Stephen E. Jones

Darwin's references to "creation" (or its cognates) in his The Origin of Species, 6th Edition, 1872

The following quotes are, as far as I am aware, each and every instance where Darwin used the word "creation" (or its cognates) in his Origin of Species, 6th Edition, 1872. As can be seen, Darwin used the word "creation" (or its cognates, e.g. "created", "creative", "Creator", but excluding "creature" and "procreate") over 109 times in the Origin. However, "creation" is listed only four times in the index: "Centres of creation, 350", "Creation, single centres of, 350", and "Individuals ... simultaneously created, 252, 253". But one of those ("350") is the same entry twice, and the other two ("252, 253") the word "creation" (or its cognates) does not even appear!

And as can also be seen, when Darwin mentioned "creation" (or its cognates), he did it almost always in a pejorative, strawman, sense. That Darwin needed to mention creation at all, in what was supposed to be a purely scientific theory, is evidence that Darwinism is also (if not primarily) a religious theory.

It is common for Darwinists today to rule out in advance even considering creation as an explanation of the origin and development of life on Earth, on the grounds that it is inherently not science. But on that basis, Darwin's Origin of Species could not be science either, because in it Darwin repeatedly considered creation as a rival scientific hypothesis!

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Darwin's References to "creation" (and its cognates), in Darwin C.R., "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection," [1872], Everyman's Library, J.M. Dent & Sons: London, 6th Edition, 1928, reprint.

[Historical Sketch] [Introduction] [Chapter II, IV, V, VI, VIII, IX, X, XIII, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV]

    Historical Sketch

  1. p.7: "Until recently the great majority of naturalists believed that species ... had been separately created"
  2. p.9: "The ... Dean of Manchester, ... believes that single species of each genus were created"
  3. pp.10-11: "The Vestiges of Creation ... argues ... that species are not immutable productions"
  4. p.11: "In .... d'Omalius d'Halloy ... opinion ... new species have been produced by descent with modification than ... separately created"
  5. p.11: "Professor Owen ... speaks ... of "the axiom of the continuous operation of creative power, or of the ordained becoming of living things."
  6. pp.11-12: "These phenomena shake our confidence in the conclusion that the Apteryx ... and the Red Grouse ... were distinct creations"
  7. p.12a: "Always, also, it may be well to bear in mind that by the word 'creation' the zoologist means 'a process he knows not what.'"
  8. p.12b: "when such cases as that of the Red Grouse are "enumerated by the zoologist as evidence of distinct creation"
  9. p.12c: "I was so completely deceived, as were many others, by such expressions as `the continuous operation of creative power,' ..."
  10. p.13: "Mr. Herbert ...has contrasted the theories of the Creation and the Development of organic beings"
  11. p.14a: "Dr. Schaaffhausen ... living plants and animals are not separated from the extinct by new creations"
  12. p.14b: "the...authors named in this Historical Sketch ... believe in the modification of species, or at least disbelieve in separate acts of creation"
  13. p.15a: "The `Philosophy of Creation' has been treated in a masterly manner by the Rev. Baden Powell"
  14. p.15b: "It is difficult to comprehend the meaning of such facts ... if we suppose that each species ... was formed ... by a distinct act of creative power"

  15. [top]

    Introduction

  16. p.18: "In considering the Origin of Species, ... a naturalist ... might come to the conclusion that species had not been independently created."
  17. p.20: "the view ... which I formerly entertained-namely, that each species has been independently created-is erroneous."

  18. [top]

    Chapter II: Variations Under Nature

  19. p.50: "every naturalist knows vaguely what he means when he speaks of a species. ... the term includes the unknown element of a distinct act of creation."
  20. p.56: "The term species thus comes to be a mere useless abstraction, implying and assuming a separate act of creation."
  21. p.58: "De Candolle no longer believes that species are immutable creations"
  22. p.62: "as a special act of creation, there is no apparent reason why more varieties should occur in a group having many species"
  23. p.65: "these analogies are utterly inexplicable if species are independent creations."

  24. [top]

    Chapter IV: Natural Selection; Or the Survival of the Fittest

  25. p.94: "so will natural selection banish the belief of the continued creation of new organic beings"
  26. pp.103-104: "As some few of the old inhabitants become modified ... this will create new places"
  27. p.108: "indigenes; for these are commonly looked at as specially created and adapted for their own country."
  28. pp.125-126: "If species had been independently created, no explanation would have been possible of this kind of classification."

  29. [top]

    Chapter V: Laws of Variation

  30. p.132: "in accordance with the old view of the blind animals having been separately created for the American and European caverns"
  31. p.133: "It would be difficult to give any rational explanation of the affinities of the blind cave-animals ... on the ordinary view of their independent creation."
  32. p.143: "On the view that each species has been independently created ... I can see no explanation."
  33. p.145: "On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should that part of the structure ... be more variable ... ?"
  34. p.148: "According to the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, we should have to attribute this similarity"
  35. p.150: "A considerable catalogue, also, could be given ... unless all these closely allied forms be considered as independently created species"
  36. pp.153-154: "He who believes that each equine species was independently created"
  37. p.154: "I would almost as soon believe ... that fossil shells had ... been created in stone so as to mock the shells living on the sea- shore."

  38. [top]

    Chapter VI: Difficulties of the Theory

  39. p.166a: "He who believes that each being has been created as we now see it, must occasionally have felt surprise"
  40. p.166b: "He who believes in separate and innumerable acts of creation may say that in these cases it has pleased the Creator"
  41. pp.169-170: "But may not this inference be presumptuous? Have we any right to assume that the Creator works by intellectual powers like those of man?"
  42. p.170: "a living optical instrument might thus be formed as superior to one of glass, as the works of the Creator are to those of man?"
  43. pp.176-177: "On the hypothesis of separate acts of creation the whole case remains unintelligible."
  44. p.180a: "It certainly is true that new organs appearing as if created for some special purpose rarely or never appear in any being"
  45. p.180b: "Why, on the theory of Creation, should there be so much variety and so little real novelty?"
  46. p.180c: "Why should all the parts and organs of many independent beings, each supposed to have been separately created ... ?"
  47. p.184: "some naturalists ... believe that many structures have been created ... to delight man or the Creator"
  48. p.185: "With respect to the belief that organic beings have been created beautiful for the delight of man"
  49. p.189: "in the discussion light has been thrown on several facts which on the belief of independent acts of creation are utterly obscure."

