Stephen E. Jones

Projects: Daniel's prophecy of the seventy `weeks' (Dn 9:24-27)

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The following is my work-in-progress commentary on Daniel's prophecy of the seventy `weeks' (Daniel 9:24-27). I have used the New International Version (NIV), unless otherwise indicated. This will eventually be summarised in a section of my future book "Problems of Evolution." There is also amsummary in my blog post Daniel's 70 `weeks': Proof that Naturalism is false and Christianity is true!]

Daniel's prophecy of the seventy `weeks' (Dn 9:24-27)

Dn 9:24-27 (NIV)"24Seventy `sevens' are decreed for your people and your holy city to finish transgression, to put an end to sin, to atone for wickedness, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy and to anoint the most holy. 25Know and understand this: From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven 'sevens,' and sixty-two 'sevens.' It will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble. 26After the sixty-two 'sevens,' the Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing. The people of the ruler who will come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come like a flood: War will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed. 27He will confirm a covenant with many for one 'seven.' In the middle of the 'seven' he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on a wing of the temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him."

Introduction

It is the uniform Jewish and Christian tradition that the author of the book of Daniel was a Jew of that name, living as an exile in Babylon in the 6th century BC (~605-530 BC)[1]. This is consistent with the internal evidence of the book, which purports to be a first-person account of a person called "Daniel"of supernatural revelation received by him (e.g. Dn 7:15, 28; 8:1,15,27; 9:2; 10:2,7; 12:5) and who is at the end of the book commanded to seal up its words (Dn 12:4)[2]. Jesus Himself quoted from the book of Daniel, as "spoken of through the prophet Daniel" (Mt 24:15 = Dn 9:27; 11:31; 12:11)[3]. However, this would not preclude a 5th century BC editor like Ezra collecting Daniel's writings and arranging them in the form they appear in our Bible today.[4]

Ironically those philosophical naturalists (i.e. anti-supernaturalists) who deny that predictive prophecy is possible[5], and follow the 3rd century AD neoplatonist Porphyry in proposing a Maccabean (2nd century BC) date of Daniel, do so because of the accuracy of its predictions![6] This would make Daniel's predictions examples of vaticinium ex eventu, or "prophecy after the event" 5 But, apart from that making Daniel at best a pious fraud,6 a second century BC date for Daniel has enormous problems.7 These include the book's inclusion in the ~250-150 BC Greek translation of the Old Testament.8 and the author's detailed and accurate knowledge of 6th century Babylonian and Persian life, that modern archaeology has revealed, but no Jew living in 2nd century BC Palestine would know.9 Moreover, the language of the book supports a 6th century date 10 , with its fifteen Persian words being administrative terms consistent with the book having been written in the Neo-Babylonian period after the Medo-Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC. 11 There are only three Greek words in Daniel and they are the names of musical instruments (3:5).12 These could also have entered via Persia, since Greek culture had long penetrated the Near East by then. 13 There is therefore no good reason for denying that Daniel was composed by Daniel in Babylon in the 6th century BC.14 The immediate context of the prophecy is following the conquest of Babylon by the Persian king Cyrus.15 in 538 BC (9:1-2; 5:30-31).16

Commentary

[24 ]"Seventy Daniel had been reflecting on the prophecies of Jeremiah "that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years" (v2). Jeremiah had predicted in 605 BC,17 just before the beginning of the first wave of the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem and the carrying off to Babylon of its inhabitants,18 that Judah and Jerusalem would become desolate and its people taken captive to Babylon for "seventy years" (Jer 25:11),19 and after which Babylon would itself be made desolate (Jer 25:12). Later, after the second wave of conquest and captivity 597 BC.20 Jeremiah further predicted that after the seventy years, those carried off into exile from Jerusalem to Babylon would be brought back (Jer 29:10). 21 Daniel was in prayer, confessing Israel's sins and pleading for the end of the exile and restoration of Jerusalem (vv.3-19);22 when the angel Gabriel appeared to him (v.21) again (8:16), and revealed this vision of the seventy `weeks' to him.23 `sevens' Heb. shebu`im "periods of sevens."24 The Heb. here is masculine, whereas the normal gender of seven, as in a seven-day week, is feminine, indicating time units other than ordinary seven-day weeks.25 The Heb. has the "sevens" first for emphasis, i.e. "sevens, seventy."26 These are heptads (series' of sevens) rather than weeks (series' of seven days).27 That is, seventy sevens of years, a total of 490 years.28 are decreed Heb. hatak "to cut."29

These seventy sevens were decreed by judicial decision, "determined" (KJV).30 for your people Heb. 'am "people, nation."31 Daniel had been praying for his people, the nation of Israel (vv.6,7,15,20), who are also God's people (vv.16,19).32 and your holy city Heb. qodesh 'ir "holy city."33 Daniel had also prayed for God to turn away His anger and wrath from Jerusalem, God's holy city (v.16). God, through His angel Gabriel (vv.21- :23), reaffirms that Jerusalem is still the holy city. This prophecy is primarily about national Israel and Jerusalem,34 and this needs to be borne in mind in interpreting it.

