Stephen E. Jones

Jesus is Jehovah Quotes: Unclassified quotes: January 2008

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The following are quotes added to my Jesus is Jehovah unclassified quotes database in January 2008.
The date format is dd/mm/yy. See copyright conditions at end.

[Index: Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec]


4/01/2008
"From time to time, there have arisen from among the ranks of Jehovah's people those who, like the original 
Satan, have adopted an independent, faultfinding attitude. They do not want to serve `shoulder to shoulder' 
with the worldwide brotherhood. (Compare Ephesians 2:1922.) Rather, they present a `stubborn shoulder' to 
Jehovah's words. (Zech. 7:11, 12) Reviling the pattern of the `pure language' that Jehovah has so graciously 
taught his people over the past century, these haughty ones try to draw the `sheep' away from the one 
international `flock' that Jesus has gathered in the earth. (John 10:7-10, 16) They try to sow doubts and to 
separate unsuspecting ones from the bounteous `table' of spiritual food spread at the Kingdom Halls of 
Jehovah's Witnesses, where truly there is 'nothing lacking.' (Ps. 23:1-6) They say that it is sufficient to read 
the Bible exclusively, either alone or in small groups at home. But, strangely, through such `Bible reading,' 
they have reverted right back to the apostate doctrines that commentaries by Christendom's clergy were 
teaching 100 years ago, and some have even returned to celebrating Christendom's festivals again, such as 
the Roman Saturnalia of December 25! Jesus and his apostles warned against such lawless ones.-Matt. 
24:1113; Acts 20:28-30; 2 Pet. 2:1, 22." (The Watchtower, August 15, 1981, pp.28-29, in Franz, R., "Crisis of 
Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.34-35)

11/01/2008
"Apostates Apostates, as Jehovah's Witnesses use the term, are former members who now reject the 
Watchtower Society's teachings. Outsiders might assume, from the revulsion and disdain JWs manifest at the 
mere mention of these former members, that such apostates have rejected God, Christ, the Bible, and 
everything Christian morality stands for. But this generally is not the case. Rather, the ex-members assigned the 
apostate label are usually those whose zeal for God and whose depth of biblical scholarship has led them to 
question some of the sect's unorthodox teachings. In the "Questions from Readers" column (page 31) of its 
April 1, 1986 issue The Watchtower makes an unusual admission of this fact. The column responds to a 
reader's inquiry, `Why have Jehovah's Witnesses disfellowshipped (excommunicated) for apostasy some who 
still profess belief in God, the Bible, and Jesus Christ?' The official answer includes the following: `Approved 
association with Jehovah's Witnesses requires accepting the entire range of the true teachings of the Bible, 
including those Scriptural beliefs that are unique toah's Witnesses. What do such beliefs include? ... That 
there is a "faithful and discreet slave" upon earth today "entrusted with all of Jesus' earthly interests," which 
slave is associated with the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses. (Matthew 24:45-47) That 1914 marked 
the end of the Gentile Times and the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the heavens, as well as the time 
for Christ's foretold presence ... That only 144,000 Christians will receive the heavenly reward ... '" (Reed, D.A., 
"Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1996, Second printing, 1998, 
p.31. Emphasis and ellipses original).

11/01/2008
"Thus individuals who are exemplary in moral conduct and in their activity as Jehovah's Witnesses may be 
expelled as apostates for questioning the 1914 date or the number of those going to heaven or, more 
significantly, the authority of the JW Governing Body to make such determinations. For obvious reasons, the 
article fails to mention that, between 1967 and 1980, Witnesses could also face disfellowshipping for violating 
the "unique" belief that organ transplants were forbidden by God as a form of cannibalism. (See Organ 
Transplants.) And, that between 1972 and 1978, married couples could be disfellowshipped for violating the 
Governing Body's "unique" beliefs about what sort of contact was improper between husband and wife in the 
marriage bed. (See Marriage.) When the organization itself later abandoned these "unique" beliefs, it made no 
apology to the individuals who had earlier been disfellowshipped. They retained the apostate label for having 
questioned the organization's authority." (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," 
Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1996, Second printing, 1998, pp.31-32).

11/01/2008
"JWs often bring up the subject of apostates when a non-Witness they are talking with challenges them on the 
sect's failed prophecies, doctrinal flip-flops, or other embarrassing facts about the organization. `Where did you 
get this information?' they typically ask. `Have you been talking to apostate ex-Witnesses or reading books by 
apostates?' Since Witnesses find exposes of their organization's blunders much more unsettling and more 
threatening to their faith than biblical arguments, the Brooklyn leadership has taught them to dismiss all such 
information out of hand with the argument that it must have come from apostate ex-Witnesses. ." (Reed, D.A., 
"Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1996, Second printing, 1998, 
pp.31-32).

