as Prince Thakin Kyaw Minye Nandameit, Crown Prince of Burma [18.8.1647] - [27.8.1648] as Prince of Pindale, he was crowned King on 19th October 1648; his ineffectual reign was the beginning of the gradual decline of the Tungoo dynasty over the next century; the Southern Ming Emperor established himself at Kunming in Yunnan and extracted tributes from Chiang Hung, an attempt by Pindale to oust the Chinese failed, though they were eventually driven out of Yunnan; a request for asylum was granted with the Ming Emperor being granted a residence at Sagaing along with his officials, however the rival Qing Emperor, promptly amassed his troops into Burma in order to capture the last Ming prince, the Kingdom of Ava was largely plundered, with farms burnt resulting in a famine for which Pindale lost popularity enabling hjis brother to stage a coup and take the throne; married (amongst others), Queen Atula Sanda Dewi, and had issue. He was killed by drowning in the Chindwin River on 3rd June 1661 along with his chief queen, son and grandson.
    • Princess Thiri Hpone Htut
    • Prince Minye Theikha Thu, killed by drowning in the Chindwin River on 3rd June 1661.

  11. King PYE [Pyi Meng], 10th King of Burma [xx.5.1661] - [14.4.1672] and Viceroy of Prome [13.9.1650] - [3.6.1661], born 26th May 1619, appointed Prince of Pye; he staged a coup in 1661, and overthrew his now unpopular brother and crowned himself King of Ava on 7th September 1661 as Maha Pawara Dhamma Yaza Lawka Dipadi; he suppressed a Mon rebellion in 1661, drove the occupying Siamese forces out of Chiang Mai also in 1661 and successfully resisted an invasion by Qing forces in 1662; the rest of his reign was uneventful; married (amongst others), Queen Khin Ma Latt, and had issue, six sons and eight daughters. He died 14th April 1672 in Ava, and was buried the next day in Inwa Palace.
    • King Narawara [Maha Thiha Thudhamma Yaza] (by Khin Ma Latt) (qv)

  12. King NARAWARA, 11th King of Burma [14.4.1672] - [27.2.1673], born 1650, Crown Prince of Burma [1.6.1664] - [14.4.1672]; crowned on 1st May 1672, died sp on 27th February 1673, and was buried the next day in Inwa Palace.

  13. King MINYEKYAWDIN [Thiri Pawara Ti-Bawana Thiha Thura Agga Panita Maha Dhamma Yaza], 12th King of Burma [27.2.1673] - [4.5.1698], born in April 1651, son of Prince Ne Myo Ye Kyaw of Pindale, and his wife (and half-sister), Princess Khin Ma Min Sit; Lord of Yamethin; Governor of Pindale 166x/1673, he was granted the title of Minyekyawdin on 1st May 1672, by his step-brother, King Narawara, at his coronation ceremony; he was elected by the ministers of the court in preference to several older princes, this resulted in the group of nobles that had supported the king in gaining power; the fortunes of the kingdom gradually declined during his quarter-century rule and  towards the end of his reign, he had lost many outlying areas, including Kabaw valley to the Manipuris; married 1stly, Queen Atula Thiri, married 2ndly, Queen Sanda Dewi (née Princess Khin Ma Shwe San Oo), married 3rdly, Lady Yaza Dewi, and had issue. He died 4th May 1698 in Ava and was buried the next day in Inwa Palace.
    • King Sanay (by Sanda Dewi) (qv)
    • ?Prince (name unknown), Lord of Prome, married and had issue.
      • King Smim Htaw Buddhaketi, King of the restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom of Pegu.

  14. King SANAY [Sane Min] [Thiri Maha Thihathura Thudhammayaza], 13th King of Burma [4.5.1698] - [12.9.1714], born in April 1673, Crown Prince of Burma [8.9.1688] - [4.5.1698]; he was given Dabayin in fief, and was known as Debayin Mintha in his youth; he was ineffectual like his father and the power of Toungoo dynasty continued to decline, married 1stly, Queen Maha Dewi, married 2ndly, Queen Thiri Dewi, married 3rdly, Queen Nanda Dewi, and had issue. He died on 12th September 1714 in Ava, and was buried the next day in Inwa Palace.
    • King Taninganway (by Maha Dewi) (qv)

  15. King TANINGANWAY [Thiri Pawara Mahadhammaraja Dibati Hsengphyusheng], 14th King of Burma [12.9.1714] - [12.12.1733], Crown Prince of Burma [1.11.1711] - [12.9.1714], born in June or July 1689, the long decline of the Tungoo dynasty accelerated under his reign; he immediately faced a rebellion by his uncle, the Governor of Pagan; in the east, the kingdom of Chiang Mai, which had been under Burmese rule since 1558, successfully revolted in 1725, a Burmese army sent to recapture the breakaway region was driven out, in the northwest, Manipuri horsemen began raids into Burmese territory, easily evading the Burmese forces sent to drive them out; married 1stly, Chief Queen Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi, married 2ndly, Queen Thiri Dewi, married 3rdly, Queen Sanda Dewi, and had issue. He died 12th December 1733, and was buried the next day in Inwa Palace.
    • King Mahadhammaraza Dipadi (by Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi) (qv)
    • Prince Thado Minkhaung, Viceroy of Prome upto its fall to the Mons in 1745.

  16. King MAHADAMMAYAZA DIPATI [Mahadhammaraja Dibati], 15th King of Burma [23.11.1733] - [23.3.1752], Crown Prince of Burma [6.5.1727] - [23.11.1733]; born in July 1714 in Ava, he was selected by a group of nobles in preference to older Princes after his fathers death in 1733; he was granted Singu in fief when younger; his inexperience hastened the long standing decline of the Tungoo Dynasty's hold over the Kingdom of Burma; his troubles started immediately with an invasion of Burmese territory by the forces of the Raja of Manipur, they were repulsed but returned in 1735 and again repulsed; later a Burmese Governor rebelled and proclaimed himself King of Pegu in 1740, but the Mon people rioted and killed the new king as well as some Burmese officials in Pegu; the King then ordered a massacre of the Mons at Pegu, the Gwe Shans took this opportunity to stage their own rebellion, and with the support of the Mons they took Pegu later that same year (1740), a Shan monk was proclaimed King of Pegu and under the order of the Mons, tried to capture Ava and Prome, but failed, though they captured Tungoo itself; Prome eventually fell to the Mons in 1745 but they again failed in their attempt on Ava; a stalemate ensued until 1751, until the Shan Crown Prince of Pegu, led Mon and Shan armies against Sagaing and Ava, finally falling to the Mons in 1752; the King was taken as captive to Pegu where he was executed two years later due to a suspected rebellion; married and had issue. He was executed on 13th October 1754 near Pegu.
    • Princess Min Shwei Gya, married HM King Naungdawgyi, 2nd King of Burma (Alaungpaya Dynasty), and had issue, two daughters.