Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

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论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

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论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

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论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

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论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

===============================================================

论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

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论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」

The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

『10』子禽问於子贡曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?子贡曰:「夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?」

Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"

Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information,-is it not different from that of other men?"

『11』子曰:「父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改於父之道,可谓孝矣。」

The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."

『12』有子曰:「礼之用,和为贵。先王之道,斯为美;小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.

"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done."

『13』有子曰:「信近於义,言可复也。恭近於礼,远耻辱也。因不失其亲,亦可宗也。」

The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."

『14』子曰:「君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。」

The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."

『15』子贡曰:「贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?」子曰:「可也;未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。」子贡曰:「诗云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之谓与?」子曰:「赐也,始可与言诗已矣,告诸往而知来者。」

Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."

Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.'-The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed."

The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."

『16』子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」

The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."



为政第二

『1』子曰:「为政以德,譬如北辰居其所而众星共之。」

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

『2』子曰:「诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思无邪』。」

The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

『3』子曰:「道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。」

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

"If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

『4』子曰:「吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。」

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

"At thirty, I stood firm.

"At forty, I had no doubts.

"At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

"At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

"At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

『5』孟懿子问孝。子曰:「无违。」樊迟御,子告之曰:「孟孙问孝於我,我对曰,『无违。』」樊迟曰:「何谓也?」子曰:「生,事之以礼;死,葬之以礼,祭之以礼。」

Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,-'not being disobedient.'"

Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

『6』孟武伯问孝。子曰:「父母唯其疾之忧。」

Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

『7』子游问孝。子曰:「今之孝者,是谓能养。至於犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎。」

Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

『8』子夏问孝。子曰:「色难。有事,弟子服其劳;有酒食,先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?」

Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?"

『9』子曰:「吾与回言终日,不违,如愚。退儿省其私,亦足以发,回也不愚。」

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;-as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-He is not stupid."

『10』子曰:「视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?」

The Master said, "See what a man does.

"Mark his motives.

"Examine in what things he rests.

"How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"

『11』子曰:「温故而知新,可以为师矣。」

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."

『12』子曰:「君子不器。」

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

『13』子贡问君子。子曰:「先行其言,而后从之。」

Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

『14』子曰:「君子周而不比,小人比而不周。」

The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and not partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

『15』子曰:「学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。」

The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous."

『16』子曰:「攻乎异端,斯害也己。」

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

『17』子曰:「由!诲女知之乎!知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。」

The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;-this is knowledge."

『18』子张学干禄。子曰:「多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤。多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。」

Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."

『19』哀公闻曰:「何为则民服?」孔子对曰:「举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。」

The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

『20』季康子问:「使民敬、忠以勤,如之何?」子曰:「临之以庄,则敬;孝慈,则忠;举善而教不能,则勤。」

Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

『21』或谓孔子曰:「子奚不为政?」子曰:「书云:『孝乎惟孝,友于兄弟,施於有政。』是亦为政,奚其为为政?」

Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"

The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?-'You are final, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT-making one be in the government?"

『22』子曰:「人而无信,不知其可也。大车无□,小车无□,其何以行之哉?」

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

『23』子张问:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因於殷礼,所损益,可知也。其或继周者,虽百世,可知也。」

Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

『24』子曰:「非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。」

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

"To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."

八佾第三

『1』孔子谓季氏,「八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」

Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, "If he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"

『2』三家者以雍彻。子曰:「『相维辟公,天子穆穆』,奚取於三家之堂?」


Below is the full Chinese text of the Analects (论语).

The sources for the text are:

"The sayings of Confucius," James R. Ware, trans. 台北: 文致出版社, 1980. (Chinese text with English translation)

四书五经, 宋元人注, 北京: 中国书店, 1990.

"The Chinese Classics with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copius Indexes," James Legge, trans., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc., 1991. (Chinese text with English translation)

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论语

学而第一

『1』子曰:「学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?」

The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?

"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?

"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

『2』有子曰:「其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!」

The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.

"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"

『3』子曰:「巧言令色,鲜矣仁!」

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."

『4』曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身—为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?」

The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."

『5』子曰:「道千乘之国,敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。」

The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."

『6』子曰:「弟子,入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,凡爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。」

The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."

『7』子夏曰:「贤贤易色;事父母,能竭其力;事君,能致其身;与朋友交,言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。」

Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.

『8』子曰:「君子不重,则不威;学则不固。主忠信。无友不如己者。过,则勿惮改。」

The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.

"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.

"Have no friends not equal to yourself.

"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."

『9』曾子曰:「慎终,追远,民德归厚矣。」