to At the completion of the 490 years, there will be six results accomplished .35 .These are represented by six verbs, in two sets of three: the first set negative, concerning the removal of sin, and the second set of three positive, concerning the establishment of righteousness36 finish The basic idea of the Heb. kala' is "to restrict" up to and including stopped (e.g. (Gn 8:2 - "and the rain had stopped falling" ).37 transgression, Heb. pesha' "rebellion."38 By the end of the seventy `weeks' Israel's rebellion would be restrained39 to put an end to Heb. hatham "to affix a seal, seal up."40 The same word as in Dn 12:4,9 to close up a scroll and seal it. Also later in this verse "to seal up vision and prophecy." By the end of the seventy `weeks' Israel's sin would be sealed up, i.e. that chapter of its history would be brought to a final end.41 sin, Heb. hatta't "sin, sin offering." 42 A general term for all wrong.43 to atone Heb. kapar "make atonement, make reconciliation, purge." 44 The root meaning is not "to cover" but "to ransom" (e.g. Heb. koper - Ex 30:12; Num 35:31; 1Sam 12:3; Ps 49:7; Isa 43:3) 45 To make atonement.46 Israel's history of transgression, sin, and wickedness would be sealed up by a final act of atonement by a ransom paid.47 for wickedness, Heb. 'awon "iniquity, guilt, punishment," from a root, "bend, twist, distort."48 By the end of the 70 `weeks' Israel's crookedness will be atoned for by a ransom price paid.49

to bring in Heb. bo' "go in, enter."50 The first of the three positive results, everlasting righteousness, would be brought in. everlasting Heb. 'owlam "forever, ever, everlasting,... ." 51 Cf. "everlasting life" (12:2), God "lives forever" (12:7). righteousness, Heb. tsedeq "justice, rightness, righteousness." Connotes conformity to an ethical or moral standard.52 So at the end of these 70 `weeks' everlasting conformity to God's ethical and moral standard would be brought in, which would be nothing less than the inauguration of the kingdom of God on Earth: "your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven" (Mt 6:10)! to seal up Same Heb. word hatham earlier this verse, "to put an end to sin." visionHeb. chazown "look, see, behold, ..." in an exalted sense. Revelatory vision granted by God to chosen messengers, i.e. prophets.53 Occurs in 1:17 - "Daniel could understand visions and dreams of all kinds," and 8:1,2,13,15,26; 10:14; 11:14. This prophecy of the 70 `weeks' is itself a "vision" (9:21,23). and proph> Heb. nabiy' From root "spokesman, prophet." The essential idea of "prophet" is authorised spokesman: "54 "the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet" (9:2); God's "servants the prophets" (9:10). By the end of the 70 `weeks', prophecy in the Old Testament sense, would be brought to an end.55 and to anoint Heb. mashach "to anoint, spread a liquid.". Anointing with oil was symbolic of: 1) setting apart for God's service, e.g the altar (Ex 29:36), Aaron as priest (Lev 8:12), Saul and David as king (1Sam 15:17; 2Sam 12:7); 2) God's authorisation (1Sam 10:1; 2Sam 12:7); 3) God's empowerment (1Sam 10:1,6ff; 1Sam 16:13ff); 4) in the form mashiah, mashah ("Anointed One, Messiah" - vv.25,26), a Spirit-filled ruler (Isa 61:1) 56 the most holy. Heb. qodesh qodesh "apartness, holiness, sacredness." 57 Lit. "holiness of holiness, a holy of holies."58 There is no definite article, i.e. it is "a holy of holies" not "the holy of holies."59 >The "holy of holies" (LITV; NASB) or "the Most Holy Place" (NIV; KJV), was the inner sanctum of the tabernacle (Ex 26:33); and later of the temple (1Ki 6:16; Mt 27:51). There would seem to be three possible interpretations that do justice to this sixth and final result: 1) a new "holy of holies" in a restored temple;60 2) Jesus61 ; or 3) the Christian church.62 Archer, a dispensationalist, interprets the fulfilment of these six results as, "By the end of the full 490 years, then, the present sin-cursed world order will come to an end" and "Jerusalem ... [will be] the religious and political capital of the world during the Millennium."63 But this would mean that either the 490 years are non-literal, since there would be then a 2,000 year gap between the 69th and 70th `week').64

[25] "Know Heb. yada' "know." Knowledge gained by the senses. 65 Daniel is commanded to know, in the sense of hear with his ears, the words of the prophecy from God that the angel is about to impart to him. and understand this: Heb. sakal "wisely understand." 66 Not just knowledge but understanding (1:17), paying attention (v13), insight (v.22); spiritual wisdom (11:33,35;12:3,10). By deep consideration. The message the angel was about to deliver is difficult and requires spiritual insight. See Jesus' "let the reader understand" (Mt 24:15)67 , referring to either this prophecy of Daniel .(v.27), 11:31, or 12:11. From the issuing Heb. mosa' "act or place of going out." 68 The emphasis is on the issuing forth, the publication of the decree.69 The time of issuing forth marks the terminus a quo or starting point of the seventy `weeks'.of the decree Heb. dabar "word, speaking, speech" 70 Lit. "word"71 The KJV "commandment" is misleading.72 RSV's and LITV's "word" or NIV's and NASB's "decree" seems better. In v.23 dabar is used of a word from God,73 so a Divine decree in Heaven that appeared on Earth in the words of a Persian king, seems to be the intended meaning here74 There are only a limited number of possible decrees (see Table 1) for the terminus a quo (starting point) of the 70 `weeks,' and therefore also of the 69 `weeks' "until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes" (v.25): 1) the decree in the "first year of Cyrus" I (2Chr 36:22-23; Ezr 1:1-4; 6:3-5) - 538/537 BC 75 ;2) the decree in the "second year of Darius" I Hystaspes (Ezr 4:24ff; 6:1-12. cf. Hag. 1:1ff; 2:10ff; Zech 1:1ff) -519/518 B.C. 76 ; 3); the decree in the "seventh year of ... Artaxerxes" I Longimanus (464-424 BC)77 to Ezra (Ezr 7:1-7, 11-26) - 458/457 BC.78 ; and 4) the decree of Artaxerxes I to Nehemiah, 445/444 BC (Neh 2:1-8)79 .

