KENGTUNG (Kyaington) (Shan State)

 
TITLE: Saopha (personal name) Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja Revenue: Rs 12,7,784 (1911)
Accession: 1958
State: Burma Dynasty: xx Religion: Buddhist
Area: 32,178 km2 POPULATION: 225,894
 


Present Head of House:
Predecessors and Short History: The state, also known as Kyaington in Burmese (classical name: Khemarata Tungaburi), was founded in antiquity and ranked first in the order of precedence, at the time of the British annexation of the Shan States.  The country was occupied by the Wa up to 1229, they were conquered by Mang Rai in 1243. The state had to endure invasions by Siam in 1802, 1852, 1854 and 1943/1945. Parts were incorporated into China and Thailand in 1958. Rulers were...

  • Saopha MANG KUN, 1st Sawbwa of Kengtung 1243/1247, he was a delegate of Saopha Mang Rai, and founder of Kengtung State. He died 1247.
  • Saopha MANG KYIN, 2nd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1247/1253
  • Saopha (name unknown), 3rd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1253/1264, he was a son of Saopha Mang Rai, and ruled jointly with a monk.
  • Saopha SAO NAM NAM, 4th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1264/1317
  • Saopha SAO HSAM MUN HWE, 5th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1317/1324
  • Saopha SAO LAK, 6th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1324/1342
  • Saopha SAO HSAI NAN, 7th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1342/1360
  • Saopha SAO YU, 8th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1360/1370
  • Saopha SAO SIT PAN TU, 9th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1379/1387, married and had issue. He was killed in 1387.
    • Saopha Sao Ai Awn (qv)
    • Saopha Ai Wun Hsu (qv)
    • Saopha Yi Hkam Hka (qv)
    • Saopha Sao Hsam (qv)
  • Saopha SAO AI AWN, 10th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1387/1390
  • Saopha AI WU HSA, 11th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1390/1403
  • Saopha YI HKAM HKA, 12th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1403/1460
  • Saopha SAO HSAM, 13th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1416/1441, married and had issue.
    • Saopha Sao Hsam Sili (qv)
  • Saopha SAO HSAM SI-LI, 14th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1441/1456
  • Saopha AI LAO HKAM, 15th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1456/1474, married and had issue.
    • Saopha Sao Naw Kiao (qv)
    • Saopha Hsai Hkaw (qv)
    • Saopha Hsai Hpom (qv)
    • Saopha Sao Hsam (qv)
    • Saopha Sao Kham Mu (qv)
  • Saopha AI LAO, 16th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1474/1501, born 1452, died 1501.
  • Saopha SAO NAW KIAO, 17th Sawbwa of Kengtung1501/ca1503 (brother)
  • Saopha HSAI HKAW, 18th Sawbwa of Kengtung ca1503/15xx (brother)
  • Saopha HSAI HPOM, 19th Sawbwa of Kengtung (brother)
  • Saopha SAO HSAM, 20th Sawbwa of Kengtung (brother)
  • Saopha SAO KHAM MU, 21st Sawbwa of Kengtung 15xx/1523 (brother)
  • Hpaya Kiao Yot Fa Narenta, 22nd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1523/1560, he was a monk called to rule; married and had issue.
    • Saopha Sao Mong Hka [Ratana Pumminta Narinta[ (qv)
  • Saopha SAO MONG HKA, 23rd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1560/1598, born 1536, during his reign, the state was overrun by the forces from Lan Na Kingdom 1565/1570, married and had issue. He died 1598.
    • Saopha Sao Hkam Tao (qv)
    • Saopha Sao Mong Hkak (qv)
  • Saopha SAO HKAM TAO, 24th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1598/1600, he was killed in 1600.
  • Saopha SAO MONG HKAK, 25th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1620/1637, married and had issue.