11/01/2008
"Apostates are the most despicable people on the face of the earth, JWs are taught, with the result that a 
Witness would much rather encounter someone expelled from the sect for theft or adultery than find himself 
face-to-face with an apostate. The Watchtower tells them that they `must hate' apostates and that they must 
not be `curious about apostate ideas.' (October 1, 1993, page 19) Therefore, any information that may come 
from an apostate source can be dismissed without even listening to it. This method of dealing with a charge by 
attacking its source is what debaters call an ad hominem argument-one directed at the man rather than at his 
ideas. In another context not dealing with apostates, the JW Awake! magazine itself lists `Attacking the 
Person' among the `Five Common Fallacies' in argumentation and concludes, `But while personal attacks, 
subtle and not so subtle, may intimidate and persuade, never do they disprove what has been said.' (May 
22,1990, pages 12-13)." (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," Baker: Grand 
Rapids MI, 1996, Second printing, 1998, pp.32-33). 

11/01/2008
'Inevitably questions will be asked about the author. I am an evangelical Christian, and regard the Bible as 
the only unerring revelation of God's truth. I have never been a JW, and therefore am not an `apostate' by 
JW standards. I hold a master's degree in biblical studies and theology from Fuller Theological Seminary, a 
degree requiring competency in biblical Greek and Hebrew. At present I am pursuing a Ph.D. in theology 
from Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, while working part-time as an Editorial Consultant 
for the Christian Research Institute in Southern California, where for over four years I was a researcher and 
editor. CRI is an evangelical ministry which disseminates information on heretical and non-Christian 
religions. " (Bowman, R.M., Jr., "The Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus Christ, and the Gospel of John," Baker: 
Grand Rapids MI, 1989, Reprinted, 1995, p.14).

11/01/2008
"Definition: Apostasy is abandoning or deserting the worship and service of God, actually a rebellion 
against Jehovah God. Some apostates profess to know and serve God but reject teachings or requirements 
set out in his Word. Others claim to believe the Bible but reject Jehovah's organization. (Watchtower Bible 
& Tract Society, "Reasoning from the Scriptures," [1985], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: 
Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1989, p.34. Emphasis original).

11/01/2008
"Thus the lineaments of a trinitarian doctrine were discernible in the early Greek apologists, but it was left to 
a theologian of the Latin Church to give to the doctrine of the Trinity classic expression which, in its 
fundamentals, remains to this day the expression of the Church's Trinitarianism-Tertullian (c. 160-240). ... It is 
significant, however, that Tertullian wrote as one who was upholding not a new doctrine, but the traditional 
faith of the Church, albeit a faith that was as yet only imperfectly understood or formulated. It was through 
Tertullian that the elements of the doctrine first found some sort of scientific adjustment and it can be 
affirmed that no-one before Tertullian, and few besides Tertullian, succeeded in giving anything like a 
formulated expression to this Trinitarianism." (Finlayson, R.A., "The Story of Theology," London : Tyndale 
Press, 1963, pp.15-16)

11/01/2008
"Tertullian reasserted the distinctions of the three Persons, but he met with the greatest difficulty when he 
sought to carry these distinctions back into the Godhead without imperilling the unity of God. While he kept 
his discussion within the framework of the Logos doctrine, the substance of his thinking was derived from 
the Scriptures and the Rule of Faith. He stated with a definiteness and clarity not known before the full 
doctrine of the Trinity, asserting a real distinction of Persons which belongs to the substance of the Divine 
Essence and is not merely derived from the Father, as the Logos theologians held. From the Scriptures and 
the Rule of Faith he derived the doctrine of the Holy Spirit, to whom he accords absolute deity and eternal 
distinctness of personality. While the three Persons are one, they are ` one but not identical ', and though 
they are distinct they are one God and not to be separated. As the trunk and the branch, the fountain and 
the river, the sun and the sunbeam, cannot be separated, so also the Father and the Son cannot be 
separated." (Finlayson, R.A., "The Story of Theology," London : Tyndale Press, 1963, p.16)

11/01/2008
"Out of the Latin tongue - cumbersome as it is, compared with the Greek - Tertullian forged the concepts 
that are still used to express the Trinitarian dogma. To him belongs the distinction of first using the words ' 
Person ', ' Substance' and 'Trinity ' as applied to Godhead. 'Person ' refers to the distinctions within the life of 
the Godhead, and while it falls short of what is intended and can, to our thought, be misleading as indicating 
separate independent existence, a better word has not been found. 'Trinity' has the advantage of combining 
the terms ` tri ' and 'unity ', thus drawing attention to the Unity of the Tri-Personal God. We also owe to 
Tertullian the word 'generation ' as indicating the relationship of the Son to the Father, a word that is also 
capable of misapplication, though, here again, a better has not been found. It signifies an eternal 
relationship between Father and Son which can have no analogy in human relationships." (Finlayson, R.A., 
"The Story of Theology," London : Tyndale Press, 1963, pp.16-17) 