Table 1. Major decrees issued, their start and 69th `week' end points. Time units ordinary solar years of 365 days, unless otherwise indicated.
Decree
Start point
(terminus a quo)
69th `week' end point
(terminus ad quem)
Comments
"first year of Cyrus" (2Chr 36:22-23; Ezr 1:1-4; 6:3- 5)
538/537 BC
54/55 BC
No "Anointed One, the ruler" (Dn 9:25) came in 54/55 BC.
"second year of Darius" (Ezr 4:24ff; 6:1-12. cf. Hag. 1:1ff; 2:10ff; Zech 1:1ff)
519/518 BC
36/35 BC
Merely a confirmation of Cyrus' decree, above. No "Anointed One, the ruler" (Dn 9:25) came in 36/35 BC.
"seventh year of ... Artaxerxes" to Ezra (Ezr 7:1-7, 11- 26);
458/457 BC
26/27 AD
Year of Jesus' baptism/start of His public ministry (Mt 3:13-4:17; Mk 1:14-15)
"twentieth year of ... Artaxerxes" to Nehemiah (Neh 2:1- 8)
445/444 BC
39/40 AD
Too late for fulfilment in Jesus, who was executed 30 AD. No other "Anointed One, the ruler" (Dn 9:25) came in 39/40 AD.
""
""
360-day "prophetic years":
32/33 AD
Still too late for fulfilment in Jesus' coming 26/27 AD.
""
""
Sabbath-year cycles:
28-35 AD
Also too late for fulfilment in Jesus' coming 26/27 AD, unless years were 27-34 AD.

to restore Heb. shub "return." 80 To cause to bring back 81 Restoring the city of Jerusalem to its former condition,82 Jerusalem is to be restored not just physically, but socially and spiritually.83 and rebuild Heb. bana "build, rebuild.." Primarily as construction of houses, cities, towers, altars, etc. But is also used of rebuilding God's people Israel after the exile (Jer 24:6; 31:4; 33:7).84 The same word as later in this verse: "It will be rebuilt with streets and a trench." This rebuilding of Jerusalem will be completed in the first seven `weeks'.85 Jerusalem Daniel's mind and prayers had been focused on Jerusalem (vv.2,16) the "city" (v.16,18,19)itself. This will be a "decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" itself. Not just Jerusalem's temple or its walls but the "city" itself.86 It is therefore not merely a decree to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem," as claimed by various commentators.87 Indeed, "wall" in v.25 is a mistranslation (see below).

until the Anointed One, Heb. mashiah "anointed one."88 See on "anoint" (v.24). The Heb. is not "the anointed one" but "an anointed one," without the definite article.89 The term up to this point did not have the technical meaning "Messiah,"90 the later Jewish understanding of a coming Messiah being based largely on this verse.91 Some translations (e.g. KJV, NASB, LITV) and commentaries therefore, in hindsight, render this as "Messiah"92 The Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament, translates this as Christos.93 the ruler, Heb. nagid, "ruler, leader, captain" from root "before"94 The word basically means "leader."95 The same word is used in v.26 where it evidently refers to a military leader (e.g. Titus Vespasian) and in 11:22 where it may refer to a religious leader (e.g. the high priest Onias III).96 comes, This word "comes" is not in the Heb. which transliterated reads: "from the issuing of the word to restore and to rebuild Jerusalem to Messiah [the] Prince [shall be] weeks seven."97 The terminus ad quem (ending point) of the 69 `weeks' would be the coming of a divinely anointed ruler.

there will be The Heb. omits the verb "to be."98 seven 'sevens,' Heb. shebu`im sheba, "sevens, seven" or "`weeks', seven"99 . See v.25 above on the meaning of Heb. shebu`im, "sevens" as "a period of sevens." The Heb. sheba, "seven" is the normal feminine word for the number 7. 100 This "seven 'sevens'" is the first of the three blocks of 7 62 1 = 70 "sevens" in the seventy `weeks'. If these "sevens" are ordinary solar years of 365 days, plus intercalated leap years, as the Jewish calendar then was, 101 then they are 7 x 7 = 49 years "[f]rom the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" (v.25). This is the period in which "It [Jerusalem] will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble" referred to later in this verse.102 If the terminus a quo of the 70 `weeks' is the decree of Artaxerxes I in 458/457 BC (Table 1), allowing Ezra and his fellow exiles to leave Babylonia and go to Jerusalem to restore the religious and civil framework of Judah and Jerusalem (Ezr 7:1-7, 11-26), including "whatever [else] seems best" to Ezra (Ezr 7:18); and the `weeks' are years, then this first seven `weeks' would be the 49 years from 457-408 BC, which covers the restoring and rebuilding of Jerusalem recorded in the books of Ezra- Nehemiah.103 and The post-Christian Jewish Masoretic scribes added punctuation, which is not part of the original text,104 to divide the "seven `sevens' and "sixty two `sevens' into two separate clauses,105 to make it read like: "... there will be seven 'sevens'. And [for] sixty-two 'sevens.' [i]t will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble."106 However, not only is this historically false (Jerusalem was restored and rebuilt amidst intense opposition for 49 years, not 434 years),107 but also the Septuagint and all the other ancient versions, rendered it as "seven 'sevens,' and sixty-two 'sevens'".108 sixty- two 'sevens.' More is said about these "sixty two `sevens' in v.26. 109 This "sixty-two `sevens'" is the second of the three blocks of 7 62 1 = 70 "sevens", or heptads.110 Again, if the terminus a quo of the 70 `weeks' is the decree in the "seventh year of ... Artaxerxes" I to Ezra (Ezr 7:7, 11-26); in 458/457 BC (Table 1), and if the `sevens' are years, then this "sixty-two `sevens' would be the 62 x 7 = 434 years following the 49-year period of the restoring and rebuilding of Jerusalem. On that assumption that these `sevens' are ordinary years, then "seven 'sevens'" and "sixty-two 'sevens'" make a total of 69 `weeks' of years, or 69 x 7 = 483 years.111 . That is, there then would be a total of 483 years between "the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" and the coming of the "Anointed One, the ruler."112 This then comes out at AD 26/27,113 after adding an additional year, since there was no year 0 AD between 1 BC and 1 AD.114 Which was the very year either of Jesus' baptism, 26 AD, 115 or the beginning of Jesus' public ministry in 27AD.116 Jesus is the only person who claimed to be the Jewish Messiah and who founded a world religion.116 This defies any naturalistic explanation as only God could have predicted the future with such precision.118 That such a prophecy was thought to have expired in the first century AD.119 is testified by the Jewish historian Josephus (c.37-100 AD)120 and by the Roman historians Tacitus (c.55-120 AD)121 and Suetonius (c.69-130 AD).122