  50. [top]

    Chapter VIII: Instinct

  51. p.241: "Must we consider these habits, not as especially endowed or created instincts, but as small consequences of one general law, namely, transition?"
  52. p.260: "to my imagination it is far more satisfactory to look at such instincts ... not as specially endowed or created instincts"

  53. [top]

    Chapter IX: Hybridism

  54. pp.273-274: "In the second place, it is almost as much opposed to the theory of natural selection as to that of special creation"
  55. p.289: "If we look at species as having been specially created ... this similarity would be an astonishing fact"

  56. [top]

    Chapter X: Imperfection of the Geological Record

  57. p.311: "These intervals will have given time for the multiplication of species ... and in the succeeding formation ... will appear as if suddenly created."

  58. [top]

    Chapter XI: Geological Succession of Organic Beings

  59. p.321: "Each formation ... does not mark a new and complete act of creation, but only an occasional scene ... in an ever slowly changing drama."

  60. [top]

    Chapter XII: Geographical Distribution

  61. p.350: "Single Centres of supposed Creation"

  62. p.352: "Cases of this nature are common, and are, as we shall hereafter see, inexplicable on the theory of independent creation."
  63. pp.352-353: "The question of single or multiple centres of creation ... as some authors suppose from many individuals simultaneously created."
  64. p.353: "the three classes of facts which I have selected as presenting the greatest amount of difficulty on the theory of "single centres of creation."
  65. p.361: "Even as long ago as 1747, such facts led Gmelin to conclude that the same species must have been independently created at many distinct points"
  66. p.365: "These cases of close relationship in species ... are inexplicable on the theory of creation"

  67. [top of page]

    Chapter XIII: Geographical Distribution-continued

  68. p.378: "other cases bearing on the truth of the two theories of independent creation and of descent with modification"
  69. p.379: "He who admits the doctrine of the creation of each separate species"
  70. pp.381-382: "But why, on the theory of creation, they should not have been created there, it would be very difficult to explain."
  71. p.382a: "It cannot be said, on the ordinary view of creation, that there has not been time for the creation of mammals."
  72. p.382b: "Why ... has the supposed creative force produced bats and no other mammals on remote islands?"
  73. p.383: "the depth of the sea separating two mammalian faunas ... is quite inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation"
  74. p.385a: "The Galapagos Archipelago ... land-birds ... would commonly be assumed to have been here created"
  75. p.385b: "why should the species which are supposed to have been created in the Galapagos ...?"
  76. pp.385-386: "Facts such as these admit of no sort of explanation on the ordinary view of independent creation"
  77. p.390: "The relations just discussed ... are inexplicable on the ordinary view of the independent creation of each species"
  78. p.391: "And we are led to this conclusion, which has been arrived at by many naturalists under the designation of single centres of creation"

  79. [top]

    Chapter XIV: Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs

  80. pp.395-396: "But many naturalists think that something more is meant by the Natural System; they believe that it reveals the plan of the Creator"
  81. p.396: "Let us now consider ... the difficulties which are encountered on the view that classification either gives some unknown plan of creation"
  82. p.400: "community of descent is the hidden bond which naturalists have been unconsciously seeking, and not some unknown plan of creation"
  83. p.413: "when we ... do not look to some unknown plan of creation, we may hope to make sure but slow progress."
  84. pp.414-415: "On the ordinary view of the independent creation of each being, we can only say that so it is; - that it has pleased the Creator"
  85. p.416: "How inexplicable are the cases of serial homologies on the ordinary view of creation!"
  86. p.416b: "Why should similar bones have been created to form the wing and the leg of a bat, used as they are for such totally different purposes, namely flying and walking?"
  87. p.432: "In works on natural history, rudimentary organs are generally said to have been created `for the sake of symmetry,' ...."
  88. pp.434-435: "organs in a rudimentary ... condition ... presenting a strange difficulty, as they assuredly do on the old doctrine of creation"

  89. [top]

    Chapter XV: Recapitulation and Conclusion

  90. p.442: "Local varieties ... when they have spread, and are discovered in a geological formation, they appear as if suddenly created there"
  91. p.446a: no line of demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to have been produced by special acts of creation"
  92. p.446b: "These are strange relations on the view that each species was independently created"
  93. p.447a: "This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings under what is called the Natural System, is utterly inexplicable on the theory of creation."
  94. p.447b: "nature is prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. But why ... if each species has been independently created, no man can explain."
  95. p.448: "on the ordinary view supposed to have been created and specially adapted for that country"
  96. p.449a: "How inexplicable on the theory of creation is the occasional appearance of stripes"
  97. p.449b: "On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should specific characters"
  98. p.449c: "It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner"
  99. p.450: "This similarity would be a strange fact, if species had been independently created"
  100. p.452a: "the presence of peculiar species of bats on oceanic islands ... are facts utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation"
  101. p.452b: "It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation."
  102. p.454: "On the view of each organism with all its separate parts having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable"
  103. p.455a: "it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe that He created a few original forms capable of self-development"
  104. p.455b: "It cannot be maintained that ... sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation."
  105. p.456: "It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the "plan of creation"
  106. pp.456-457: "Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that ... species ... have been independently created."
  107. p.457a: "Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the created forms of life."
  108. p.457b: "These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth."
  109. p.457c: "Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced?"
  110. p.457d: "Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown?"
  111. p.457e: "and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the mother's womb?"
  112. p.457f: "Undoubtedly some of these same questions cannot be answered by those who believe in the appearance or creation"
  113. p.457g: "It has been maintained by several authors that it is as easy to believe in the creation of a million beings as of one"
  114. p.457h: "and certainly we ought not to believe that innumerable beings within each great class have been created with plain, but deceptive, marks of descent"
  115. p.457i: "I have retained in the foregoing paragraphs ... several sentences which imply that naturalists believe in the separate creation of each species"
  116. pp.457-458: "little advantage is gained by believing that new forms are suddenly developed ... over the old belief in the creation of species"
  117. p.460: "Our classifications ... will then truly give what may be called the plan of creation."
  118. p.461: "As species are produced and exterminated ... not by miraculous acts of creation"
  119. p.462a: "Authors of the highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created"
  120. p.462b: "To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator"
  121. p.462c: "When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants"
  122. p.463: "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator"