11/01/2008
"Tertullian's [c.150-155] most influential work was the definition of the Logos Christology, though he 
preferred to use the designation Son rather than Logos. If he advanced. its content little beyond what had 
already been presented by the theologians of Asia Minor, and especially by the Apologists, his legal mind 
gave a clearness to its explanation such as had not before existed. Here his chief work was one written in his 
Montanist period - Against Praxeas. He defines the Godhead in terms which almost anticipate the Nicene 
result of more than a century later. `All are of one, by unity of substance; while the mystery of the 
dispensation is still guarded which distributes the unity into a Trinity, placing in their order the three, the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; three, however ... not in substance but in form; not in power but in 
appearance, for they are of one substance and one essence and one power, inasmuch as He is one God from 
whom these degrees anal forms and aspects are reckoned under the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Spirit.' [Praxeas, 2] He describes these distinctions of the Godhead as `persons,' [Ibid, 12] 
meaning by the word not our usage in the sense of personalities, but objective modes of being. This unity 
of substance in Tertullian's thought is material, for he was sufficiently a Stoic to hold that `God is a body ... 
for spirit has a bodily substance of its own kind.' [Ibid, 7] With a similar precision, Tertullian distinguished 
between the human and divine in Christ. `We see His double state, not intermixed but conjoined in one 
person, Jesus, God and man.' [Ibid, 27] Since both Son and Spirit are derived from the Father by emanation, 
both are subordinate to Him. [Praxeas, 7, 9] This doctrine of subordination, already taught in the 
Apologists, was to remain characteristic of the Logos Christology till the time of Augustine. These 
definitions were far more the work of a lawyer-like, judicial interpretation, than of philosophical 
consideration. As the first, also, to give technical usage to such expressions as trinitas, substantia, 
sacramentum, satisfacere, meritum, Tertullian left his permanent impress on Latin theology. " 
(Walker, W., "A History of the Christian Church," [1918], T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, Revised, 1959, 
Reprinted, 1963, p.66)

11/01/2008
"It has already been suggested that something of this implication is embedded in the employment of the 
designation 'Bridegroom' ([Mk] ii. 19, 20) of our Lord. For there is certainly involved in it not merely the 
representation, afterwards copiously developed in the New Testament, of our Lord as the Bridegroom of the 
people of God, by virtue of which His Church is His bride (Matt. xxii. 2; xxv. 1; John iii. 29; Rom. vii. 4 ; 2 Cor. 
xi. 2; Eph. v. 29; Rev. xix. 7; xxi. 2, 9), but also a reminiscence of these Old Testament passages, of which 
Hosea ii. 19 may be taken as the type (cf. Exod, xx. 5; Jer, ii. 20; Ezek, xvi. 38, 60, 63), in which Jehovah 's 
relation to His people is set forth under the figure of that of a loving husband to his wife. In other words, the 
use of the Bridegroom as a designation of our Lord assimilates His relation to the people of God to that 
which in the Old Testament is exclusively, even jealously, occupied by Jehovah Himself, and raises the 
question whether Jesus is not thereby, in some, sense, at any rate, identified with Jehovah." (Warfield, B.B., 
"The Lord of Glory: A Study of the Designations of Our Lord in the New Testament with Especial Reference 
to His Deity," [1907], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1976, p.41)

11/01/2008
"This question once clearly raised, other phenomena obtrude themselves at once upon our attention. We 
are impelled, for example, to ask afresh what sense our Lord put upon the words of Psalm cx., `The Lord unto 
my Lord, ' Sit Thou on My right hand till I make Thine enemies, the footstool of Thy feet, ` when (Mark xii. 
35 et seq.) He adduced them to rebuke the Jews for conceiving the Christ as only the son of David, 
whereas David himself in this passage, and that speaking in the Spirit, expressly calls him his Lord? It is not 
merely the term 'Lord' which comes into consideration here; but the exaltation which the application of the 
term in this connection to Him assigns to the Messiah. The scribes would have had no difficulty in 
understanding that the Messiah should be David's `greater son,' who should-nay, must-because Messiah, 
occupy a higher place in the Kingdom of God than even His great father. The point of the argument turns 
an the supreme exaltation of the Lordship ascribed to Him, implying something superhuman in the Messiah's 
personality and therefore in His origin. Who is this ' Lord' who is to sit at the right hand of the 'Lord' who is 
Jehovah, and to whom David himself therefore does reverence? It is hard to believe that our Lord intendedor 
was understood by Mark to intend-by such a designation of the Messiah, who He Himself was, to attribute 
to Him less than a superhuman-or shall we not even say a divine?-dignity by virtue of which He should he 
recognized as rightfully occupying the throne of God. To sit at. the right hand of God is to participate in the 
divine dominion, which, as it is a greater than human dignity, would seem to require a greater than human 
nature. To be in this sense David's Lord falls little, if anything, short of being David's God." (Warfield, B.B., 
"The Lord of Glory: A Study of the Designations of Our Lord in the New Testament with Especial Reference 
to His Deity," [1907], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1976, p.42) 

