VUNIVALU of BAU (Title)

 
LOCATION: Fiji (Bau-Tailevu) TITLE: Vunivalu of Bau
DYNASTY: Cakobau
PRESENT TITLE HOLDER: Vacant from 1989 (Bau Island, Tailevu, Fiji)
There are THREE eligible candidates for the title.
  • Lt.-Col. Ratu GEORGE KADAVULEVU NAULIVOU, son of Ratu TEVITA NAULIVOU (1906-1984)
  • Lt. Hon. Sen. Ratu GEORGE CAKOBAU, son of Ratu George Kadavulevu Cakobau (1912-1989)
  • Ratu EPENISA CAKOBAU, brother of above.
PREDECESSORS AND SHORT HISTORY: The Turaga na Vunivalu ni Bau is the Paramount Chief of the Kubuna Confederacy, which belongs to the Tui Kaba clan based on Bau Island, and is generally considered to be the highest chiefly title in Fiji. The succession to the title does not follow primogeniture, but the candidate must be a high ranking member of the Tui Kaba clan. The Vunivalu when installed, also takes the title of Tui Levuka, as he is the traditional leader of the Levuka people of Lakeba, Lau. The wife of the Vunivalu is titled Radini Levuka. Title holders were...
  • Ratu Nailatikau, 2nd Vunivalu of Bau -/1770
  • Ratu Banuve Baleivavalagi, 3rd Vunivalu of Bau 1770/1803, married four wives, 1stly, Adi Davila, sp, married 2ndly, Roko Lewasaki (Rewa), married 3rdly, Adi Miriami Dabuli, married 4thly, Litia from Lakeba, and had issue. He died February 1803.
    • Ratu Naulivou Ramatenikutu (by Roko Lewasaki) (qv)
    • Ratu Tanoa Visawaqa (by Roko Lewasaki) (qv)
    • Adi Davila (by Roko Lewasaki)
    • Ratu Caucau (by Adi Dabuli), married Adi Vuniwaqa, and had issue.
      • Ratu Nayaqodamu
      • Adi Titila Marama
      • Adi Litia Vatea, born 1824, married Ratu Namosimalua, died 1852. She died 1855.
      • Adi Tatila
    • Ratu Ramudra (by Adi Dabuli), married Adi Kubunawere, and had issue.
      • Adi Toro
      • Ratu Kalevu Vosalevu
      • Adi Davila
    • Ratu Vuibureta (by Litia), married Adi Mere Veisaca, and had issue.
      • Ratu Kamasese Mara Tuimacilai Kapaiwai, born 1815/1820, Bauan chief and rebel, he was executed by his cousin Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau; married Adi Loaloakubou (see below), and had issue. He died 8th June 1859.
        • Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi, born 1859 in Suva, 1st Roko Tui Ra [cr.1896], Roko Tui Tailevu 1912/ca1915, after joining the Audit Office as a clerk at an early age, he worked his way up through the civil service. He held the posts of Roko Tui Ra and Roko Tui Tailevu in the Colonial Native Administration, married 1886, Adi Litiana Maopa, born 1864, dau of Ratu Tevita Uluilakeba, Tui Nayau, she died May 1933, and had issue. He died December 1920.
          • Ratu Sir Josefa Lalabalavu Vana'ali'ali Sukuna, born 22nd April 1888 in Bau, 2nd Tui Lau 1938/1958, K.B.E. [cr.1946], C.B.E. [cr.1939], in his time, he was regarded as a credible contender for the title of Tui Viti; he was educated privately by Rev. Charles Andrew, and at Wanganui Collegiate School in New Zealand, he joined the civil service as a fifth class clerk in 1907, became assistant master of the Lakeba school and also became visiting examiner at Queen Victoria School and Levuka Public School in 1909; he entered Wadham College, Oxford in 1913 to study history, graduating in 1918; during World War I, he joined the French Foreign Legion being awarded the Croix de Guerre, after which he proceeded to the Middle Temple in London, and by 1921 had graduated with both a B.A. and an LL.B. degree (becoming the first-ever Fijian to receive a university degree), he was instrumental in establishing the Native Land Trust Board, and was appointed the first Speaker of the Legislative Council in 1954; married 1stly, 1928, Adi Maraia Vosawale, born 17th March 1903 in Bau, M.B.E., died 1st August 1956, married 2ndly, 1950, Adi Maca Likutabua, born 1934, died 2000, daughter of Roko Lenaitasi Gucake. He died spl 30th May 1958.