It will be rebuilt The same word, Heb. bana "build, rebuild" as in v.25. Primarily the physical reconstruction of the city is here meant. with streetsHeb. rechob "open place ... always used of a square, market place, or pasture within a village." 123 For example, "the square by the Water Gate and the one by the Gate of Ephraim" (Neh 8:16. Cf. Ezr 10:8; Neh 8:1,3). Therefore better seems "plaza" (NASB), or "open square" (NKJV mgn), although the plural indicates "squares."124 and a trench, Heb. harus "to cut, trench, moat."125 The particular form of the word appears only here in the OT. It had been thought the word meant "moat" 126 but as Pusey pointed out, there was no need for a fosse (moat) around Jerusalem, it being located on the brow of hills, and there being no evidence there ever was a moat, it had been presumed in the KJV that word meant "wall"127 However, the word has since been found in one of the Dead Sea scrolls, meaning "conduit"128 Attempts to locate the terminus a quo in Artaxerxes' decree to Nehemiah to rebuild Jerusalem's walls are therefore based on a mistranslation. The reference appears to be to Jerusalem's water supply system being restored. Combined with public squares, the picture is of a completely restored and rebuilt functioning city. 129 This occurred in the time of Nehemiah. 130 but in times of trouble. Heb. 'akar "to stir up, trouble, disturb" ... reflects the social dimension of an individual's action," 131 and Heb. 'et "time, space of time, ... time ... as an opportunity or season." 132 This is an apt description of the extended period of opposition and oppression by the surrounding Samaritans in the time of Ezra-Nehemiah (Neh 4:1ff; 6:1ff; 9:36,37).133 This complete restoration of Jerusalem, would take within seven heptads, or forty-nine years,134 i.e. between 458/457BC - 409/408 BC,135 or approximately to the end of the period covered by the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.136

[26] After Heb. 'ahar "after, behind (of place); after, afterward (of time)..." 137 < the sixty-two 'sevens,' That is, after the seven `sevens' 7 62 = 69 `sevens'.138 Note that it is after the 7 62 = 69 `weeks', that is in the 70th `week', that the "cutting off" of the "Anointed One" (see next) would occur.139 the Anointed One "Messiah" (see v.25). will be cut off Heb. karat "to cut off a part of the body ...; cut down ...; cut out, eliminate, kill ..." 140 To be "cut off" suggests a violent death.141 The violent, tragic death of Messiah is therefore here foretold.142 and will have nothing. Heb. 'ayin "used to negate a noun or clause" 143 The Messiah will be cut off and will have no one (or nothing).144 This took place on Golgotha in AD 30.145 Some scholars prefer the year AD 33, but the evidence is in favour of the earlier date.146 .The people Heb. 'am "people, nation" (see v24). It is the people of this ruler to come who will destroy the city and the sanctuary.147 of the ruler Heb. nagid (see on v.25). This "ruler who will come" is distinguished from the "Anointed One, the ruler." 148 The latter is the subject in v.25, whereas it is the former's "people in v.25 which are the subject 149 who will come Heb. bo' "go in, enter" (v.24). Also can mean "come" in the sense of fulfilment of a promise or threat.150 will destroy Heb. shahat "destroy, corrupt."151 the city Heb. 'ir "city", generally with a wall.152 So Jerusalem, having been destroyed and rebuilt (v.25), would be destroyed again.153 and the sanctuary. Heb. qodesh "holy"154 Evidently here is meant the holy place, the Jerusalem temple,155 but not just the building but the entire holy system, including the "covenant ... sacrifice and offering" (v.27).156 The end Heb. qes "end." The root means to sever, cut off. Used in context of judgment (Gen. 6:13; Eze 7:2-3).157 The end of Jerusalem and the Temple signifying the end of the Old Testament dispensation, the Old Covenant.158 will come Not in original. Closer to Heb. is KJV's "shall be."159 like a flood: Heb. shetep "flood, downpour." Meaning is "to overflow, engulf." Used figuratively for God's judgement on His people (Isa 8:8; 28:2, 15, 17-18; 30:28).160 Fulfilled in the Roman army's destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.161 War Heb. milhama "battle, war." Mostly battles in which Yahweh was involved.162 The period between the restoration of Jerusalem and its final destruction would be characterised by wars.163 will continue Not in original.164 Heb. transliterated is: "And end it [shall be] with the flood and until [the] end war [shall be] are determined desolations."165 until the end, Heb. qes "end" -see above in this verse.166 and desolations Heb. shamem "be desolate, appalled." Idea of root is desolation caused by a great disaster, usually as a result of God's judgement.167 Fulfilled in the desolation caused by Antiochus Epiphanes in 167 BC168 and then finally in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 AD.169 have been decreed.Heb. haras "decree, determine." Something that cannot be changed."170 These desolations are in the final analysis decreed by God as a just response to Israel's sins.171