12/01/2008
"Jesus Identified with Jehovah In estimating the significance of such a passage, we must not permit to fall 
out of sight the constant use of the term 'Lord' in the LXX version of the Old Testament for God. There it is 
`practically equivalent to God (Theos), and is the rendering of the solemn name of Jehovah.' [Somerville, D., 
"St. Paul's Conception of Christ," 1897, p.143] The writers of the New Testament, and Mark among them, 
must be understood to have been thoroughly familiar with this use of the term, and could scarcely fail to see 
in its appellative application to Christ a suggestion of his deity, when the implications of the context were, 
as we have seen them repeatedly to be, of His superhuman dignity and nature. Particularly when they apply 
to Him Old Testament passages in which the term ' Lord' refers to God, we can scarcely suppose they do so 
without a consciousness of the. implications involved, and without a distinct intention to convey them. 
[Stanton, V.H., "Jewish and Christian Messiah," 1886, pp.197-198] When, for example, in the opening verses 
of Mark, we read: "Even as it is written in Isaiah the prophet, Behold I send My messenger before Thy face, 
who shall prepare Thy way; " (Warfield, B.B., "The Lord of Glory: A Study of the Designations of Our Lord 
in the New Testament with Especial Reference to His Deity," [1907], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted, 
1976, pp.43-44. Emphasis original) 

12/01/2008
"There known as Michael, as shown by comparison of scriptures Jude 9 `When Michael the archangel 
had a difference with the Devil and was disputing about Moses' body, he did not dare to bring a judgment 
against him in abusive terms.' (Compare with 1 Thess. 4:16.) Dan. 10:13 `Look! Michael, one of the 
foremost princes, came to help me.' (Compare with Isa. 9:6.) Dan. 12:1 `During that time Michael will stand 
up, the great prince who is standing in behalf of the sons of your people. And there will certainly occur a 
time of distress such as has not been made to occur since there came to be a nation until that time. And 
during that time your people will escape, every one who is found written down in the book.' (Compare with 
Matt. 24: 3, 21, 30.) Rev. 12:7, 8 `War broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels battled with the dragon, 
and the dragon and its angels battled but it did not prevail." (Compare with 1 John 3:8.)" (Watchtower Bible 
& Tract Society, "Make Sure of All Things, Hold Fast to What Is Fine," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society 
of New York: Brooklyn NY, 1965, p.288. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Daniel 10:13, 21; 12:1 `... . Michael, one of the foremost princes, came to help me. ... Michael, the prince of 
you people... . And during that time Michael will stand up, the great prince who is standing in behalf of the 
sons of your people... .' (NWT) The Watchtower Society teaches Jehovah's Witnesses that Jesus Christ 
was a mere angel, who was born as a human, died as a sacrifice for sins, and was raised up as an angel once 
again. They refer to him as `Jesus Christ, whom we understand from the Scriptures to be Michael the 
archangel ...' (The Watchtower, 2/15/79, p. 31). But is that really what the Bible teaches? Or is it, rather, a 
teaching that Watchtower leaders superimpose on Scripture? God's inspired Word mentions Michael five 
times-as (1) `one of the foremost princes' (Dan. 10:13, NWT); (2) `the prince of [Daniel's] people' (Dan. 10:21, 
NWT); (3) `the great prince who is standing in behalf of the sons of [Daniel's] people' (Dan. 12:1, NWT); (4) 
`the archangel' who `had a difference with the Devil and was disputing about Moses' body' but `did not dare 
to bring a judgment against him in abusive terms' (Jude 9, NWT); and (5) a participant in heavenly conflict 
when `Michael and his angels battled with the dragon' (Rev. 12:7, NWT). Which of these verses state that 
Michael is Jesus Christ? None of them! It is necessary to read Scripture plus a complicated Watchtower 
argument to reach that conclusion." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: 
Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, pp.46-47. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"The Society also turns for support to another verse that does not use the name Michael but says that 
`the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a commanding call, with an archangel's voice and with 
God's trumpet' (1 Thess. 4:16, NWT). But, if using an archangel's voice makes the Lord an archangel, then 
having God's trumpet makes him God-even though Watchtower leaders would have us look at only the first 
part of the verse." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 
1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, p.47. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Does the Bible teach elsewhere that Jesus Christ is a mere angel? To the contrary, the entire first chapter of 
Hebrews was written to show the superiority of the Son of God as compared to angels. Verse after verse 
contrasts the angels with `... His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He 
made the worlds; who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person ... having 
become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. 
For to which of the angels did He ever say: 'You are My Son, today I have begotten you'? ... But when He 
again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: 'Let all the angels of God worship Him.' And of the 
angels He says: 'Who makes His angels spirits and His ministers a flame of fire.' But to the Son He says: 
'Your throne, O God, is forever and ever... .' And: `You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the 
earth... .' (Heb. 1:2-8, 10, NKJV) The Son is `the reflection' of the Father's glory `and the exact representation 
of his very being, and he sustains all things by the word of his power'-something no angel could do-even 
according to the Watchtower's own translation of Hebrews 1:3 (NWT)." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witnesses 
Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, pp.47-48. Emphasis 
original)