    • Saopha Sao On (qv)
  • Saopha SAO ON, 26th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1637/1650
  • Saopha SAO IN HKAM, 27th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1650/-
  • Saopha SAO AWK, 28th Sawbwa of Kengtung
  • Saopha SAO MONG SAIK, 29th Sawbwa of Kengtung
  • Saopha SAO HSAM HPI, 30th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1682/1721, born 1654, died 1721.
  • Saopha SAO MONG TSIN, 31st Sawbwa of Kengtung 1721/1739, born 1662, died 1739.
  • Saopha MAUNG NYO, 32nd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1739/1749 (deposed and exiled), born 1706, originally from Yawnghwe, he was sent to rule Kengtung, by the King of Ava. He died 1750
  • Saopha SAO MÖNG HSAM Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 33rd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1750/1787, born 1744, married and had issue. He died 1787.
    • Saopha Sao Kawng Tai (qv)
    • Sao Mong Tsin
    • Sao Nang Ngow (f)
    • Sao Mong Lik
    • Sao Nang Kiao (f)
    • Sao Long Sang, later Saopha Sao Maha Hkanan (qv)
    • Sao Hsai Hsam
    • Sao Sai Hpom
    • Sao Nang Hkam Leng (f)
  • Saopha SAO KAWNG TAI Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 34th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1787/1813, born 1769, died 1813.
  • ADMINISTRATOR, Sao Mong Kang 1787/1790, he was killed in 1790.

  • Occupied by Chiangmai 1802/18xx
  • Occupied by Burma 18xx/1813
  • Saopha SAO MAHA HKANAN Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 35th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1813/1857, born 1781, married and had issue. He died 1857.
    • Saopha Sao Maha Hpom (qv)
    • Sao Hkam Hseng aka Saopha Sao Mong Mit (qv)
    • Sao Mong Lik
    • Sao Hsunanda (f)
    • Sao Hsuwanna (f)
    • Sao Mani Hkam
    • Sao Kawng Tai aka Sao Mong Keng Hkeng (qv)
  • Saopha SAO MAHA HPOM Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 36th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1857/1876, born 1814, died 1876.
  • Saopha SAO HKAM HSENG Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 37th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1876/1880, born 1818, married (possibly), a sister of HM King Mindon of Burma, and had issue. He died 1880.
  • Saopha SAO KAWNG TAI Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 38th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1880/1886 and Sawbwa of Keng Cheng, born 1829, married and had issue. He died 1886.
    • Sao Nang Hpom Pa (f)
    • Sao Nang Wen Tip (f)
    • Sao Nang (Princess) Tip Htila, along with her bother, she attended the Delhi Durbar, India in 1903, she was a shrewd and powerful businesswoman, involved in the sales of elephants and motor cars, and later in teak extraction and road-building; married 1stly (div.), the Saopha of Keng Hkam, married 2ndly, Sao Hong Hkam, and had issue.
      • Sao Long
    • Saopha Sao Kawn Kham Hpu Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja aka Sao Mom Hser (qv)
    • Saopha Sao Kawng Kiaw Intaleng Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja (qv)
    • Sao Nang Hkan Hkam (f), she died 1935.
  • Saopha SAO KAWNG HKAM HPU Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja [Sao Mom Hser], 39th Sawbwa of Kengtung 1886/1896, born 1874, died sp on 11th April 1896. 
    INTERREGNUM [11.4.1896] - [7.5.1896]
  • Saopha SAO KAWNG KIAO INTALENG Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja K.S.M., 40th Sawbwa of Kengtung [7.5.1896] - [21.7.1935], born 1873/1875, C.I.E. [cr.1918];  he attended the Delhi Durbar in 1903 with his first wife and sister in a party of Shan princes, and was granted a salute of 9 guns and a Gold Medal; later in 1905, he built a new palace in the Imperial Indian style at his capital, Kengtung; a popular and capable ruler, he abolished domestic slavery in the state; K.S.M. [cr.1901], married 1stly, Sao Nang Paduma, married 2ndly, Nang Fong, married 3rdly, Nang Bodiphlong, married 4thly, Nang Daeng, married 5thly, Nang Bunyong, married 6thly, Nang Bodipnoy, and had issue, 19 children. He died 21st July 1935.