[27] He Since it is the people of "the ruler who will come" who are the subject in v.26, not the "ruler",172 the "He" refers to "the Anointed One" (vv.25 & 26), i.e. "Messiah".173 will confirm Heb. gabar "prevail, be mighty, have strength, be great." Root idea is of rising up and prevailing by strength.174 The covenant will be brought in by force.175 a covenant Heb. berit "covenant." 176 The Messiah will cause make His new covenant (Jer 31:31; Lk 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25; Heb. 8:8; 9:15; 12:24) to prevail by His rising up in power.177 with many Heb. rab "much, many, great." Primary meaning is "many".178 The Messiah will make his new covenant with many (but not all, or even most).179 for one 'seven.' Heb. 'ehad "one."180 and Heb. shabu`a "seven, a week." . 180 The seventieth week.182 The Messiah's covenant with many would be made to prevail in the last of the seventy `weeks'.183 In the middle Heb. hesot "division, middle." Not necessarily exactly half.184 of the 'seven' In middle of the last seven, the seventieth week.185 he will put an end Heb. shabat "cease, desist, rest." The basic thrust of the word is "to sever, put an end to." 186 The Messiah would in the midst of the seventieth week, put an end to the Old Testament sacrificial system.187 to sacrifice Heb. zebah "sacrifice." Mainly used of killing animals for sacrifice.188 The Messiah's sacrifice of Himself would put an end to the Old Testament sacrificial system (Heb. 7:27; 9:12,26; 10:1,2,10).189 and offering. Heb. minha "offering, gift." The OT system of cereal offerings (Lev 2:1-6; 6:14-23).190 Messiah would, by His death, put a permanent end to the entire OT system of sacrifice and offerings.191 And on a wing Heb. kanap "wing, border, corner." Root is wing of bird. 192 This may be an allusion the eagle on the Roman army's flag?193 See Jesus' cryptic reference in Mt 24:28 = Lk 17:37 (KJV) "Wherever there is a carcass, there the vultures [Gk. aetoi, "eagles, vultures] will gather" in the context of the future destruction of Jerusalem.194 of the temple The words "of the temple" are not in the original (they are in italics). RSV, NASB and NKJV has "wing of abominations". LITV has "a corner of the altar will be abominations that desolate."195 However, the temple seems meant by the last-mentioned subject, "the sanctuary" in v.26196 and the immediate context of Messiah's putting an end to "sacrifices and offering"197 he will set up Not in original, which transliterated is, "and upon a wing as abominations a desolator."198 an abomination Heb. shiqqes "detest, make abominable, detestable thing."199 that causes In the sense of "abomination that causes desolation" (this verse and also Dn 11:31; 12:11; Mt 24:15; Mk 13:14) it has the meaning of "a desecration of the altar which destroys its true purpose."200 desolation, Heb. shamem as in v.26. 201 Messiah will cause the temple to be desecrated as a sign that the OT system of sacrifice and offering has ended with His once for all sacrifice of Himself.202 until Heb. 'ad "as far as, ... until". The continuation of an event from a point in the past to the present.203 Literally, "even until [the] end. And that which was decreed shall pour out on the desolator."204 The Heb. can mean "the desolated," which would fit with what actually happened to Jerusalem and the temple in 70 AD.205 the end Heb. kala' "to bring a process to completion", to a "full end", not just a temporary stopping point along the way.206 Messiah would bring the OT system of sacrifice and offering to a final and complete end with the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple.207 that is decreed The same Heb. haras "decree, determine" that cannot be changed as in v.25208 Messiah's final end to the OT dispensation had been already decreed before Jerusalem and the temple were rebuilt and restored!209 is poured out Heb. natak "be poured,... melted." Used of divine wrath (2Chr 12:7; 34:25; Jer 7:20; Jer 42:18; Eze 22:22; Dn 9:11; etc).210 The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple is to be (and was) a pouring out of God's wrath.211 on him. " Heb. shamem as in v.26 and previously this verse. 212 The Heb. is impersonal, i.e. "desolate ... that which is desolate, i.e. the ruins of the temple and city"213 Therefore better is the KJV's "poured upon the desolate."214