12/01/2008
"Moreover, good angels consistently refuse to accept worship. When the apostle John fell down to worship 
at the feet of an angel, the angel rebuked him, saying, `Be careful! Do not do that! ... Worship God' (Rev. 
22:8-9, NWT). But the Father's command concerning the Son is to `let all God's angels worship him' (Heb. 
1:6, NWT, 1961 edition). In later editions, the Watchtower Society changed `worship' to `obeisance' at 
Hebrew 1:6. Still, regardless of how it is translated, the same Greek word proskuneo is used at both Rev. 
22:8-9 and Hebrews 1:6. The proskuneo (worship or obeisance) that angels refuse to accept, but say to 
give only to God, is the same proskuneo (worship or obeisance) that the Father commands to be given to 
the Son at Hebrews 1:6. So, the Son cannot be an angel, but must be God. (See discussion of Heb. 1:6.)" 
(Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first 
printing, 2006, p.48)

12/01/2008
"Persons who stop following the Watchtower organization, and start following Jesus Christ, soon come to 
appreciate that he is no mere angel. This realization is important, in order that they may `honor the Son just 
as they honor the Father' (John 5:23, NWT)." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by 
Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, p.49)

12/01/2008
"Michael the Archangel The Watchtower says, `Jesus Christ further deserves honor because he is 
Jehovah's chief angel, or archangel.' (The Watchtower, February 1, 1991, page 17) Jehovah's Witnesses 
believe the Son of God to be `Jesus Christ, whom we understand from the Scriptures to be Michael the 
archangel...... (The Watchtower, February 15, 1979, page 31) Does that understanding really come `from the 
Scriptures'? Or is it, rather, a teaching that Watchtower leaders superimpose on Scripture? God's inspired Word 
mentions Michael five times: as `one of the foremost princes' (Daniel 10:13 NWT), as `the prince of [Daniel's] 
people' (Daniel 10:21 NWT), as `the great prince who is standing in behalf of the sons of [Daniel's] people' 
(Daniel 12:1 NWT), as `the archangel' who `had a difference with the devil and was disputing about Moses' body' 
but `did not dare to bring a judgment against him in abusive terms' (Jude 9 NWT), and as a participant in 
heavenly conflict when `Michael and his angels battled with the dragon' (Revelation 12:7 NWT). Does one of 
these verses say that Michael the archangel is Jesus Christ? No. It is necessary to read Scripture plus a 
Watchtower argument to reach that conclusion." (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by 
Subject," [1996], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Second printing, 1998, pp.157-158. Emphasis original) 

12/01/2008
"That argument is presented this way in the April 15, 1991, Watchtower magazine, on page 28: Why do we 
conclude that Jesus is the archangel Michael? God's Word mentions only one archangel, and it speaks of that 
angel in reference to the resurrected Lord Jesus: `The Lord himself will descend from heaven with a commanding 
call, with an archangel's voice and with God's trumpet.' (1 Thessalonians 4:16) At Jude 9 we find that this 
archangel's name is Michael. The argument consists of three parts that can be analyzed separately: (1) `God's 
Word mentions only one archangel,' (2) `it speaks of that angel in reference to the resurrected Lord Jesus,' and (3) 
`this archangel's name is Michael.'" (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," [1996], 
Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Second printing, 1998, p.158) 