          • Adi Asenaca Teimumu Vuikaba, born 1890, Ratu Tomasi Suguvanua Latianara, Tui Nokoro, and had issue.
          • Ratu Tiali Wimbledon Thomas Vuiyasawa, born 1895 in Nakelo, Tailevu; Roko Tui Lomaiviti, married Adi Merewalesi Navuda, and had issue.
            • Ratu Jone Tabaiwalu Vuiyasawu, born 1941, died 1968.
            • Ratu Penaia Kadavulevu Vuiyasawu, born 8th December 1943, died 22nd June 1987.
            • Adi Litia Tavanavanua Vuiyasawu, born 10th August 1945, died 7th April 1993.
            • Ratu Epeli Naganilau Tainawai Vuiyasawu, born 4th April 1947, married 1stly, Losana Koroi, died 2001 in Sacramento, U.S.A., married 2ndly, 28th August 2010 in California, Reyama Talatoka Natakeleniwaqalevu of Vuda.. (U.S.A.)
            • Ratu Ilaitia Kitu Matanimeke Vuiyasawu, born 19th October 1949, married Adi Lagamu Lewaturaga Baledrokadroka (married 2ndly, Ratu Inoke Takiveikata, 8th Qaranivalu of Naitasiri), daughter of Ratu Alipate Baledrokadroka, Turaga Taukei ni Waluvu, and had issue. He died 4th March 1991.
          • Adi Kacaraini Loaloakubou, married Ratu Kitione Lalakomacoi, and had issue.
            • Adi Lady Asilina Davila, married (as his second wife), 1975, Ratu Penaia Kanatabatu Ganilau, Tui Cakau.
          • Ratu Dr. Joni Antonio Rabici Doviverata, born 1906 in Nakelo, Tailevu; married Adi Losalini Raravuya Uluiviti of Nairai, the first women to become a member of Fiji's Legislative Council and subsequently a Member of Parliament; and had issue.
            • Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi, born 1957, Vice President of Fiji 2004/2006, installed as Roko Tui Bau on 11th November 1995, educated at Adelaide University, Australia (Law) and McGill University, Canada (Master's Degree), former Justice of the High Court 1997/2000, Director of Fiji Times Ltd., he is also a human rights commissioner and former chairman of the Citizens Constitutional Forum, married 5th December 1998 in Bau, Adi Lusiana Paluvavau Qolikoro [Tuivanuavou], daughter of Ratu Edward Kikau Tuivanuavou, and his wife, Adi Sainimili Rokolewasau Uluilakeba.
            • Ratu Timoci Tavanaua
            • Adi Viviana Sophia Veisaca
            • Adi Litiana Maopa
          • Ratu Timoci Tavanavanua, born 1908 in Nakelo, Tailevu.
        • Adi Mere Tuisalala, married Friedrich Wilhelm Hennings, and had issue.
      • Adi Senirewa, married Ratu Lote Cagawalu and had issue.
        • Adi Salanieta, married Ratu Joni Colata, brother of the Roko Tui Ra, and had issue.
  • Ratu Naulivou Ramatenikutu, 4th Vunivalu of Bau 1803/1829, married 1stly, Adi Talatoka, daughter of Ratu Yavalu, 4th Tui Cakau, (she married 2ndly, Ratu Tanoa Visawaqa, see below), married 2ndly, Adi Kawanavere of the Vusaradave of Bau, and had issue. He died 1829. 
    • Ratu Ravulo (by Adi Talatoka)
    • Adi Liku Qoliwasawasa (by Adi Kawanavere), married Roko Banuve, Roko Tui Dreketi Rewa, died June 1845, and had issue. She died after 1845.
      • Ro Adi Saunalewa, married Ro Peceli Musudroka, Vunivalu of Rewa, and had issue.