Conclusion

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Bibliography

Allis, O.T., 1945, "Prophecy and the Church: An Examination of the Claim of Dispensationalists," Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing Co: Philadelphia PA, 1964, Third Printing.
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Archer, G.L., 1982, "Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties," Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI.
Archer G.L., 1985, "Daniel," in Gaebelein F.E., ed., "The Expositor's Bible Commentary: Daniel and the Minor Prophets," Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Vol. 7.
Baldwin, J.G., 1978, "Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary," Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester UK.
Barker, K.L., ed., 1985, "The NIV Study Bible," Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI.
Boice, J.M., 1989, "Daniel: An Expositional Commentary," Baker: Grand Rapids MI.
Bruce, F.F.., 1962, in Douglas, 1962.
Calvin, J., 1561, "A Commentary on Daniel," [1852], Myers T., transl., Banner of Truth: London, 1966, reprint.
Culver, R.D., 1963, "Daniel," in Pfeiffer C.F. & Harrison E.F., eds., "The Wycliffe Bible Commentary," Oliphants: London.
Davis, J.D., 1966, "A Dictionary of the Bible," [1898], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Fourth Edition, Fifteenth printing.
Douglas, J.D., 1962, et al., eds., "The New Bible Dictionary," Inter-Varsity Fellowship: London, 1967, reprint.
Earle, R., ed., 1967, "Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Entire Bible," [1826], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Single Volume Edition..
Ellison H.L., 1958, "Men Spake from God: Studies in the Hebrew Prophets," [1952], Paternoster: Exeter UK, Second Edition, reprint, 1966.
Ferguson S.B., 1994, "Daniel," in Carson D.A., et al., eds, "New Bible Commentary," [1953], Inter- Varsity Press, Leicester UK, Fourth Edition, reprint, 1997.
Finegan J., 1964, "Handbook of Biblical Chronology: Principles of Time Reckoning in the Ancient World and Problems of Chronology in the Bible," Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ.
Graves R. & Grant M., 2003, "Suetonius: The Twelve Caesars," [1957], Penguin: London, Revised.
Green J.P. Sr., ed., 1986, "The Interlinear Bible: One Volume Edition," [1976], Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody MA., Second Edition.
Harris R.L., 1957, "Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible: An Historical and Exegetical Study," Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI.
Harrison R.K., 1969, "Introduction to the Old Testament," Tyndale Press: London, 1970, reprint.
Hengstenberg E.W., 1970, "Christology of the Old Testament," [1847], Keith R. transl., Arnold T.A. abridg., Kregel: Grand Rapids, MI, Tenth printing, 1992.
Hill A.E. & Walton J.H., 2000, "A Survey of the Old Testament," [1991], Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Second Edition.
Jamieson R., Fausset A.R., & Brown D., 1869, "Commentary Practical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible," Oliphants/Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Revised edition, 1961, reprint, 1966.
Kaiser W.C., Jr, 1978, "Toward an Old Testament Theology," Academie Books/Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, 1990, reprint.
La Sor W.S., Hubbard D.A. & Bush F.W., 1982, "Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 1987, reprint.
McDowell J.1972,, "Evidence That Demands a Verdict," Here's Life Publishers: San Bernardino CA, Revised Edition, 1988, Twenty-ninth printing, Vol. I.
Millard A.R., 1986, "Daniel," in Bruce F.F., ed., "The International Bible Commentary," Marshall Pickering/Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Second Edition.
Newman R.C., 1988, "The Time of the Messiah," in Newman R.C., ed., "The Evidence of Prophecy: Fulfilled Prediction as a Testimony to the Truth of Christianity," Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute: Hatfield PA, Fourth Printing, 1998.
Newman R.C., 1997, "Fulfilled Prophecy as Miracle," in Geivett R.D. & Habermas G.R., eds., "In Defense of Miracles: A Comprehensive Case for God's Action in History," Apollos: Leicester UK.
Newman R.C., 2002, "The Time of the Messiah," [1981], IBRI Research Report #9. http://www.ibri.org/09timeofmessiah.htm.
Payne J.B., 1973, "Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy: The Complete Guide to Scriptural Predictions and Their Fulfillment," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1997, Fourth printing.
Poole M., 1685, "Commentary on the Holy Bible: Volume II: Psalms-Malachi", Banner of Truth: London, 1968, reprint.
Price J.D., 1995, "Response To Jim Lippard's `The Fabulous Prophecies Of The Messiah'," Dec. 15. http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/jim_lippard/proph-response.html.
Pusey E.B., 1885, "Daniel the Prophet. Nine Lectures, Delivered in the Divinity School of the University of Oxford. With Copious Notes." Funk & Wagnalls: New York NY.
Septuagint,. 250-150 BC, "The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament and Apocrypha with an English Translation and with Various Readings and Critical Notes,"Samuel Bagster & Sons: London, n.d.
TWOT. Harris R.L., Archer G.L. & Waltke B.K., eds, 1980, "Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament," Moody Press: Chicago IL, 1992, Twelfth Printing, 2 Vols.
