TEXCOCO (Altepetl)


Title: Tlatoani Religion: Nahua
State: Mexico POPULATION: ~24,000 (pre-conquest)
 
Predecessors and Short History: Texcoco was situated on the eastern bank of Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico, to the northeast of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan. It was founded in the 12th century, probably by the Chichimecs; around 1337, the Acolhua, with Tepanec help, expelled the Chichimecs, and Texcoco became the Acolhua capital city, taking over that role from Coatlinchan. It became a member of the Aztec Triple Alliance, which was formed on 13th March 1428, and afterwards it became a cultural centre and the second most important city within the Aztec Empire. They were a sister culture of the Aztecs (or Mexica) group of people, but it is thought likely that the ruling family of the Acolhua were descended from Otomi speakers and did not speak Nahuatl until decreed by their ruler, Tlatoani Techotlalatzin. Rulers were...
  • Tlatoani XOLOTL, Tlatoani of Tenayucan 1115/1232 (traditional) or 1250/1283, son of Tlomocoztli; supreme leader of the Chichimeca and ruler of Tenayucan, married and had issue.
    • Tlatoani Nopaltzin (qv)
    • Princess Cuetlaxochitzin, possibly married Tlatoani Maxtlacozcatl (Matlacohuatl), Tlatoani of Azcapotzalco.
  • Tlatoani NOPALTZIN, Tlatoani of Tenayucan 1232/1263 or 1283/1315, married and had issue.
    • Tlatoani Tlotzin Pochotl (qv)
    • Prince Tenencacaltzin, married and had issue.
      • Princess Cuetlaxochitzin, married Tlatoani Aculnahuacatl [Acolnahuacatzin], Tlatoani of Azcapotzalco, and had issue.
  • Tlatoani TLOTZIN, Tlatoani of Tenayucan 1263/1298 or 1315/1351, married and had issue.
    • Tlatoani Quinatzin II Tlaltecatzin, 1st Tlatoani of Texcoco (qv)
  • Tlatoani QUINATZIN II Tlaltecatzin, 1st Tlatoani of Texcoco 1298/1357 or 1351/1380, he transferred the capital to Texcoco, married and had issue.
    • Tlatoani Techotlalatzin (qv)
  • Tlatoani TECHOTLALATZIN, 2nd Tlatoani of Texcoco 1357/1409 or 1380/1409, he was the first ruler of the Acolhua who actively adopted the prevailing culture of the Valley of Mexico, including the Nahuatl language, he was able to build a small Acolhua-dominated altepetl on the eastern side of Lake Texcoco, married and had issue. He died in 1409.
    • Tlatoani Ixtlilxochitl Ome Tochtli [Ixtlixochitl I] (qv)
  • Tlatoani IXTLIXOCHITL I, 3rd Tlatoani of Texcoco 1409/1419, he was forced to continue paying tribute to the powerful Tepanec city of Azcapotzalco and its ruler, Tezozomoc; in 1414, he took the title Chichimeca Tecuhtli (Lord of the Chichimecs) and urged the Mexica to ally with him against Azcapotzalco, who eventually sent a large army against him, and were repulsed, he took the battle to Azcapotzalco, and besieged it for several months, but was unable to take the city, he lifted the siege, and returned to Texcoco, later the Tepanec forces, again laid siege to Texcoco this time driving him out, and cornering him in the foothills of Mount Tlaloc, where he was killed, married 1stly, Princess Matlazahuatzin (Matlalcihuatzin), daughter of Tlatoani Huitzilhiutl II of Tenochtitlan, and his fourth wife, Queen Tetzihuatzin, married 2ndly, Princess Tecpaxochitl, daughter of Tlatoani Tezozomoc, ruler of Azcapotzalco, married 3rdly, Princess Quetzalcihuatzin, and had issue. He died 1419.
    • Tlatoani Nezahualcoyōtl Acolmiztli (by Princess Matlazahuatzin) (qv)
    • Princess Tozquentzin (by Princess Matlazahuatzin)
    • Prince Xiconecatzin (by Princess Tecpaxochitl)
    • Prince Yancuiltzin (by Princess Tecpaxochitl)
    • Prince Tzontecochatzin
    • Prince Cuauhtlehuantzin
    • Prince Ixhuitzcatocatzin
    • Princess Izquixochitzin, married Tlacateotl, Tlatoani of Tlatelolco.