  • Ratu Tanoa Visawaqa, 5th Vunivalu of Bau 1829/1832 and 1837/1852, married 9 wives (6 of whom were strangled to death in December 1852), 1stly, Adi Talatoka, daughter of Ratu Yavalu, 4th Tui Cakau, (married 1stly, Ratu Naulivou Ramatenikutu, see above), married 2ndly, Adi Savusavu, married 3rdly, Adi Qereitoga from Rewa, married 4thly, Adi Vulase from Vuda, married 5thly, Adi Manakilagi from Koro, married 6thly, Adi Reki, married 7thly, an unknown lady, married 8thly, Vulaono, married 9thly, Litia Vereivalu of Gau, and had issue, twelve children. He died 8th December 1852.
    • Ratu Dranibaka (by Adi Talataoka), married Adi Gaveica, and had issue.
      • Ratu Lalabalavu
    • Adi Loaloakubou (by Adi Talatoka), married 1stly, Ratu Gavidi of Lasakau, married 2ndly, Ratu Kamisese Mara Tuimacilai Kapaiwai (see above), and had issue. She died 1875.
    • Ratu Epenisa Seru Cakobau (by Adi Savusavu) (qv)
    • Adi Vani Cecere (by Adi Qereitoga), married Ratu T. Toroca, and had issue.
      • Ratu Joni Qolata
      • Adi Alisi Qalirea
    • Ratu Doviverata (by Adi Qereitoga)
    • Ratu Sake (by Adi Vulase), married 1stly, Adi Vakasalele, married 2ndly, Adi Siteri from Vuda, and had issue.
      • Ratu Qiodravu (by Adi Vakasalele)
      • Adi Vakasalabu (by Adi Vakasalele)
      • Adi Motea (by Adi Vakasalele)
      • Ratu Joni Radrodro (by Adi Siteri)
    • Adi Masivesi (by Adi Manakilagi), married Ratu Tuivavalagi, and had issue.
      • Adi Una
      • Adi Vasemaca
      • Adi Vakadaca
      • Ratu Laoaloadra
      • Adi Akanisi
    • Adi Merevesi (by Adi Manakilagi)
    • Ratu Kubuanavua (by Adi Reki), married Adi Lupe from Tonga, and had issue.
      • Adi Kakua, married Ratu Sowani, and had issue.
        • Adi Funaki, married Ratu Penaia Kadavulevu, Roko Tui Tailevu, and had issue (see below).
    • Adi Kainona (by the unnamed 7th wife), married Ratu Saketa, Tui Suva, and had issue.
      • Ratu Ravulo, Tui Suva, married Adi Elenoa Mila, and had issue.
    • Ratu Savenaca (by Vulaono), married Adi Titilia, and had issue.
      • Adi Babokola
      • Adi Litia
      • Ratu Tevita
      • Adi Veniani
      • Ratu W. Tuivanuavou
    • Ratu Loaloadravu Tubuanakoro (by Vereivalu), married Adi Vakadadakula Moce, and had issue. He died vp 1832.
      • Ratu Vuniyani Vukinamualevu, Roko Tui Ba 1883/1888, married Adi Alisi Coniqaqalirea from Macuata, and had issue. He died 18th August 1888.
        • Adi Mere Bulitaudua (by Adi Alisi), born 1857, married 3rd April 1883, Thomas Fowler Pickering, and had issue.
          • Ella Pickering
          • Ratu Are Pickering
          • Adi Kelera Ida Elvira Pickering
          • Ratu Vuki Ernest Pickering
          • Eric Hillman Pickering
          • Thomas William Pickering, born 4th November 1893.
        • Ratu Masivesi (by Adi Alisi)
        • Ratu Joni Tabaiwalu, born 1870, married and had issue. He died 1938.
          • Ratu Apenisa Serua Cakobau, married and had issue.
            • Adi Viniana Tuirewa
            • Ratu Jone Tabaiwalu
            • Adi Alisi Qalirea
          • Ratu Joni Tabaiwalu
          • Ratu Josefa Tubuanakoro, born 1st August 1916.
        • Adi Florie, married 1898, Ro Joni Cure Mataitini, Vunivalu of Rewa. She died 1905.