  123. [top]


    Historical Sketch

  1. p.7: "Until recently the great majority of naturalists believed that species were immutable productions, and had been separately created. This view has been ably maintained by many authors. Some few naturalists, on the other hand, have believed that species undergo modification, and that the existing forms of life are the descendants by true generation of pre-existing forms." return
  2. p.9: "The Hon. and Rev. W. Herbert, afterwards Dean of Manchester, ... believes that single species of each genus were created in an originally highly plastic condition, and that these have produced, chiefly by intercrossing, but likewise by variation, all our existing species." return
  3. pp.10-11: "The Vestiges of Creation appeared in 1844. In the tenth and much improved edition (1853) the anonymous author ... argues with much force on general grounds that species are not immutable productions" return
  4. p.11: "In 1846 the veteran geologist M. J. d'Omalius d'Halloy published in an excellent though short paper (Bulletins de l'Acad. Roy. Bruxelles, tom. xiii., p. 581), his opinion that it is more probable that new species have been produced by descent with modification than that they have been separately created: the author first promulgated this opinion in 1831." return
  5. p.11: "Professor Owen, in ... his Address to the British Association) in 1858, he speaks (p. li) of "the axiom of the continuous operation of creative power, or of the ordained becoming of living things." return
  6. pp.11-12: "Farther on (p. xc), after referring to geographical distribution, he [Professor Owen] adds, "These phenomena shake our confidence in the conclusion that the Apteryx of New Zealand and the Red Grouse of England were distinct creations in and for those islands respectively." return
  7. p.12a: "Always, also, it may be well to bear in mind that by the word 'creation' the zoologist means 'a process he knows not what.'" return
  8. p.12b: "He [Professor Owen] amplifies this idea by-adding, that when such cases as that of the Red Grouse are "enumerated by the zoologist as evidence of distinct creation of the bird in and for such islands, he chiefly expresses that he knows not bow the Red Grouse came to be there, and there exclusively; signifying also, by this mode of expressing such ignorance, his belief that both the bird and the islands owed their origin to a great first Creative Cause." return
  9. p.12c: "When the first edition of this work was published, I was so completely deceived, as were many others, by such expressions as " the continuous operation of creative power," that I included Professor Owen with other palaeontologists as being firmly convinced of the immutability of species; but it appears (Anat. of Vertebrates, vol. iii., p. 796) that this was on my part a preposterous error." return
  10. p.13: "Mr. Herbert Spencer, in an Essay (originally published in the Leader, March 1852, and republished in his Essays in 1858), has contrasted the theories of the Creation and the Development of organic beings with remarkable skill and force. He argues from the analogy of domestic productions, from the changes which the embryos of many species undergo, from the difficulty of distinguishing species and varieties, and from the principle of general gradation, that species have been modified; and he attributes the modification to the change of circumstances." return
  11. p.14a: "In this same year, 1853, Dr. Schaaffhausen published an excellent pamphlet (Verhand. des Naturhist. Vereins der Preuss. Rheinlands, etc.) in which he maintains the progressive development of organic forms on the earth. He infers that many species have kept true for long periods, whereas a few have become modified. The distinction of species he explains by the destruction of intermediate graduated forms. "Thus living plants and animals are not separated from the extinct by new creations, but are to be regarded as their descendants through continued reproduction." return
  12. p.14b: "I may add, that of the thirty-four authors named in this Historical Sketch, who believe in the modification of species, or at least disbelieve in separate acts of creation, twenty-seven have written on special branches of natural history or geology." return
  13. p.15a: "The `Philosophy of Creation' has been treated in a masterly manner by the Rev. Baden Powell in his Essays on the Unity of Worlds, 1855. Nothing can be more striking than the manner in which he shows that the introduction of new species is `a regular, not a casual phenomenon,' or, as Sir John Herschel expresses it, `a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous process.'" return
  14. p.15b: "In June 1859, Professor Huxley gave a lecture before the Royal Institution on the `Persistent Types of Animal Life.' Referring to such cases, he remarks, `It is difficult to comprehend the meaning of such facts as these, if we suppose that each species of animal and plant, or each great type of organisation was formed and placed upon the surface of the globe at long intervals by a distinct act of creative power; and it is well to recollect that such an assumption is as unsupported by tradition or revelation as it is opposed to the general analogy of nature'" return
  15. Introduction

  16. p.18: "In considering the Origin of Species, it is quite conceivable that a naturalist, reflecting on the mutual affinities of organic beings, on their embryological relations, their geographical distribution, geological succession, and other such facts, might come to the conclusion that species had not been independently created, but had descended, like varieties, from other species." return
  17. p.20: "Although much remains obscure, and will long remain obscure I can entertain no doubt, after the most deliberate study and dispassionate judgment of which I am capable, that the view which most naturalists until recently entertained, and which I formerly entertained-namely, that each species has been independently created-is erroneous. I am fully convinced that species are not immutable; but that those belonging to what are called the same genera are lineal descendants of some other and generally extinct species, in the same manner as the acknowledged varieties of any one species are the descendants of that species." return
  18. Chapter II: Variations Under Nature

  19. p.50: "BEFORE applying the principles arrived at in the last chapter to organic beings in a state of nature, we must briefly discuss whether these latter are subject to any variation. To treat this subject properly, a long catalogue of dry facts ought to be given but these I shall reserve for a future work. Nor shall I here discuss the various definitions which have been given of the term species. No one definition has satisfied all naturalists; yet every naturalist knows vaguely what he means when he speaks of a species. Generally the term includes the unknown element of a distinct act of creation." return
  20. p.56: "Some few naturalists maintain that animals never present varieties; but then these same naturalists rank the slightest difference as of specific value; and when the same identical form is met with in two distant countries, or in two geological formations, they believe that two distinct species are hidden under the same dress. The term species thus comes to be a mere useless abstraction, implying and assuming a separate act of creation." return
  21. p.58: "It should be added that De Candolle no longer believes that species are immutable creations, but concludes that the derivative theory is the most natural one, "and the most accordant with the known facts in palaeontology, geographical botany and zoology, of anatomical structure and classification." return
  22. p.62: "Where many species of a genus have been formed through variation, circumstances have been favourable for variation; and hence we might expect that the circumstances would generally be still favourable to variation. On the other hand, if we look at each species as a special act of creation, there is no apparent reason why more varieties should occur in a group having many species, than in one having few." return
  23. p.65: "In all these respects the species of large genera present a strong analogy with varieties. And we can clearly understand these analogies, if species once existed as varieties, and thus originated; whereas, these analogies are utterly inexplicable if species are independent creations." return
  24. Chapter IV: Natural Selection; Or the Survival of the Fittest