    • Sao Tipa Sawn aka Debbakaison (f)(by Sao Nang Paduma), married Sao Hong Hkam, and had issue.
      • Sao Fonglai (f)
      • Sao Hsiha
    • Saopha Sao Hpromlue (by Sao Nang Paduma) (qv)
    • Saopha Sao Kawng Tai (by Nang Fong) (qv)
    • Sao Intra (by Nang Fong), he was adopted by Sao Chai, the Hsibaw Chief, married Nang Nyunt, and had issue.
      • Sao Shwe Lu
    • Sao Phapmong aka Sao Khunmong (by Nang Fong), married 1934, Sao Ohn Nyunt, a cousin of Saopha Sao Ohn Kya of Hsipaw, and had issue.
      • Sao Kan Gyi aka Tony, he died 5th April 1995.
      • Sao Khemawaddi aka Biddy
      • Sao Kan Kywe aka Sao Kawnkiao Intaleng aka Bunny, he died in December 1997.
      • Sao Khun Oo aka Tim.
      • Sao Singhadej Pengrai aka Sao Yan Paing aka Sydney aka Zoi
      • Sao Yan Naing aka Sao Sai Lek aka Sao Khunmong Noi aka Jerry, he died 2005.
    • Sao Bosvan (f)(by Nang Fong), she died in 1979.
    • Sao Fongkaeu (f)(by Nang Fong), she died in 1935.
    • Sao Khunsuk (by Nang Fong), born 1914, married 1stly, Grace, married 2ndly, Mom Htada, and had issue. He  died 1992.
      • Sao Razawong aka Gerald Mangrai (by Grace)
      • Khemarasami Khunsuk (f) (by Mom Htada)
      • Khemawade Chitradon (f) (by Mom Htada)
      • Sao Sai (by Mom Htada)
    • Sao Nang Vaenkaeu (f)(by Nang Bodiphlong), born 1903, married 1921 (as his first wife), Sao Hkun Sao, later Saopha Sao Hkun Hsa Kambawsa Yamta Maha Thiriwuntha Thudhamma Yaza, Sawbwa of Lawksawk, and had issue, two sons and four daughters. She died 1st May 1947.
    • Sao Nang Suvannagandha (f)(by Nang Bodiphlong), born 1906, married in December 1932, Chao Intanond, a son of the Chiang Mai Chief, and had issue (see Thailand - Chiangmai).
    • Sao Nang Vaendip (f)(by Nang Bodiphlong), born 1912, married 1933, the Sawbwa of Hsenwi.
    • Sao Singjeyyaraj aka Sao Singzai (by Nang Bodiphlong), born 1918, married Daw Tin Tin Mya, and had issue. He died 1982.
      • Sao Win aka Matilda aka Kiaomani (f)
      • Sao Hom Noan aka Audrey
      • Sao Hom aka Rachael
      • Sao Kham Zai
      • Sao Noan Hom aka Patricia, she died 2004.
      • Sao Umphai aka  Cecilia
    • Sao Kaeumamong aka Sao Kiaomurng (by Nang Bodiphlong), born 8th July 1920, married 4th May 1944, Sao Sein Mya, born 19th August 1924, and has issue, three sons and two daughters.