    INTERREGNUM 1419/1431, conquered by Tezozomoc, a Tepanec ruler of Azcapotzalco
  • Tlatoani NEZAHUALCOYŌTL, 4th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1431/1472, born 28th April 1402, he had to go into exile to Huexotzinco in 1419 and then in 1422 to Tenochtitlan, when Texcoco was overrun by the Tepanec ruler, later allying himself in 1428, with the rulers of other city-states, including Tenochtitlan, Tlacopan, Tlatelolco, Huexotzingo, Tlaxcala and Chalco, the combined forces defeated the Tepanec ruler and he was finally crowned Tlatoani of Texcoco in 1431, he was revered as a sage and poet-king and is credited with cultivating what came to be known as Texcoco's Golden Age, which brought the rule of law, scholarship and artistry to the city and set high standards that influenced other cultures, he also established an academy of music, and is also considered one of the great designers and architects of the pre-Hispanic era, he is said to have personally designed the "Dyke of Nezahualcoyotl" that was still in use over a century after his death; married 1stly, Princess Azcalxochitzin, daughter of Temictzin, a Mexica noble, married 2ndly, Princess Itzpapalotzin, daughter of Tezozomoc, married (a), Princess Matlalcihuatzin [Matlaltzinhuatzin of Tlacopan], married (b), Princess Nezahualxochitzin, married (d), Princess Tenancacihuatzin, married (e), Princess Huitzilxochitzin, married (f), Princess Temietzin, and had issue, 110 children. He died 4th June 1472.
    • generation
      • generation
        • Don Juan Bautista de Pomar, born 1535 at Texcoco, he learned Aztec tradition from his mother and was bilingual, he spoke and wrote in both Spanish and Nahuatl, died 1590.
    • Prince Acapipioltzin Tlacoxtecuhtli [Acamapipioltzin] (by Matlaltzinhuatzin)
    • Prince Acapipioltzin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin)
    • Prince Azcatlxochitl (by Temietzin)
    • Prince Azoquentzin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin) *
    • Prince Axoquentzin (by Huitziloxochitzin) *
    • Prince Axoquentzin (by Nezahualxochitzin)
    • Prince Ecahuehuetzin [Hecahuehuetzin] (by Matlaltzinhuatzin)
    • Prince Eyahue (by Matlaltzinhuatzin)
    • Prince Huetzin
    • Prince Hecahuehuetzin [Huecahuehuetzin] (by Nezahualxochitzin) *
    • Prince Ichuantlatohuatzin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin) *
    • Prince Ichuantlatohuatzin [Ichantlatoatzin/Ichautlatoatzin] (by Nezahualxochitzin) *
    • Prince Izelcoatzin
    • Princess Moquihuitzin
    • Prince Moteixcahuia [Cuauhtlehuantzin/Quauhtlehuanitzin]
    • Prince Moxiuhtlacuilzin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin)
    • Princess (name unknown) (by Matlaltzinhuatzin), married the Lord of Otumba.
    • Princess (name unknown), married, Tlatoani Moquihuix, Tlatoani off Tlatelolco.
    • Tlatoani Nezahualpilzintli Acamapichtli (by Matlaltzinhuatzin) (qv) *
    • Tlatoani Nezahualpilzintli Acamapichtli [Nezahualpilli] (by Huitzilxochitzin) (qv)
    • Princess Ometochtzin, married Tlatoani Tencoyotzin, ruler of Tepexpan.
    • Prince Quauhtlatzacuilotzin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin)
    • Princess Quetzalmalitzin (by Nezahualxochitzin) *
    • Prince Tecauhpilzintli (by Tenancacihuatzin)
    • Prince Temitzin (by Nezahualxochitzin)
    • Prince Tetzauhpintzintli [Tetzauhpiltzintli] (by Azcalxochitzin), killed in or about 1467. *
    • Prince Tezauhpiltzintli (by Matlaltzinhuatzin) *
    • Prince Tlacoxtecuhtli (by Nezahualxochitzin)
    • Queen Tlahuexolotl [Tlahuezolotl]
    • Prince Tlatolcaltzin, married a daughter of Prince Cahualtzin, son of Prince Tlatolzaca of Tenochtitlan, and had issue.
      • Prince Nezahualcoyotl
    • Prince Tlecoyotl
    • Prince Tliliuhquitepetl
    • Prince Tzinquetzalpotzin (by Huitziloxochitzin)
    • Princess Tzinquetzalpoztectzin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin), married Prince Quetzalmamalitzn, Lord of Teotihuacan, and had issue.
      • Prince Cotzatzin, he died 1561.
      • Tlacatecatzin
      • Acamapichtli
      • Quiauhtzin
      • Cuauhtzontecomatli
    • Prince Xochiquetzaltzin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin) *
    • Prince Xochiquetzaltzin (by Nezahualxochitzin), he was appointed by his father to be President of the Council of Arts.
    • Prince Xochimequetzaltin (by Matlaltzinhuatzin)*
    • Princess Xochiquetzal [Xochicueyetl], married Tlatoani Axayacatl, Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan.