      • Ratu T. Vakarotosasa
      • Adi Vulori
      • Ratu Joni Tabaiwalu
      • Ratu Josefa Celua
      • Adi Kawanavere
  • Ratu Navuaka Komainaqaranikula Tui Veikoso 1832/1837
  • Ratu Epenisa Seru CakobauRatu Epenisa Seru Cakobau [King Cakobau], 1st and last Tui Viti (King of Fiji) 1871/1874, 6th Vunivalu of Bau 1852/1883, President of the General Assembly, Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti 1865/1867, 1st and last Tui Bau 1867/1869, born 1815 in Lakeba, converted to Christianity in 1854, taking the name of Epenisa (Ebenezer); a Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti was established in 1865, with him as Chairman of the General Assembly, in 1869 the confederacy split into the Kingdom of Bau and the Confederation of Lau, with Cakobau assuming kingship of the former, he succeeded in creating a united Fijian kingdom in 1871, and established Levuka as his capital, he ceded the Fijian islands to Britain in October 1874 to counter a perceived American threat of annexation; married 1stly, Adi Litia Samanunu, daughter of the Roko Tui Bau, married 2ndly, Adi Salote Qalirea Kaunilotuna, sister of the first wife, and had issue. He died February 1883.
    • Adi Arieta Kuila (by Adi Litia), born 1840 in Bau, married 1857, Ratu Timoci Vakaruru, 3rd Qaranivalu of Naitasiri, born 1832 in Navuso, died 1872, and had issue. She died 1887.
    • Ratu Epeli Nailatikau (by Adi Litia), (qv)
    • Adi Asenaca Kakua Vuikaba (by Adi Litia), born 1844, married 1863, Ratu Tevita Uluilakeba III, 8th Roko Sau of the Lau Islands (see Tui Nayau), died 1876 and had issue. 
    • Ratu Timoci TavanavanuaRatu Timoci Tavanavanua (by Adi Litia), born 1847, Minister for War and Police; Roko Tui Dreketi 1874/1888; married 1stly, Adi Tupouto'a, died 28th November 1918, daughter of Hon. Inoke Matafonuafotu Veikune (son of the Governor of Vava'u in Tonga), and his wife, Hon. Pauline Lupe, married 2ndly, Adi Kelera Rokovedro from the Batitobe sub-clan of the Vunivalu clan, and had issue. He died 1888.
      • Adi Litia Cakobau (by Adi Tupoutoa), born 1876, married Ratu Peni Tanoa, 3rd Qaranivalu of Naitasiri, but separated shortly thereafter, and had issue by HM King George Tupou II of Tonga. She died 6th December 1952 in Bau.
        • Ratu Edward Tuivanuavou Tungi Cakobau, born 21st December 1908, Roko Tui Tailevu 1955/1973, Deputy Prime Minister of Fiji 1970/-; commanded the Fijian Battalion in World War II, married Adi Vasemaca Tuiburelevu, died March 2001, buried 23rd March 2001 at Nausori, daughter of Rat Ilaijia Toroca, and his wife, Adi Seini Vakaoca, and had issue, he had further issue by Laisa Kaukiono Fonolahi, daughter of Reverend Viliame Fonolahi, and his wife, Setaita Wea Miller. He died 25th June 1973.
          • Ratu Epeli Nailatikau, Na Turaga Mai Naisogolaca, born 5th July 1941 in Levuka, Deputy Prime Minister, Speaker of the House of Representatives 2001/-, Chairman of the Parliamentary Appropriations Committee and of the House Committee, educated at Bau District School, Draiba Fijian School, Levuka Public School and Queen Victoria School, entered military service and rose through the ranks to Brigadier-General, and was the Commander of the Royal Fiji Military Forces. After the first coup, he retired from the Army and joined the diplomatic service, he was appointed High Commissioner to the United Kingdom and accredited as Fiji's Ambassador to Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Israel and the Holy See, later appointed as Fiji's Roving Ambassador and High Commissioner to the member states of the South Pacific Forum, before taking up a post as Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs and External Trade in 1999. After the second coup, he became Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Fijian Affairs in the interim Cabinet, Speaker of the House of Representatives 2001/-, appointed the UNAIDS Special Representative for the Pacific, married 1981, Adi Koila Mara, born 1953, Member of Parliament, Cabinet Minister and Senator, daughter of Rt. Hon. Ratu Sir Kamisese Kapaiwai Tuimacilai Mara, 3rd Tui Lau, 7th Tui Nayau, and his wife, Ro Adi Lady Lalabalavu Litia Katoafutoga Tuisawau, Roko Tui Dreketi, and has issue.