  25. p.94: "Natural selection acts only by the preservation and accumulation of small inherited modifications, each profitable to the preserved being; and as modern geology has almost banished such views as the excavation of a great valley by a single diluvial wave, so will natural selection banish the belief of the continued creation of new organic beings, or of any great and sudden modification in their structure." return
  26. pp.103-104: "As some few of the old inhabitants become modified, the mutual relations of others will often be disturbed; and this will create new places, ready to be filled up by better adapted forms; but all this will take place very slowly although all the individuals of the same species differ in some slight degree from each other, it would often be long before differences of the right nature in various parts of the organisation might occur." return
  27. p.108: "It might have been expected that the plants which would succeed in becoming naturalised in any land would generally have been closely allied to the indigenes; for these are commonly looked at as specially created and adapted for their own country. It might also, perhaps, have been expected that naturalised plants would have belonged to a few groups more especially adapted to certain stations in their new homes. But the case is very different ..." return
  28. pp.125-126: "It is a truly wonderful fact- the wonder of which we are apt to overlook from familiarity-that all animals and all plants throughout all time and space should be related to each other in groups subordinate to groups, in the manner which we everywhere behold-namely, varieties of the same species most closely related, species of the same genus less closely and unequally related, forming sections and sub-genera, species of distinct genera much less closely related, and genera related in different degrees, forming sub- families, families, orders, sub-classes, and classes. The several subordinate groups in any class cannot be ranked in a single file, but seem clustered round points, and these round other points, and so on in almost endless cycles. If species had been independently created, no explanation would have been possible of this kind of classification; but it is explained through inheritance and the complex action of natural selection, entailing extinction and divergence of character, as we have seen illustrated in the diagram." return
  29. Chapter V: Laws of Variation

  30. p.132: "It is difficult to imagine conditions of life more similar than deep limestone caverns under a nearly similar climate; so that, in accordance with the old view of the blind animals having been separately created for the American and European caverns, very close similarity in their organisation and affinities might have been expected. This is certainly not the case ..." return
  31. p.133: "Notwithstanding such modifications, we might expect still to see in the cave-animals of America, affinities to the other inhabitants of that continent, and in those of Europe to the inhabitants of the European continent. And this is the case with some of the American cave-animals, as I hear from Professor Dana; and some of the European cave-insects are very closely allied to those of the surrounding country. It would be difficult to give any rational explanation of the affinities of the blind cave-animals to the other inhabitants of the two continents on the ordinary view of their independent creation." return
  32. p.143: "When we see any part or organ developed in a remarkable degree or manner in a species, the fair presumption is that it is of high importance to that species; nevertheless it is in this case eminently liable to variation. Why should this be so? On the view that each species has been independently created, with all its parts as we now see them, I can see no explanation. But on the view that groups of species are descended from some other species, and have been modified through natural selection, I think we can obtain some light." return
  33. p.145: "On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should that part of the structure, which differs from the same part in other independently created species of the same genus, be more variable than those parts which are closely alike in the several species? I do not see that any explanation can be given. But on the view that species are only strongly marked and fixed varieties, we might expect often to find them still continuing to vary in those parts of their structure which have varied within a moderately recent period, and which have thus come to differ." return
  34. p.148: "According to the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, we should have to attribute this similarity in the enlarged stems of these three plants, not to the vera causa of community of descent, and a consequent tendency to vary in a like manner, but to three separate yet closely related acts of creation." return
  35. p.150: "The difficulty in distinguishing variable species is largely due to the varieties mocking, as it were, other species of the same genus. A considerable catalogue, also, could be given of forms intermediate between two other forms, which themselves can only doubtfully be ranked as species; and this shows, unless all these closely allied forms be considered as independently created species, that they have in varying assumed some of the characters of the others." return
  36. pp.153-154: "He who believes that each equine species was independently created, will, I presume, assert that each species has been created with a tendency to vary, both under nature and under domestication, in this particular manner, so as often to become striped like the other species of the genus; and that each has been created with a strong tendency, when crossed with species inhabiting distant quarters of the world, to produce hybrids resembling in their stripes, not their own parents, but other species of the genus." return
  37. p.154: "To admit this view is, as it seems to me, to reject a real for an unreal, or at least for an unknown, cause. It makes the works of God a mere mockery and deception; I would almost as soon believe with the old and ignorant cosmogonists, that fossil shells had never lived, but had been created in stone so as to mock the shells living on the sea-shore." return
  38. Chapter VI: Difficulties of the Theory