VanGemeren W.A., 1989, "Daniel," in Elwell W.A., ed., "Evangelical Commentary on the Bible," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1990, Second printing.
Wellesley K., 1995, "Tacitus: The Histories," [1964], Penguin: London, Revised.
Whiston W., 1999, "The New Complete Works of Josephus," Kregel Publications: Grand Rapids MI, Revised Edition.
Wiseman D.J., 1962, in Douglas, 1962.
Wright J.S.W., 1962, in Douglas, 1962.
Young E.J., 1949a, "A Commentary on Daniel," The Banner of Truth Trust: Edinburgh UK, 1978, reprint.
Young E.J., 1949b, "An Introduction to the Old Testament," Tyndale Press: London, 1958, reprint.
Young E.J., 1987, "Daniel," in Guthrie D., et al., eds., "New Bible Commentary," [1970], Inter-Varsity Press: Leicester UK, Third Edition, reprint.
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Notes
[1] Young, 1949b, p.380; La Sor, et al., pp.665-666; Harrison, 1969, pp.1110-1111. [return]
[2] Young, 1949b, p.381. [return]
[3] Significantly, the words "abomination that causes desolation" quoted by Jesus comes from the very chapters 9-12 considered by negative criticism to date from the time of the Maccabees (Young, 1949b, p.380). [return]
4La Sor, et al., p.667; Harrison, 1969, p.1110; Archer, 1964, p.367. [return]
5 Young, 1949b, p.383; Harrison, 1969, p.1110; Archer, 1985, p.6.. [return]
6Young, 1949b, pp.382-384; La Sor, et al., p.666; Harrison, 1969, p.1110. [return]
5Archer, 1964, p.367; Hill & Walton, 2000, pp.453-454.
6La Sor, et al., p.667.
7Young, 1949b, p.383; Hill & Walton, 2000, p.454; La Sor, et al., pp.666-667.
8Archer, 1964, p.38; La Sor, et al., pp.666-667.
9Harrison, 1969, p.1120.
10Harrison, 1969, p.1125.
11Young, 1949b, p.392; Archer, 1964, p367.
12Archer, 1964, p367.
13Young, 1949b, p.392.
14Archer, 1964, p367.
15"Darius the Mede" (5:31; 6:1) was probably either the throne name of Cyrus (Baldwin, 1978, pp.26-28,127), or Cyrus' viceroy, e.g. the Persian general Gobryas who led the conquest of Babylon (Wiseman, 1962, p.286).
16Finegan, 1964, p.212; Jamieson, Fausset & Brown, 1869, p.753.
17Barker, 1985, p.1164.
18There were three waves of Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem and carrying of its inhabitants. The first wave was in 605 BC and included king Jehoiakim, members of the royal family and the nobility of Judah, among whom was the young Daniel (2Ki 24:1; Dn 1:1-6); the second was in 597 BC with the deportation of king Jehoiachin, the leaders of Judah (including the young Ezekiel (2Ki 24:12-16; Jer 24:1; Eze 1:1-3), soldiers and tradesmen (Jer 29:1-2); and the third and final wave was in 586 BC when king Zedekiah and all but the poorest agricultural workers were also deported to Babylon, and Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed (2Ki 24:17-25:21) (Barker, 1985, pp.571,1163,1227,1231,1300).
19.
20Barker, 1985, p.1170.
21.
22.
23.
24TWOT, p.2:899; Archer, 1985, p.112.
25Archer, 1982, p.289; Payne, 1973, p.383.
26Young, 1949a, p.195.
27Archer, 1964, p387; Archer, 1982, p.289.
28Archer, 1982, p.289; Barker, 1985, p.1314.
29TWOT, p.1:334.
30Young, 1949a, p.197.
31TWOT, p.2:1640.
32.
33TWOT, p.2:787; ii.664.
34Archer, 1982, p.289.
35Archer, 1982, p.289; Ferguson, 1994, p.759.
36Baldwin, 1978, p.168; Archer, 1985, p.112; Young, 1949a, p.197.
37TWOT, p.1:438.
38TWOT, p.2:1640.
39Archer, 1982, p.289.
40TWOT, p.1:778; Archer, 1982, p.289.
41.
42TWOT, p.1:278.
43Baldwin, 1978, p.169; Archer, 1985, p.112.
44TWOT, p.1:452.
45TWOT, p.1:452.
46Archer, 1982, p.289.
47.
48TWOT, p.1:650.
49.
50TWOT, p.1:778; Archer, 1982, p.289.
51TWOT, p.2:672.
52TWOT, p.2:752.
53TWOT, pp.1:274-275.
54TWOT, p.2:544.
55Young, 1949a, p.200.
56TWOT, p.1:530.
57TWOT, p.2:786.
58Young, 1949a, p.200.
59Young, 1949a, p.200.
60Baldwin, 1978, p.169; Young, 1949a, pp.200-201.
61Baldwin, 1978, p.169.
62Baldwin, 1978, p.169.
63.
64Allis, 1945, pp.118-119.
65TWOT, p.1:848.
66TWOT, p.2:877.
67Poole, 1685, p.839; Young, 1949a, p.201.
68TWOT, p.1:393.
69Hengstenberg, 1970, p.428.
70TWOT, p.1:393.
71TWOT, p.2:899.
72Young, 1949a, p.201.
73Young, 1949a, p.201.
74Young, 1949a, pp.201-202; Pusey, 1885, p.186.
75Finegan, 1964, p.212; McDowell, 1972, p.172; Davis, 1966, p.163; Pusey, 1885, pp.186-187; Jamieson, Fausset & Brown, 1869, p.753; Harris, 1957, p.150; Archer, 1982, p.290; Boice, 1989, p.100; Ellison, 1958, p.147; Newman, 1988, p.117.
76Finegan, 1964, pp.212-213; McDowell, 1972, p.172; Davis, 1966, p.163; Pusey, 1885, pp.186-188.
77Wright, 1962, p.89; Culver, 1962, p.794; Pusey, 1885, p.187.
78Archer, 1964, p.387; Archer, 1982, p.290; Jamieson, Fausset & Brown, 1869, p.753; Boice, 1989, p.100; Newman, 1988, p.117; McDowell, 1972, p.172; Davis, 1966, p.163; Pusey, 1885, pp.186- 188.
79Archer, 1964, p.387; Archer, 1982, p.290; Boice, 1989, p.101; Davis, 1966, p.163; Finegan, 1964, p.213; McDowell, 1972, pp.172-173.; Newman, 1988, p.117; Newman, 1997, p.224; Newman, 2002; Pusey, 1885, pp.186-188.
80TWOT, p.2:909.
81Young, 1949a, p.203; Hengstenberg, 1970, p.430.
82Young, 1987, p.699; Hengstenberg, 1970, p.430.
83.
84TWOT, p.1:255.
85Archer, 1985, p.113
86.
87Archer, 1964, p.387.
88TWOT, p.1:530.
89Young, 1949a. p.203; Hengstenberg, 1970, p.431; Archer, 1985, p.113, Barker, 1985, p.1314
90Baldwin, 1978, p.170.
91.
92Archer, 1985, p.113, Barker, 1985, p.1314; Culver, 1963, p.795; Payne, 1973, p.383.; Pusey, 1885, pp.189-190, VanGemeren, 1989, p.599; Young, 1987, p.699.