12/01/2008
"In answer to (1) and (3) it should be noted that the term `archangel' is found only twice in the Bible-at 1 
Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 9-providing insufficient information to say for certain that there are no other 
archangels besides Michael. Although he is the only archangel named in Scripture, Michael is referred to as 
`one of the foremost princes.' (Daniel 10:13 NWT) The Bible leaves open the possibility that there are other 
unnamed archangels besides Michael. As for part (2) of the Watchtower argument, it is faulty logic to conclude 
that descending `with an archangel's voice' means that Jesus is an archangel. If descending with an archangel's 
voice makes Christ an archangel, then descending `with God's trumpet' makes Him God. The same logic must be 
applied to the entire verse, not just part of it." (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by 
Subject," [1996], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Second printing, 1998, pp.158-159. Emphasis original) 

12/01/2008
"Does the Bible teach anywhere else that Jesus Christ is a mere angel? On the contrary, the entire first chapter of 
Hebrews was written to show the superiority of the Son of God as compared with angels. `For example, to 
which one of the angels did he ever say: 'You are my son; I, today, I have become your father'?' (Hebrews 1:5 
NWT) ('For God never said to any angel, 'Thou art my Son.. .'- New English Bible) The Son is `the reflection' of 
the Father's glory `and the exact representation of his very being, and he sustains all things by the word of his 
power.' (Hebrews 1:3 NW)." (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," [1996], Baker: 
Grand Rapids MI, Second printing, 1998, p.159)

12/01/2008
"Angels consistently refuse to accept worship, saying: `Be careful! Do not do that! ... Worship God.' (Revelation 
22:8-9 NWT) But, the Father's command concerning the Son is, `let all God's angels worship him.' (Hebrews 1:6 
NWT, edition of 1961) In a later edition of its Bible the Watchtower Society changed worship to obeisance 
at Hebrews 1:6. Still, regardless of how it is translated, the same Greek word proskuneo is used at both 
Revelation 22:8-9 and Hebrews 1:6. The proskuneo (worship or obeisance) that angels refuse to accept, but 
say to give only to God, is the same proskuneo (worship or obeisance) that the Father commands to be given 
to the Son at Hebrews 1:6. Persons who stop following the man-made Watchtower organization and start 
following Jesus Christ soon come to appreciate that the Son of God is no mere angel. This realization is 
important, in order that they may `honor the Son just as they honor the Father.' (John 5:23 NWT)" (Reed, D.A., 
"Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," [1996], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Second printing, 1998, 
p.159)

12/01/2008
"Moreover, even when a JW begins to question his beliefs and to search for God, starting him off with the 
Trinity doctrine is like introducing a youngster to mathematics by starting him off with college calculus 
instead of elementary arithmetic. In most cases it is necessary for a Witness first to discover that the 
Watchtower organization is a false prophet incapable of providing salvation, second to recognize a 
personal need for the Savior Jesus Christ, and third to undertake a systematic study with the aim of 
deprogramming and relearning. Watchtower ideas must be removed from the brain one by one and be 
replaced with accurate Bible understanding. Even at that point in time it is usually best to approach 
theological questions with a JW (or former JW) in this sequence: 1 Demonstrate that Jesus is not a mere 
angel. (See Michael the Archangel.) Allow time for the Witness to get accustomed to this knowledge before 
pressing on to establish who Jesus is. 2 Allow Scripture to reveal the personality of the Holy Spirit. (See 
Holy Spirit.) 3 Let the individual read the four Gospels-maybe even the whole New Testament-in a Bible that 
does not contain the New World Translation's theological distortions. 4 Point out biblically the deity of 
Christ and the deity of the Holy Spirit. 5 Explain that, although the Bible does not feature the word Trinity, 
it is a term that believers have found helpful in expressing the biblical concept that the Father is God, the 
Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, yet there is only one God. Pushing new ex-JWs on the issue of the 
Trinity seldom gets them to accept it; rather, such pressure sometimes pushes them back into the 
Watchtower camp, or drives them to fellowship among themselves in isolated groups. The best approach, in 
my experience, is to lead them to God's Word and allow the Holy Spirit to teach them correct theology." 
(Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1996, 
Second printing, 1998, pp.218-219. Emphasis original) 