      • Sao Santasiri aka Awt (m)
      • Sao Sulamani aka Noom (m)
      • Sao Phong Noan aka Dong (f)
      • Sao Phong Keau aka Ouie (f)
      • Sao Kiaomurng Noi aka Noi (m)
    • Sao Sāimöng [Sao Sāimöng Mangrāi] (by Nang Daeng), born 13th November 1913, he was a government minister in Burma soon after independence; he was also a scholar, historian and linguist; at an early age he was sent to Bangkok to become a novice monk at the Wat Thepsarin, but later was recalled and sent to the Shan Chiefs' School in Taunggyi, then educated at Rangoon University, and the University of London till 1940; served with the British Army during WWII; served as Chief Education Officer for the Shan and Kayah States in the Union of Burma; he was imprisoned by General Ne Win from 1962 to 1968, after which, he settled in Taunggyi and was ordained as a monk in a Kengtung Monastery in 1969;Author of The Shan States and the British Annexation. Cornell University, Cornell, 1965; 2nd ed., 1969; The Pādaeng Chronicle and the Jengtung State Chronicle Translated. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1981; married 1942, Daw Mi Mi Khaing of Mon ancestry, born 1916, died 15th March 1990, a Burmese scholar and writer who authoured numerous books and articles on life in Burma during the 20th century, she is one of the first women to write in English about Burmese culture and traditions; educated in British schools; she established Kambawza College in Taunggyi and served as its principle; author of the following books:- Burmese Family (1946, 1962), Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 1962, Cook and Entertain the Burmese Way (1978), Karoma Publishers, 1978, The World of Burmese Women (1984), London, Zed Press, 1984, and articles:- People of the Golden Land: Burmese Character and Customs, The Atlantic. February 1958, and "Burmese Names: A Guide", The Atlantic, February 1958; and had issue, four children. He died 14th July 1987.
      • Sao (name unknown), died in infancy.
      • Sao Ying Noi aka Yin Yin Nwe Mangrāi
      • Sao Thi Thi Ta aka Ta Ta Nwe Mangrāi
      • Sao Khaimong aka Khai Mangrāi
    • Sao Nang Canfong aka Sao Sanphong (f)(by Nang Daeng), married 1stly, 1943, Khun Naru Seniwong, married 2ndly, 1959, U Chit Hlaing, and had issue (by first marriage). She died in 1996.
    • Sao Fongnon (f) (by Nang Bunyong)
    • Sao Bunvadvongsa aka Sao Boonwaat (by Nang Bunyong), married 1stly, Nang Boe Lio, married 2ndly, 1949, Nang Lao Herng, and had issue. He died in May 1991.
      • Sao Noot aka Susan (by Nang Boe Lio)
      • Sao Sai Boonwaat (by Nang Lao Herng)
      • Sao Leik Boonwaat (by Nang Lao Herng)
      • Sao Leng Boonwaat (by Nang Lao Herng)
      • Sao Let Boonwaat (by Nang Lao Herng)
    • Sao Nang Hnot aka Bonon aka Mrs. Joe Huffman (f)(by Nang Bodipnoy)
    • Sao Yodmong aka Sao Yawtmong (by Nang Bodipnoy), married Nang Kham Leng, and had issue.
      • Sao Srirut
      • Sao Khema Wong
      • Sao Dait
      • Sao Wan Wai Interuck aka Nang Nang
  • Saopha SAO KAWNG TAI Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 41st Sawbwa of Kengtung [21.7.1935] - [xx.8.1935], Prince of Hsen Mong, born 1895, married Sao Nang Kya Nyunt, and had issue. He died 1935.
    • Sao Nang Papawaddi aka Sao Noot
    • Sao Sai, he died in Hsipaw.
    • Saopha Sao Sai Long aka Sao Diraraj (qv)
    • Sao Eindumadi aka Vera aka Sao Noom, born 31st May 1931, died 10th August 2002.
    • Sao Sai Noi
  • Saopha SAIMÖNG Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, Regent of Burma 1935/1942
  • Saopha SAO HPROMLUE, 42nd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1942/1945, born 1895, he was appointed the Sawbwa by the Thai King; married Sao Teppawan, and had issue.
    • Chao Twi (f)
    • Chao No
    • Chao Warradait
    • Chao Vorachak-Asaripon
    • Chao Vilai (f)
    • Chao Hom Naun (f)
  • Saopha SAO SAI LONG Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja, 43rd Sawbwa of Kengtung 1945/1962 and 1987/1997, born 1927, educated in Australia. He died in September 1997 in Yangon.
The help of John Duncan McMeekin, is gratefully acknowledged, July 2014.
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