  39. p.166a: "He who believes that each being has been created as we now see it, must occasionally have felt surprise when he has met with an animal having habits and structure not in agreement. What can be plainer than that the webbed feet of ducks and geese are formed for swimming? Yet there are upland geese with webbed feet which rarely go near the water; and no one except Audubon has seen the frigate- bird, which has all its four toes webbed, alight on the surface of the ocean. On the other hand, grebes and coots are eminently aquatic, although their toes are only bordered by membrane." return
  40. p.166b: "He who believes in separate and innumerable acts of creation may say that in these cases it has pleased the Creator to cause a being of one type to take the place of one belonging to another type; but this seems to me only re-stating the fact in dignified language. He who believes in the struggle for existence and in the principle of natural selection, will acknowledge that every organic being is constantly endeavouring to increase in numbers; and that if any one being varies ever so little, either in habits or structure, and thus gains an advantage over some other inhabitant of the same country, it will seize on the place of that inhabitant, however different that may be from its own place. Hence it will cause him no surprise that there should be geese and frigate-birds with webbed feet, living on the dry land and rarely alighting on the water; that there should be long-toed corncrakes, living in meadows instead of in swamps; that there should be woodpeckers where hardly a tree grows; that there should be diving thrushes and diving Hymenoptera, and petrels with the habits of auks." return
  41. pp.169-170: "It is scarcely possible to avoid comparing the eye with a telescope. We know that this instrument has been perfected by the long-continued efforts of the highest human intellects; and we naturally infer that the eye has been formed by a somewhat analogous process. But may not this inference be presumptuous? Have we any right to assume that the Creator works by intellectual powers like those of man?" return
  42. p.170: "If we must compare the eye to an optical instrument, we ought in imagination to take a thick layer of transparent tissue, with spaces filled with fluid, and with a nerve sensitive to light beneath, and then suppose every part of this layer to be continually changing slowly in density, so as to separate into layers of different densities and thicknesses, placed at different distances from each other, and with the surfaces of each layer slowly changing in form. Further we must suppose that there is a power, represented by natural selection or the survival of the fittest, always intently watching each slight alteration in the transparent layers; and carefully preserving each which, under varied circumstances, in any way or in any degree, tends to produce a distinctive image. We must suppose each new state of the instrument to be multiplied by the million; each to be preserved until a better one is produced, and then the old ones to be all destroyed. In living bodies, variation will cause the slight alterations, generation will multiply them almost infinitely) and natural selection will pick out with unerring skill each improvement. Let this process go on for millions of years- and during each year on millions of individuals of many kinds and may we not believe that a living optical instrument might thus be formed as superior to one of glass, as the works of the Creator are to those of man?" return
  43. pp.176-177: "Several families of crustaceans include a few species possessing an air-breathing apparatus and fitted to live out of the water. ... Now such differences are intelligible, and might even have been expected, on the supposition that species belonging to distinct families had slowly become adapted to live more and more out of water, and to breathe the air. For these species, from belonging to distinct families, would have differed to a certain extent, and in accordance with the principle that the nature of each variation depends on two factors, viz. the nature of the organism and that of the surrounding conditions, their variability assuredly would not have been exactly the same. Consequently natural selection would have had different materials or variations to work on, in order to arrive at the same functional result; and the structures thus acquired would almost necessarily have differed. On the hypothesis of separate acts of creation the whole case remains unintelligible." return
  44. p.180a: "Finally then, although in many cases it is most difficult even to conjecture by what transitions organs have arrived at their present state, yet, considering how small the proportion of living and known forms is to the extinct and unknown, I have been astonished how rarely an organ can be named, towards which no transitional grade is known to lead. It certainly is true that new organs appearing as if created for some special purpose rarely or never appear in any being-as indeed is shown by that old, but somewhat exaggerated, canon in natural history of "Natura non facit saltum." return
  45. p.180b: "We meet with this admission in the writings of almost every experienced naturalist; or as Milne Edwards has well expressed it, Nature is prodigal in variety, but niggard in innovation. Why, on the theory of Creation, should there be so much variety and so little real novelty?" return
  46. p.180c: "Why should all the parts and organs of many independent beings, each supposed to have been separately created for its proper place in nature, be so commonly linked together by graduated steps?" return
  47. p.184: "The foregoing remarks lead me to say a few words on the protest lately made by some naturalists, against the utilitarian doctrine that every detail of structure has been produced for the good of its possessor. They believe that many structures have been created for the sake of beauty, to delight man or the Creator (but this latter point is beyond the scope of scientific discussion), or for the sake of mere variety, a view already discussed." return
  48. p.185: "With respect to the belief that organic beings have been created beautiful for the delight of man,-a belief which it has been pronounced is subversive of my whole theory,-I may first remark that the sense of beauty obviously depends on the nature of the mind, irrespective of any real quality in the admired object; and that the idea of what is beautiful is not innate or unalterable. We see this, for instance, in the men of different races admiring an entirely different standard of beauty in their women. If beautiful objects had been created solely for man's gratification, it ought to be shown that before man appeared there was less beauty on the face of the earth than since he came on the stage. Were the beautiful volute and cone shells of the Eocene epoch, and the gracefully sculptured ammonites of the Secondary period, created that man might ages afterwards admire them in his cabinet? Few objects are more beautiful than the minute siliceous cases of the diatomaceae: were these created that they might be examined and admired under the higher powers of the microscope?" return
  49. p.189: "We have in this chapter discussed some of the difficulties and objections which may be urged against the theory. Many of them are serious; but I think that in the discussion light has been thrown on several facts which on the belief of independent acts of creation are utterly obscure." return
  50. Chapter VIII: Instinct

  51. p.241: "Mr. Hudson is a strong disbeliever in evolution, but he appears to have been so much struck by the imperfect instincts of the Molothrus bonariensis that he quotes my words, and asks, "Must we consider these habits, not as especially endowed or created instincts, but as small consequences of one general law, namely, transition?" return
  52. p.260: "Finally, it may not be a logical deduction, but to my imagination it is far more satisfactory to look at such instincts as the young cuckoo ejecting its foster-brothers,-ants making slaves,-the larvae of ichneumonidae feeding within the live bodies of caterpillars,-not as specially endowed or created instincts, but as small consequences of one general law leading to the advancement of all organic beings,-namely, multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die." return
  53. Chapter IX: Hybridism

  54. pp.273-274: "In the first place, it may be remarked that species inhabiting distinct regions are often sterile when crossed; now it could clearly have been of no advantage to such separated species to have been rendered mutually sterile, and consequently this could not have been effected through natural selection; but it may perhaps be argued, that, if a species was rendered sterile with some one compatriot, sterility with other species would follow as a necessary contingency. In the second place, it is almost as much opposed to the theory of natural selection as to that of special creation, that in reciprocal crosses the male element of one form should have been rendered utterly impotent on a second form, whilst at the same time the male element of this second form is enabled freely to fertilise the first form; for this peculiar state of the reproductive system could hardly have been advantageous to either species." return
  55. p.289: "Independently of the question of fertility and sterility, in all other respects there seems to be a general and close similarity in the offspring of crossed species, and of crossed varieties. If we look at species as having been specially created, and at varieties as having been produced by secondary laws, this similarity would be an astonishing fact. But it harmonises perfectly with the view that there is no essential distinction between species and varieties." return
  56. Chapter X: Imperfection of the Geological Record