93.Septuagint, c.250-150 BC, p.1065.
94TWOT, p.2:550.
95Baldwin, 1978, p.170.
96Baldwin, 1978, pp.170,192.
97Green, 1986, p.691.
98Archer, 1982, p.289.
99Green, 1986, p.691.
100TWOT, p.2:899.
101Finegan, 1964, p.36; Wiseman, 1962, p.178; Payne, 1973, p.386.
102Archer, 1985, p.113
103Young, 1949a, pp.205-206; Archer, 1985, p.114; Calvin,1561, p.219; Pusey, 1885, pp.190- 191; Earle, 1967, p.701; Barker, 1985, p.1314.
104Baldwin, 1978, p.170.
105Young, 1949a, p.204; Hengstenberg, 1970, p.433.
106Pusey, 1885, p.190; Hengstenberg, 1970, p.433.
107Pusey, 1885, p.190.
108Millard, 1986, p.864.
109Young, 1949a, p.202.
110Archer, 1982, p.289.
111Archer, 1964, p.387; Archer, 1982, p.289; Culver, 1963, p.794; Harris, 1957, p.151; Kaiser, 1978, p.247.
112Archer, 1982, pp289-290; Earle, 1967, p.701; Archer, 1985, p.114; Boice, 1989, p.100; Culver, 1963, p.794; Payne, 1973, p.383.
113Archer, 1982, p.291; Archer, 1985, p.114.
114Archer, 1982, p.291; Archer, 1985, p.114; Harris, 1957, p.151; Newman, 1988, p.117.
115Finegan, 1964, p.468; Pusey, 1885, p.189.
116Finegan, 1964, p.468; Archer, 1964, p.387; Archer, 1982, pp.290-291.
117Newman, 1997, pp.223-224.
118Archer, 1982, p.291.
119Newman, 1988, pp.111-112; Newman, 1997, pp.223-224; Newman, 2002.
120"But now, what did the most elevate them in undertaking this war, was an ambiguous oracle that was also found in their sacred writings, how, "about that time, one from their country should become governor of the habitable earth." The Jews took this prediction to belong to themselves in particular, and many of the wise men were thereby deceived in their determination.. Now this oracle certainly denoted the government of Vespasian, who was appointed emperor in Judea. However, it is not possible for men to avoid fate, although they see it beforehand. But these men interpreted some of these signals according to their own pleasure, and some of them they utterly despised, until their madness was demonstrated, both by the taking of their city and their own destruction." (Josephus, "Jewish War," 6.5.4, in Whiston, 1999, p.899. Newman, 1988, p.111; Newman, 1997, pp.223-224; Newman, 2002).
121"The majority were convinced that the ancient scriptures of their priests alluded to the present as the very time when the Orient would triumph and from Judaea would go forth men destined to rule the world. This mysterious prophecy really referred to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, true to the selfish ambitions of mankind, thought that this mighty destiny was reserved for them, and not even their calamities opened their eyes to the truth." (Tacitus, "The Jews," 5.13, in Wellesley, 1995, p.288. Newman, 1988, p.111; Newman, 1997, pp.223-224; Newman, 2002).
122"An ancient superstition was current in the East, that out of Judaea at this time would come the rulers of the world. This prediction, as the event later proved, referred to a Roman Emperor, but the rebellious Jews, who read it as referring to themselves, murdered their Governor, routed the Governor of Syria when he came down to restore order, and captured an Eagle. To crush this uprising the Romans needed a strong army under an energetic commander, who could be trusted not to abuse his considerable powers. The choice fell on Vespasian. He had given signal proof of energy and nothing, it seemed, need be feared from a man of such modest antecedents. Two legions, with eight cavalry squadrons and ten auxiliary cohorts, were therefore dispatched to join the forces already in Judaea; and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, to serve on his staff." (Suetonius, "Vespasian: Aftrerwards Deified," X.4, in Graves & Grant, 2003, pp.283-284; Newman, 1988, p.111; Newman, 1997, pp.223-224; Newman, 2002).
123TWOT, p.2:840.
124Baldwin, 1978, p.170.
125TWOT, p.1:326.
126Young, 1949a, p.206; Archer, 1982, p.291; Archer, 1985, p.113.
127Pusey, 1885, p.190.
128Baldwin, 1978, p.170.
129Young, 1949a, p.206.
130Baldwin, 1978, p.170.
131TWOT, p.2:666.
132TWOT, p.2:680.
133Young, 1949a, p.206.
134Archer, 1982, p.291; 1985, p.113.
135Archer, 1982, p.291.
136Young, 1949a, p.205; Hill & Walton, 2000, p.272; La Sor, et al., p.647.
137TWOT, p.1:33.
138Baldwin, 1978, pp.170-171.
139Archer, 1964, p.387; 1982, p.291; 1985, p.113.
140TWOT, pp.1:456-457.
141Archer, 1982, p.291.
142Archer, 1982, p.291.
143TWOT, p.1:81.
144Archer, 1982, p.291.
145Archer, 1982, p.291; Archer, 1985, p.114.
146Archer, 1982, p.291.
147.
148.
149.
150TWOT, pp.1:93-94.
151TWOT, p.2:917.
152TWOT, p.2:787;2:664.
153.
154TWOT, p.2:786-787.
155.
156.
157TWOT, p.2:809.
158.
159.
160TWOT, p.2:918.
161.
162TWOT, p.1:476.
163.
164.
165Green, 1986, p.691.
166.
167TWOT, p.2:936.
168.
169.
170TWOT, p.1:326.
171.
172.
173.
174TWOT, p.1:148.
175.
176TWOT, p.1:148.
177.
178TWOT, p.2:809.
179.
180TWOT, p.1:30.
181TWOT, p.2:899.
182.
183.
184TWOT, p.1:30.
185.
186TWOT, p.2:902.
187.
188TWOT, p.1:233.
189.
190TWOT, p.1:514-515.
191.
192TWOT, p.1:446..
193.
194.
195.
196.
197.
198Green, 1986, p.691.
199TWOT, pp.1:955.
200TWOT, pp.1:955.
201TWOT, p.2:936.
202.
203TWOT, p.2:646.
204Green, 1986, p.691.
205.
206TWOT, p.1:439.
207.
208TWOT, p.1:326.
209TWOT, p.1:439.
210TWOT, p.2:608.
211.
212TWOT, p.2:936.
213Young, 1949a, p.219.
214.
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