12/01/2008
"Daniel 10:13,21; 12:1-Michael the Great Prince Based upon these verses, Jehovah's Witnesses argue that 
in His prehuman state Jesus was the archangel Michael and was a great prince of the people of God. They 
also say that the prophecy in Daniel 12:1 points to Michael's (Jesus') enthronement as king in heaven in 
1914. ['Your Will Be Done on Earth,' Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn, 1958, p.310] Indeed, `the 
Michael that stands up as the `great prince' to fulfill Daniel 12:1 is the Lord Jesus Christ at God's right 
hand.' [Ibid., p.313] (The phrase `stand up' is interpreted by the Watchtower Society to mean `take control 
and reign as king.' [Ibid., p.311]) According to Watchtower theology, then, these verses in Daniel indicate 
that Jesus was Michael in both His prehuman state and in His posthuman state (that is, following His 
resurrection). Jesus' progressive existence may be summed up as angel-human-angel." (Rhodes, R., 
"Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, 
Reprinted, 2006, pp.176-177. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"The Biblical Teaching. As you respond to the Watchtower interpretation of Daniel 10:13,21 and 12:1, 
there are several important points you will want to make. First: Ask ... o Where in the text of Daniel 10 and 
12 is there any explicit statement that this is a reference to Jesus Christ? The Jehovah's Witnesses will not 
be able to point you to such an explicit statement. But they will probably try to argue that Michael is called a 
`chief prince,' thus appealing to his authority over the other angels. This must be Christ, they will tell you. 
However, it is vital to mention that in Daniel 10:13 Michael is specifically called `one of the chief princes' 
(emphasis added). The fact that Michael is `one of' the chief princes indicates that he is one among a group 
of chief princes. How large that group is, we are not told. But the fact that Michael is one among equals 
proves that he is not unique. By contrast, the Greek word used to describe Jesus in John 3:16 is 
monogenes-which means `unique,' `one of a kind.' Ask ... o If Jesus is the first and highest of all 
created beings, as the Watchtower teaches-and if Jesus in His prehuman state was Michael the Archangel-
then why is Michael called `one of the chief princes' in Daniel 10:13? o Doesn't this verse indicate that 
Michael is one among a group of equals? You will also want to emphasize that Jesus is never called `Chief 
Prince' in the Bible. (If they argue that He is called that in Daniel 10:13, ask them again where Jesus is 
explicitly mentioned in the text.) The fact is, Jesus is called the `King of kings and Lord of lords' in 
Revelation 19:16. This is a title that indicates absolute sovereignty and authority. A King of kings/Lord of 
lords is much higher in authority than a mere `Chief Prince' (who is one among equals). The first one has 
absolute sovereignty and authority; the latter has derived, limited authority." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from 
the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.177-
178. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"As stated in earlier chapters, you might want to point out that the whole focus of Hebrews 1-3 is to 
demonstrate the superiority of Jesus Christ-including His superiority over the prophets (1:1-4), the angels 
(1:5-2:18), and Moses (3:1-6).22 How is this superiority demonstrated? Christ is shown to be God's ultimate 
revelation (1:1); He is affirmed as the Creator and Sustainer of the universe (1:2,3); and He is said to have the 
very nature of God (1:3). None of these things could be said of the prophets, the angels, or Moses. We read 
in Hebrews 1:5-2:18 of Christ's superiority over the angels. In Hebrews 1:5, we are told that no angel can ever 
be called God's son: `To which of the angels did He [God] ever say, `Thou art My Son...'?' Since Jesus is the 
Son of God, and since no angel can ever be called God's Son, then Jesus cannot possibly be the archangel 
Michael. Ask... o If no angel can ever be called God's Son (Hebrews 1:5)-and if Jesus is in fact the Son of 
God-then doesn't this mean that Jesus cannot be the archangel Michael?" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the 
Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.178. 
Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Moving on to Hebrews 1:6, we are told that Christ is worshiped (proskuneo) by the angels. As noted 
earlier in chapter 5, this is the exact same word used in reference to worshiping Jehovah God. Christ was 
worshiped with the same kind of worship rendered to the Father. There can be no getting around this fact. 
Jesus is not an angel; He is worshiped by the angels. Commentator Ray Stedman's point about this 
passage is worth repeating. He notes that `in the Song of Moses, the angels are called to worship Yahweh 
(Jehovah). New Testament writers apply such passages without hesitation to Jesus. Many places in 
Scripture witness the obedience of the angels, notably Job 38:7, Luke 2:13, and Revelation 5:11-12. Mark 3:11 
indicates that even the demons (fallen angels) fell down before Jesus when they saw him and addressed him 
as the Son of God.' [Stedman, R., "Hebrews," InterVarsity Press: Downers Grove IL, 1992, p.29]." (Rhodes, 
R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, 
Reprinted, 2006, p.178. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Another argument that can be drawn from the Book of Hebrews is that we are explicitly told in Hebrews 2:5 
that the world is not (and will not be) in subjection to an angel. Interestingly, the Dead Sea Scrolls 
(discovered at Qumran in 1947) reflect an expectation that the archangel Michael would be a supreme figure 
in the coming Messianic Kingdom. It may be that some of the recipients of the Book of Hebrews were 
tempted to assign angels a place above Christ. Whether or not this is so, Hebrews 2:5 makes it absolutely 
clear that no angel (the archangel included) will rule in God's kingdom. Christ the glorified God-man will reign 
supreme (Revelation 19:16). Now, if no angel can rule the world (Hebrews 2:5), then Christ cannot be the 
archangel Michael, since Scripture repeatedly says Christ is to be the ruler of God's kingdom (e.g., Genesis 
49:10; 2 Samuel 7:16; Psalm 2:6; Daniel 7:13,14; Luke 1:32,33; Matthew 2:1,2; 9:35; 13ff.; Revelation 19:16). Do 
not allow the Jehovah's Witness to sidestep this issue. Ask... o If no angel can rule the world (Hebrews 
2:5)-and if Scripture clearly says that Christ is ruler of the world (Luke 1:32,33; Revelation 19:16)-then doesn't 
this mean that Christ cannot be the archangel Michael?" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with 
the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.179. Emphasis original) 