  • Tlatoani NEZAHUALPILLI, 5th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1472/1515, born 1462, like his father, he was a poet, a sage and had the reputation of being a fair ruler; he abolished capital punishment for a number of crimes and struggled to keep the political independence of Texcoco during the increasing centralization of Aztec power of Tenochtitlán, married many wives, including (a), a daughter of Tlatoani Cacamatzin of Tenochtitlan, married (b), a daughter of Ahuitzotl, married (c), Yacotzin, married (d), Princess Chalchiuhnenetzin, daughter of Axayacatl, Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan, married (e), Doña Maria Yacotzin, married (f), Princess Matlalcihuatl, daughter of Tizoc, married (g), Doña Maria Tlacoyehuatzin [Tlacayhuatzin], daughter of Tlatoani Atocatzin of Azcapotzalco, married (h), Princess Tenancacaxhuatzin, and had issue, allegedly 144 children. He died 1515.
    • Tlatoani Cacamatzin (by a daughter of Cacamatzin) (qv)
    • Don Pedro de Alvarado Coanacochm he succeeded as Tlatoani Coancochtzin (qv)
    • Tlatoani Hernando Cortés Ixtlixochitl II [Ixtlilxochitzin] (by Doña Maria Yacotzin) (qv)
    • Prince Tocpacxochiuh, he was executed in 1520 by Coanacoch, for aiding the Spaniards.
    • Prince Cuiciutzcatl, he was executed in 1520 by Coanacoch, for aiding the Spaniards.
    • Prince Quetzalacxoyatl
    • Prince Huexotzincatzin
    • Tlatoani Hernando  Tecocoltzin (qv)
    • Prince Cocoza
    • Don Carlos Ometochtzin [Ahuachpitzactzin] (qv)
    • Don Jorge de Alvarado Yoyontzin, married and had issue.
      • Doña Juana Maria, married Tlatoani Alonso Axayaca Ixhuetzcatocatzin, Tlatoani of Itztapalapan, and had issue (see Tenochtitlan).
    • Don Pedro Tetlahuehuetzquintzin (qv)
    • Don Bernabé Tizatlacatzin
    • Prince Quiquizcatzin
    • Prince Moteixcahuia [Cuauhtlehuanitzin]
    • Prince Totolquetzaltzin
    • Prince Nezahualquentzin, Chief from Acolhuacan. 
    • Prince Huitlalotzin
    • Don Juan Cuauhtliztactzin
    • Don Antonio Tlahuitoltzin, ?Tlatoani of Texcoco.
    • Princess Papantzin [Oxomoc], married, Cuitlahuac, Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan.
    • Doña Francisca, disappeared after La Noche Triste in 1520.
    • Doña Juana, disappeared after La Noche Triste in 1520.
    • Doña Clara, disappeared after La Noche Triste in 1520.
    • Doña Inés, disappeared after La Noche Triste in 1520.
    • Doña Ana, married Juan Cuellar, a Spanish conquistador.
    • Doña Maria
    • Princess (name unknown), married Tlatoani Macuilmalinaltzin, Tlatoani of Xochimilco, and had issue (see Xochimilco).
    • Prince Tiacapantzin
    • Prince Huexatzicatzin
    • Prince Tiyacapantzin
    • Don Pedro Tetlahuehuezquisititzin
    • Don Juan Quauhtliyiztaccic
    • Prince Tlacoyehuatzin
    • Prince Toyecuitzin
    • Prince Xocotzin
    • Don Pedro Cohuanacoxtzin , he died after 1521.
    • Tlatoani Ixtlilxuchitzin Fernando Cortes (qv)
    • Prince Nonohualcatzin
    • Don Jorge Yotontzin
    • Prince Iztaccuauhtli
    • Prince Cihuateotitlan
    • Tlatoani Cacamatzin (qv)
    • Tlatoani Fernando Tecocoltzin (qv)
    • Prince Nezahualquentzin, he died after 1519.
    • Prince Tecpacxuchitzin, he died after 1519.
    • Tlatoani Hernando Nezahualcoyotzin Pimentel Alvarado (qv)
    • Don Juan de Pomar
    • Don Pablo, died after 1515.
    • Prince Toribio, died after 1515.
    • Don Carlos Ahuaxpiczactzin (qv)
    • Don Antonio Tlahuiloltzin, died after 1515.
    • Don Francisco Mochiuhquecholetzomatzin, he died after 1515.
    • Don Lorenzo de Luna, he died after 1515.