  57. p.311: "We do not make due allowance for the intervals of time which have elapsed between our consecutive formations,-longer perhaps in many cases than the time required for the accumulation of each formation. These intervals will have given time for the multiplication of species from some one parent-form; and in the succeeding formation, such groups or species will appear as if suddenly created." return
  58. Chapter XI: Geological Succession of Organic Beings

  59. p.321: "In members of the same class the average amount of change, during long and equal periods of time, may, perhaps, be nearly the same; but as the accumulation of enduring formations, rich in fossils, depends on great masses of sediment being deposited on subsiding areas, our formations have been almost necessarily accumulated at wide and irregularly intermittent intervals of time; consequently the amount of organic change exhibited by the fossils embedded in consecutive formations is not equal. Each formation, on this view, does not mark a new and complete act of creation, but only an occasional scene, taken almost at hazard, in an ever slowly changing drama." return
  60. Chapter XII: Geographical Distribution

  61. p.350: "Single Centres of supposed Creation.-We are thus brought to the question which has been largely discussed by naturalists, namely, whether species have been created at one or more points of the earth's surface. Undoubtedly there are many cases of extreme difficulty in understanding how the same species could possibly have migrated from some one point to the several distant and isolated points where now found. Nevertheless the simplicity of the view that each species was first produced within a single region captivates the mind. He who rejects it, rejects the vera causa of ordinary generation with subsequent migration, and calls in the agency of a miracle." return
  62. p.352: "A volcanic island, for instance, upheaved and formed at the distance of a few hundreds of miles from a continent, would probably receive from it in the course of time a few colonists, and their descendants, though modified, would still be related by inheritance to the inhabitants of that continent. Cases of this nature are common, and are, as we shall hereafter see, inexplicable on the theory of independent creation." return
  63. pp.352-353: "The question of single or multiple centres of creation differ from another though allied question,-namely, whether all the individuals of the same species are descended from a single pair or single hermaphrodite, or whether, as some authors suppose from many individuals simultaneously created." return
  64. p.353: "Before discussing the three classes of facts which I have selected as presenting the greatest amount of difficulty on the theory of "single centres of creation," I must say a few words on the means of dispersal." return
  65. p.361: "Even as long ago as 1747, such facts led Gmelin to conclude that the same species must have been independently created at many distinct points; and we might have remained in this same belief, had not Agassiz and others called vivid attention to the Glacial period, which, as we shall immediately see, affords a simple explanation of these facts." return
  66. p.365: "These cases of close relationship in species either now or formerly inhabiting the seas on the eastern and western shores of North America, the Mediterranean and Japan, and the temperate lands of North America and Europe, are inexplicable on the theory of creation. We cannot maintain that such species have been created alike, in correspondence with the nearly similar physical conditions of the areas; for if we compare, for instance, certain parts of South America with parts of South Africa or Australia, we see countries closely similar in all their physical conditions, with their inhabitants utterly dissimilar." return
  67. Chapter XIII: Geographical Distribution- continued

  68. p.378: "In the following remarks I shall not confine myself to the mere question of dispersal, but shall consider some other cases bearing on the truth of the two theories of independent creation and of descent with modification." return
  69. p.379: "He who admits the doctrine of the creation of each separate species, will have to admit that a sufficient number of the best adapted plants and animals were not created for oceanic islands; for man has unintentionally stocked them far more fully and perfectly than did nature." return
  70. pp.381-382: "But as these animals and their spawn are immediately killed (with the exception, as far as known, of one Indian species) by sea-water, there would be great difficulty in their transportal across the sea, and therefore we can see why they do not exist on strictly oceanic islands. But why, on the theory of creation, they should not have been created there, it would be very difficult to explain." return
  71. p.382a: "It cannot be said, on the ordinary view of creation, that there has not been time for the creation of mammals; many volcanic islands are sufficiently ancient, as shown by the stupendous degradation which they have suffered, and by their tertiary strata: there has also been time for the production of endemic species belonging to other classes; and on continents it is known that new species of mammals appear and disappear at a quicker rate than other and lower animals." return
  72. p.382b: "Why, it may be asked, has the supposed creative force produced bats and no other mammals on remote islands? On my view this question can easily be answered; for no terrestrial mammal can be transported across a wide space of sea, but bats can fly across." return
  73. p.383: "As the amount of modification which animals of all kinds undergo, partly depends on the lapse of time, and as the islands which are separated from each other or from the mainland by shallow channels, are more likely to have been continuously united within a recent period than the islands separated by deeper channels, we can understand how it is that a relation exists between the depth of the sea separating two mammalian faunas, and the degree of their affinity,-a relation which is quite inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation." return
  74. p.385a: "The Galapagos Archipelago, situated under the equator, lies at the distance of between 500 and 600 miles from the shores of South America. Here almost every product of the land and of the water bears the unmistakable stamp of the American continent. There are twenty-six land-birds; of these, twenty-one or perhaps twenty-three are ranked as distinct species, and would commonly be assumed to have been here created; yet the close affinity of most of these birds to American species is manifest in every character, in their habits, gestures, and tones of voice." return
  75. p.385b: "The naturalist, looking at the inhabitants of these volcanic islands in the Pacific, distant several hundred miles from the continent, feels that he is standing on American land. Why should this be so? why should the species which are supposed to have been created in the Galapagos Archipelago, and nowhere else, bear so plainly the stamp of affinity to those created in America?" return
  76. pp.385-386: "Facts such as these admit of no sort of explanation on the ordinary view of independent creation; whereas on the view here maintained, it is obvious that the Galapagos Islands would be likely to colonists from America, whether by occasional means of transport or (though I do not believe in this doctrine) by formerly continuous land, and the Cape Verde Islands from Africa; such colonists would be liable to modification,-the principle of inheritance still betraying their original birthplace." return
  77. p.390: "The relations just discussed,-namely, lower organisms ranging more widely than the higher,-some of the species of widely ranging genera themselves ranging widely,-such facts, as alpine, lacustrine, and marsh productions being generally related to those which live on the surrounding low lands and dry lands,- the striking relationship between the inhabitants of islands and those of the nearest mainland,-the still closer relationship of the distinct inhabitants of the islands in the same archipelago,-are inexplicable on the ordinary view of the independent creation of each species, but are explicable if we admit colonisation from the nearest or readiest source, together with the subsequent adaptation of the colonists to their new homes." return
  78. p.391: "In these chapters I have endeavoured to show, that if we make due allowance for our ignorance of the full effects of changes of climate and of the level of the land, which have certainly occurred within the recent period, and of other changes which have probably occurred,-if we remember how ignorant we are with respect to the many curious means of occasional transport, -if we bear in mind, and this is a very important consideration, how often a species may have ranged continuously over a wide area, and then have become extinct in the intermediate tracts,-the difficulty is not insuperable in believing that all the individuals of the same species, wherever found, are descended from common parents. And we are led to this conclusion, which has been arrived at by many naturalists under the designation of single centres of creation, by various general considerations, more especially from the importance of barriers of all kinds, and from the analogical distribution of sub-genera, genera, and families." return
  79. Chapter XIV: Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs

  80. pp.395-396: "Naturalists, as we have seen, try to arrange the species, genera, and families in each class, on what is called the Natural System. But what is meant by this system? Some authors look at it merely as a scheme for arranging together those living objects which are most alike, and for separating those which are most unlike; or as an artificial method of enunciating, as briefly as possible, general propositions,- that is, by one sentence to give the characters common, for instance, to all mammals, by another those common to all carnivora, by another those common to the dog-genus, and then, by adding a single sentence, a full description is given of each kind of dog. The ingenuity and utility of this system are indisputable. But many naturalists think that something more is meant by the Natural System; they believe that it reveals the plan of the Creator; but unless it be specified whether order in time or space, or both, or what else is meant by the plan of the Creator, it seems to me that nothing is thus added to our knowledge." return
  81. p.396: "Let us now consider the rules followed in classification, and the difficulties which are encountered on the view that classification either gives some unknown plan of creation, or is simply a scheme for enunciating general propositions andacing together the forms most like each other. Itand was in ancient times thought) that those parts of the structure which determined the habits of life, and the general place of each being in the economy of nature, would be of very high importance in classification. Nothing can be more false." return
  82. p.400: "All the foregoing rules and aids and difficulties in classification may be explained, if I do not greatly deceive myself, on the view that the Natural System is founded on descent with modification;-that the characters which naturalists consider as showing true affinity between any two or more species, are those which have been inherited from a common parent, all true classification being genealogical;-that community of descent is the hidden bond which naturalists have been unconsciously seeking, and not some unknown plan of creation, or the enunciation of general propositions, and the mere putting together and separating objects more or less alike." return
  83. p.413: "We can clearly see how it is that all living and extinct forms can be grouped together within a few great classes; and how the several members of each class are connected together by the most complex and radiating lines of affinities. We shall never, probably, disentangle the inextricable web of the affinities between the members of any one class; but when we have a distinct object in view, and do not look to some unknown plan of creation, we may hope to make sure but slow progress." return
  84. pp.414-415: "Nothing can be more hopeless than to attempt to explain this similarity of pattern in members of the same class, by utility or by the doctrine of final causes. The hopelessness of the attempt has been expressly admitted by Owen in his most interesting work on the Nature of Limbs. On the ordinary view of the independent creation of each being, we can only say that so it is; - that it has pleased the Creator to construct all the animals and plants in each great class on a uniform plan; but this is not a scientific explanation." return
  85. p.416a: "How inexplicable are the cases of serial homologies on the ordinary view of creation! Why should the brain be enclosed in a box composed of such numerous and such extraordinarily shaped pieces of bone, apparently representing vertebrae? As Owen has remarked, the benefit derived from the yielding of the separate pieces in the act of parturition by mammals, will by no means explain the same construction in the skulls of birds and reptiles." return
  86. p.416b: "Why should similar bones have been created to form the wing and the leg of a bat, used as they are for such totally different purposes, namely flying and walking? Why should one crustacean, which has an extremely complex mouth formed of many parts, consequently always have fewer legs; or conversely, those with many legs have simpler mouths? Why should the sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils in each flower, though fitted for such distinct purposes, be all constructed on the same pattern?" return
  87. p.432: "I have now given the leading facts with respect to rudimentary organs. In reflecting on them, everyone must be struck with astonishment; for the same reasoning power which tells us that most parts and organs are exquisitely adapted for certain purposes, tells us with equal plainness that these rudimentary or atrophied organs are imperfect and useless. In works on natural history, rudimentary organs are generally said to have been created `for the sake of symmetry,' or in order `to complete the scheme of nature.' But this is not an explanation, merely a re-statement of the fact." return
  88. pp.434-435: "On the view of descent with modification, we may conclude that the existence of organs in a rudimentary, imperfect, and useless condition, or quite aborted, far from presenting a strange difficulty, as they assuredly do on the old doctrine of creation, might even have been anticipated in accordance with the views here explained." return
  89. Chapter XV: Recapitulation and Conclusion