            • Ratu Kamisese Vuna Nailatikau
            • Adi Litia Cakobau Nailatikau
          • Ratu Tu'uakitau George Cokanauto, born 5th June 1945, appointed on 19th July 2000 as Minister for Local Government,  Housing and the Environment in the Cabinet of Interim Prime Minister Qarase, Director of the Native Land Trust Board, married 1stly Taraivosa, married 2ndly, Adi Sainimili Rokolewasau Uluilakeba, (married 1stly, 28th January 1970, Ratu Edward Kikau Tuivanuavou), daughter of Tevita Uluilakeba, and Silipa Raikoro. and has issue, as well as further issue by Rebekah Ward.
            • Adi Litia Vuikaba Tuiburelevu (by Rebekah), born 16th November 1994.
          • Ratu Keni Vuiyasawa
          • Ratu Viliame Foukimoana Dreunimisimisi (by Laisa), born 7th June 1937 in Mualevu, married Akanisi Vunitiko, daughter of Jekope Serukalou, and has issue, two sons and three daughters.
            • Adi Tupoutu'a Dreunimisimisi, born 1970.
            • Ratu Enele Ma'afu'otu'itonga 
            • Adi Mitimiti Dreunimisimisi, born 1972.
            • Adi Lusiana Dreunimisimisi, born 1974.
            • Ratu Edward Tuivanuavou Tungi Tevita 'Unga Cakobau
      • Adi Teimumu Vuikaba (by Adi Tupoutoa), married 1903, Ratu Lutunauga Bativuaka Tuisawau, Roko Tui Dreketi, and had issue. She died 1945.
      • Ratu Nailatikau Cakobau (by Adi Tupoutoa), died 1892.
      • Ratu Eparama Mateilevuka (by Adi Tupoutoa), married and had issue.
        • Ratu Kitione Kida
        • Ratu Jone Ragogo
        • Adi Lavenia Motea
      • Adi Tupou Cakobau (by Adi Tupoutoa), married and had issue.
        • Misioka
        • Watia
        • Jimi
      • Adi Finau Cakobau (by Adi Tupoutoa), married and had issue.
        • Ratu Luke
        • Adi Litia Waqainaweni
      • Adi Seini Vakaoca (by Adi Tupoutoa), married Ratu Ilaijia Toroca, and had issue.
      • Ratu Ilaitia Matanimeke (by Adi Kelera), married and had issue.
        • Adi Kakua
        • Ratu Konile Rabici
        • Ratu Josefa Tabakaucoro
    • Ratu Josefa Celua (by Adi Litia), married Adi Mere Kulabui and had issue. He died 1886.
      • Ratu Epeli Popi Seniloli (qv)
    • Ratu Sukuna Vana (by Adi Salote)
    • Ratu Viliame Bulu (by Adi Salote)
    • Adi Lusiana Qolikoro (by Adi Salote)
  • Ratu Epeli Nailatikau 1883/1901, born 1842, Roko Tui Tailevu, never installed as the 7th Vunivalu of Bau, but posthumously recognized as such, married 1stly, Adi Kelera (Na Baubau), married 2ndly, Adi Nanise, married 3rdly, Adi Koila, and had issue. He died 1901.
    • Ratu F. L. Temesia (by Adi Kelera)
    • Ratu Etuate Wainiu (by Adi Kelera), married and had issue.
      • Adi Kelera, married and had issue.
        • Adi Miriama Vireti
    • Ratu Penaia Kadavulevu (by Adi Nanise) (qv)
    • Ratu Tuisavura
    • Adi Lagilagi
    • Adi Ateca Moceiwaqa, married Ratu Alifereti Finau, Tui Nayau, died April 1934, and had issue.
  • Ratu Penaia Kadavulevu 1901/1914, Roko Tui Tailevu -/1912, never officially installed as the 8th Vunivalu of Bau, but posthumously generally recognized as such; Member of the Legislative Council of Fiji; Captain of the Fijiian cricket team; married Adi Funaki, daughter of Ratu Sowani, and his wife, Adi Kakua (daughter of Ratu Kubuanavua, see above), and had issue. He died 1914.
    • Adi Litia Tavanavanua, born 5th September 1900 in Navuso, married 1920, Ratu Epeli Gavidi Ganilau, and had issue (see Tui Cakau). She died 1983/1985.