    • Prince Cuauhihuitzin (by Tenancacaxhuatzin)
    • Prince Cuauhtliztac (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Huexotzincatzin (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Tiacapantzi (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Tetlahuehuetzqui (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Tlacoyehuatzin (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Teycuhtzin (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Xocotzin (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Tlatoani Coanacochtzin (by Tlacayhuatzin) (qv)
    • Prince Nonoalcotzin (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Yoyontzin (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Tlatoani Hernando Ixtlilxochitl (by Tlacayhuatzin) (qv)
    • Prince Carlos Ixtlilxochitl (by Tlacayhuatzin)
    • Prince Jorge Miyoyontzin Alvarado
    • Tlatoani Quetzalacxoyatl (qv)
    • Prince Tequanehuatzin
    • Tlatoani Ixtlilxuchitzin Fernando Cortes (by daughter of Axayacatzin)
    • Don Carlos Yoyontzin (by daughter of Axayacatzin)
    • Don Pimentel Tlahuitoltzin Antonio Pizin (by daughter of Axayacatzin)
    • Prince Mauhtzin (by Chalchiuhnenetzin)
  • Tlatoani CACAMATZIN, 6th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1515/1520, born 1483, he was elected to the throne allegedly due to pressure by Moctezuma II. He was tortured and killed by the Spanish in 1520.
  • Tlatoani Pedro de Alvarado COANOCOCHTZIN, 7th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1520/1525, born 1495, in 1524 Hernán Cortés took Coanacochtzin and many other indigenous rulers with him on his expedition to Honduras, married (amongst others) (a), Princess Tiacapan, daughter of Xicomotecatl, married (b), a daughter of Mixcoatzin, and had issue. He was executed in 1525 at Campeche, along with Cuauhtemoc, the tlatoani of Tenochtitlan.
    • Don Hernando Pimentel Nezahuacoyotl (qv)
    • Don Hernando Ihuiyantzin (by Princess Tiacapan)(?same as above)
    • Don Pedro Cihuateotl (by Princess Tiacapan)
    • Don Hernando Velazquez (by daughter of Mixcoatzin)
    • Princess (name unknown), married Juan Freyle.
  • Tlatoani Hernando TECOCOLTZIN, 8th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1525/1526, died 1526.
  • Tlatoani Hernando Cortés IXTLIXOCHITL II, 9th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1526/1531, born 1497/1500, initially Tlatoani of Otompan, he contested for the throne against his brother, and a civil war ensued which ended by a compromise, with Cacamatzin retained half the Kingdom with its capital, and he redeived the northern part, he sent an embassy to Hernán Cortés while he was at Tlaxcala, seeking his help, and, through the influence of Cortés, his brother was deposed, he converted to Christianity under the name of Fernando, with Hernán Cortés as his godfather, and afterwards he took great interest in the propagation of Christianity, he accompanied Cortés on his expedition to Hibueras in 1525, along with other Chieftains, married Doña Beatriz Papantzin Oxocotzin, daughter of Tlatoani Cuitláhuac of Itzapalapan, and had issue. He died 1531.
    • Don Juan Cristóbal Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl
    • Doña Ana Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl, born about 1525, married about 1544, Don Francisco Verdugo Quetzalmalitzin Huetzin, born 1518, died 11th April 1563, and had issue. She died 1580.
      • Doña Francisca Cristina Ixtlilxochitl Verdugo, born about 1545, married 1stly, Juan Grande Zarzabaraza, married 2ndly, Don Alonso de Bazán, died 1564, and had issue. She died 1597.
        • Don Luis Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl
        • Doña Ana Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl
        • Doña Juana Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl
        • Don Antonio Velazquez de Bazán
    • Doña Luisa Ixtlilxóchitl, married and had issue.
      • Doña Ana Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl, married Don Juan de Navas Pérez de Peraleda, and had issue.
        • Don Bartolomé de Alva Ixtlilxóchitl.
        • Don Fernando de Alvarado Ixtlixóchitl III, born after 1568 in Texcoco, educated at the Imperial College of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, where he was educated in both Nahuatl and Spanish, he succeeded to the estate of his elder brother, who died in 1602, in 1608, he was employed as interpreter by the viceroy, he also had a profound knowledge of the traditions of his ancestors which were preserved in the national songs, and was intimate with several old Indians famous for their knowledge of Mexican history, he was appointed Governor of Texcoco in 1612, and next year as Governor of Tlalmanalco, author of a number of works, including the Historia chichimeca, the Codex Ixtlilxochitl, and two memorials, Sucinta and Sumaria, later he was appointed interpreter in the Indian judiciary court. He died 1648 in Mexico City.
  • Don Carlos Ometochtzin, 10th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1531/1539, he was burnt at the stake on 30th November 1539 on the orders of Juan de Zumárraga, the first Catholic Bishop of New Spain, for continuing to practise the pre-Hispanic religion.
  • Don Pedro Tetlahuehuetzquititzin, 11th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1539/1540
  • Don Antonio Pimentel Tlahuitoltzin, 12th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1540/1546, died 1546 (1564?).
  • Don Hernando Pimentel Nezahuacoyotl, 13th Tlatoani of Texcoco 1546/1564
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