  90. p.442: "It is the dominant and widely ranging species which vary most frequently and vary most, and varieties are often at first local-both causes rendering the discovery of intermediate links in any one formation less likely. Local varieties will not spread into other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and improved; and when they have spread, and are discovered in a geological formation, they appear as if suddenly created there, and will be simply classed as new species." return
  91. p.446a: "On the view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to have been produced by special acts of creation, and varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by secondary laws." return
  92. p.446b: "Moreover, the species of the larger genera, which afford the greater number of varieties or incipient species, retain to a certain degree the character of varieties; for they differ from each other by a less amount of difference than do the species of smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and in their affinities they are clustered in little groups round other species-in both respects resembling varieties. These are strange relations on the view that each species was independently created, but are intelligible if each existed first as a variety." return
  93. p.447a: "This tendency in the large groups to go on increasing in size and diverging in character, together with the inevitable contingency of much extinction, explains the arrangement of all the forms of life in groups subordinate to groups, all within a few great classes, which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings under what is called the Natural System, is utterly inexplicable on the theory of creation." return
  94. p.447b: "We can see why throughout nature the same general end is gained by an almost infinite diversity of means, for every peculiarity when once acquired is long inherited, and structures already modified in many different ways have to be adapted for the same general purpose. We can, in short, see why nature is prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. But why this should be a law of nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain." return
  95. p.448: "As natural selection acts by competition, it adapts and improves the inhabitants of each country only in relation to their co-inhabitants; so that we need feel no surprise at the species of any one country, although on the ordinary view supposed to have been created and specially adapted for that country, being beaten and supplanted by the naturalised productions from another land." return
  96. p.449a: "How inexplicable on the theory of creation is the occasional appearance of stripes on the shoulders and legs of the several species of the horse-genus and of their hybrids! How simply is this fact explained if we believe that these species are all descended from a striped progenitor, in the same manner as the several domestic breeds of the pigeon are descended from the blue and barred rock- pigeon!" return
  97. p.449b: "On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should specific characters, or those by which the species of the same genus differ from each other, be more variable than generic characters in which they all agree? Why, for instance, should the colour of a flower be more likely to vary in any one species of a genus, if the other species possess differently coloured flowers, than if all possessed the same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the characters have become in a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for they have already varied since they branched off from a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from each other; therefore these same characters would be more likely again to vary than the generic characters which have been inherited without change for an immense period." return
  98. p.449c: "It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner in one species alone of a genus, and therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to that species, should be eminently liable to variation; but, on our view, this part has undergone, since the several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of variability and modification, and therefore we might expect the part generally to be still variable." return
  99. p.450: "If species be only well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at once see why their crossed offspring should follow the same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of resemblance to their parents,-in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in other such points,-as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. This similarity would be a strange fact, if species had been independently created and varieties had been produced through secondary laws." return
  100. p.452a: "On this view of migration, with subsequent modification, we see why oceanic islands are inhabited by only few species, but of these, why many are peculiar or endemic forms. We clearly see why species belonging to those groups of animals which cannot cross wide spaces of the ocean, as frogs and terrestrial mammals, do not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, animals which can traverse the ocean, are often found on islands far distant from any continent. Such cases as the presence of peculiar species of bats on oceanic islands and the absence of all other terrestrial mammals, are facts utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation." return
  101. p.452b: "It is a rule of high generality that the inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. We see this in the striking relation of nearly all the plants and animals of the Galapagos Archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and of the other American islands, to the plants and animals of the neighbouring American mainland; and of those of the Cape de Verde Archipelago and of the other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation." return
  102. p.454: "On the view of each organism with all its separate parts having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable is it that organs bearing the plain stamp of inutility, such as the teeth in the embryonic calf or the shrivelled wings under the soldered wing-covers of many beetles, should so frequently occur." return
  103. p.455a: "I see no good reason why the views given in this volume should shock the religious feelings of anyone. It is satisfactory, as showing how transient such impressions are, to remember that the greatest discovery ever made by man, namely the law of the attraction of gravity, was also attacked by Leibnitz, "as subversive of natural, and inferentially of revealed, religion." A celebrated author and divine has written to me that "he has gradually learnt to see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe that He created a few original forms capable of self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that He required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of His laws." return
  104. p.455b: "Why, it may be asked, until recently did nearly all the most eminent living naturalists and geologists disbelieve in the mutability of species. It cannot be asserted that organic beings in state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the amount of variation in the course of long ages is a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and well-marked varieties. It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation." return
  105. p.456: "Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume under the form of an abstract, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only re-state a fact." return
  106. pp.456-457: "Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that a multitude of reputed species in each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. This seems to me a strange conclusion to arrive at. They admit that a multitude of forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at by the majority of naturalists, and which consequently have all the external characteristic features of true species,-they admit that these have been produced by variation, but they refuse to extend the same view to other and slightly different forms." return
  107. p.457a: "Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the created forms of life, and which are those produced by secondary laws. They admit variation as a vera causa in one case, they arbitrarily reject it in another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion." return
  108. p.457b: "These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into living tissues?" return
  109. p.457c: "Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced?" return
  110. p.457d: "Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown?" return
  111. p.457e: "and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the mother's womb?" return
  112. p.457f: "Undoubtedly some of these same questions cannot be answered by those who believe in the appearance or creation of only a few forms of life, or of some one form alone." return
  113. p.457g: "It has been maintained by several authors that it is as easy to believe in the creation of a million beings as of one; but Maupertuis's philosophical axiom "of least action" leads the mind more willingly to admit the smaller number" return
  114. p.457h: "and certainly we ought not to believe that innumerable beings within each great class have been created with plain, but deceptive, marks of descent from a single parent." return
  115. p.457i: "As a record of a former state of things, I have retained in the foregoing paragraphs, and elsewhere, several sentences which imply that naturalists believe in the separate creation of each species; and I have been much censured for having thus expressed myself. But undoubtedly this was the general belief when the first edition of the present work appeared." return
  116. pp.457-458: "There are, however, some who still think that species have suddenly given birth, through quite unexplained means, to new and totally different forms: but, as I have attempted to show, weighty evidence can be opposed to the admission of great and abrupt modifications. Under a scientific point of view, and as leading to further investigation, but little advantage is gained by believing that new forms are suddenly developed in an inexplicable manner from old and widely different forms, over the old belief in the creation of species from the dust of the earth." return
  117. p.460: "A grand and almost untrodden field of inquiry will be opened on the causes and laws of variation, on correlation, on the effects of use and disuse, on the direct action of external conditions, and so forth. The study of domestic productions will rise immensely in value. A new variety raised by man will be a more important and interesting subject for study than one more species added to the infinitude of already recorded species. Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the plan of creation." return
  118. p.461: "We must be cautious in attempting to correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which do not include many identical species, by the general succession of the forms of life. As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and not by miraculous acts of creation- and as the most important of all causes of organic change is one which is almost independent of altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the mutual relation of organism to organism,-the improvement of one organism entailing the improvement or the extermination of others; it follows that the amount of organic change in the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the relative, though not actual lapse of time." return
  119. p.462a: "Authors of the highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created." return
  120. p.462b: "To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the production and extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the birth and death of the individual." return
  121. p.462c: "When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Cambrian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled." return
  122. p.463: "Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved." return

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Copyright © 2002-2007, by Stephen E. Jones. All rights reserved. This page and its contents may be used for non-commercial purposes only.
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Created: 29 January, 2002. Updated: 25 March, 2007.

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