  • Ratu Epeli Popi Seniloli 1914/1936, never officially installed as the 9th Vunivalu of Bau, but posthumously generally recognized as such, born 1883, Roko Tui Tailevu ca1915/-, married Adi Torika Kainona, daughter of Ratu Isoa Gavidi of Cakaudrove, and had issue. He died 13th October 1936.
    • Ratu Tevita Naulivou (qv)
    • Ratu Sir George Kadavulevu Cakobau (qv)
    • Adi Tirisiani Daucakacaka
  • Ratu Tevita Naulivou 1936/1957, never officially installed as the 10th Vunivalu of Bau, but posthumously generally recognized as such, born 30th November 1906, married 1stly, Adi Kelera Uluibatiki, married 2ndly, Seini Sauvou Balekiwai, born 11th November 1926, daughter of Vilikesa Balekiwai, and his wife, Adi Sereana Tolanivutu Toganivalu, and had issue. He died 1984.
    • Ratu Eliki Liceni Tikoidraubuta (by Adi Kelera), born 1927, Roko Tui, married, and had issue, three sons and three daughters.
    • Ratu George Kadavulevu Naulivou (by Adi Sereana), born 18th November 1948 in Nanukuloa, married Sereana Tinaidaniva Berwick, daughter of Samuel Lawrence Berwick, and his wife, Adi Tokasa Lewamoqe.
    • Adi Cakaunivalu (Cockburn) (by Adi Sereana)
    • Adi Ane Banuve (by Adi Sereana)
    • Adi Vasemaca Loatuicana (Adi Sereana)
  • Ratu Sir George Kadavulevu Cakobau, 11th Vunovalu of Bau 1957/1989, K.St.J. [1973], G.C.M.G. [cr.1973], G.C.V.O. [cr.1977], O.B.E. [cr.1953], Royal Victorian Chain [1982], Tui Levuka, 2nd Governor General of Fiji [13.1.1973] - [12.2.1983], born 6th November 1912, educated at Queen Victoria School, Fiji, Newington College, Australia and Wanganui Technical College, NZ. Served during WWII 1939/45, Captain, Fiji Military Forces. Member of the Council of Chiefs 1938/1972; Member of the Legislative Council 1951/1970; Minister for Fijian Affairs and Local Government 1970/1971; Minister without Portfolio 1971/1972, retired from office in 1983, married 1stly, 1937, Adi Veniana Gavoka, Radini Levuka, daughter of Ratu Inoke Mara, Roko Tui Namata, and his wife, Adi Alisi, married 2ndly, 1956, Lady Adi Lelea Seruwaia Balekiwai, daughter of Vilikesa Balekiwai, and his wife, Adi Sereana Tolanivutu Toganivalu, and had issue. He died 25th November 1989.
    • Adi Samanunu Cakobau-Talakuli (by 1st marriage), born 1940, High Chief of Tailevu, High Commissioner to Malaysia, Minister for Fijian Affairs and Regional Development 1994/95, Chairperson of the Great Council of Chiefs 1994/95.
    • Adi Litia Cakobau (by 1st marriage), she was appointed to the Senate in 2001, as one of nine nominees of the Fijian government.
    • Ratu George Cakobau (by 1st marriage), a Fijian Chief, and Senator since 2001, prominent candidate for the position of Vunivalu of Bau.
    • Adi Salote Kaunilotuma Cakobau (by 2nd marriage)
    • Ratu Epenisa Cakobau (by 2nd marriage), President of the Matanitu Vanua Conservative Alliance Party of Fiji.
    • Ratu Josefa Celua Cakobau (by 2nd marriage)
    • Ratu Tanoa Visawaqa Cakobau (by 2nd marriage), born 12th May 1969 in Suva, President of the Conservative Alliance.
1. The help of Mrs. Seruwaia Sanday is gratefully acknowledged, March 2008.
2. The help of Ratu Kinijioji Cama is gratefully acknowledged, April 2008.
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SOURCE: 1. Men of Mana, by Kathleen Hancock.
SOURCE: 2. Matanitu the struggle for power in early Fiji by David Routledge 1985 – published by the Institute of Pacific studies and the University of the South Pacific Fiji, Chapter 2 Struggle between the Chiefs 1760 to 1842 Page 40,56
SOURCE 3. Tukutuku Raraba – History of Bau – Chapter 1 Page 1, records tabulated by the Native Lands and Fisheries Commission.