12/01/2008
"There is one other argument I want to mention. It is based on the biblical doctrine of the immutability of 
Christ. Immutability-one of the key attributes of God in the Bible-refers to the idea that Christ (as God) is 
unchangeable, and thus unchanging. This does not mean that Christ is immobile or inactive, but it does 
mean that He never grows or develops or changes in His essential nature as God. This is in dire contrast to 
the Watchtower teaching that Christ was created as an angel, later became a human being, and then (at the 
`resurrection') became an angel again. A key passage relating to the immutability of Christ is Hebrews 1:10-
12, where the Father speaks of the Son's unchanging nature: `In the beginning, O Lord, you laid the 
foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you remain; 
they will all wear out like a garment. You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed. But 
you remain the same, and your years will never end' (emphasis added). Hebrews 1:10-12 is actually a 
quotation from Psalm 102:25-27. It is highly intriguing to note that the words in this psalm are addressed to 
Jehovah, but are applied directly to Jesus Christ in Hebrews 1:10-12. This represents a strong argument for 
Christ's full deity. Hebrews 1:10-12 teaches that even when the present creation wears out like an old 
garment, Jesus will remain unchanged." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's 
Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.180. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Christ's immutability is also affirmed in Hebrews 13:8, where we are told that `Jesus Christ is the same 
yesterday and today and forever' (emphasis added). If Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever, 
then He couldn't have been an angel, become a human, and then been re-created as an angel. Now, it 
is true that in the incarnation Christ the eternal Son of God took on a human nature, but orthodox scholars 
have always held that it is the divine nature of Christ that remains unchanged and is therefore immutable. 
[Walvoord, J.E., "Jesus Christ Our Lord," Moody Press: Chicago IL, 1980, p.30] Unlike the doctrine of the 
incarnation, the Watchtower Society teaches that Jesus' existence throughout history may be summed up 
angel-human-angel. This represents a change in nature-and it contradicts Hebrews 13:8 and other passages 
on Christ's immutability. Ask... o Since Scripture teaches that Jesus is `the same yesterday and today and 
forever' (Hebrews 13:8), then how can it be said that Jesus was an angel, became a man, and then became an 
angel again?" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest 
House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.180. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"1 Thessalonians 4:16-The Voice of an Archangel The Watchtower Teaching. The New World 
Translation renders 1 Thessalonians 4:16, `The Lord himself will descend from heaven with a commanding 
call, with an archangel's voice and with God's trumpet, and those who are dead in union with Christ will rise 
first.' The Watchtower Society argues that the Lord Himself issues forth a commanding call with the voice 
of the archangel, thereby proving that He is the archangel Michael. In support of this interpretation, Aid to 
Bible Understanding comments, `Michael is the only one said to be the `archangel,' meaning `chief angel' 
or `principal angel.' The term occurs in the Bible only in the singular. This seems to imply that there is but 
one whom God has designated chief or head of the angelic host. At 1 Thessalonians 4:16 the voice of the 
resurrected Lord Jesus Christ is described as being that of an archangel, suggesting that he is, in fact, 
himself the archangel.' ["Aid to Bible Understanding," 1971, p.1152] The Biblical Teaching. In your 
answer to the Jehovah's Witness begin by addressing the claim that because `archangel' occurs in the 
singular, this must mean that `there is but one whom God has designated chief or head of the angelic host.' 
Point the Witness to Daniel 10:13, where Michael is specifically called `one of the chief princes.' The fact 
that Michael is `one of' the chief princes indicates that he is one among a group of chief princes. How large 
that group is, we are not told. But the fact that Michael is one among equals proves that he is not totally 
unique. Ask... o If Jesus is the first and highest of all created beings, as the Watchtower teaches-and if 
Jesus in His prehuman state was Michael the archangel-then why is Michael called `one of the chief princes' 
in Daniel 10:13? Doesn't this indicate that Michael is one among equals?" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from 
the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.181-
182. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"You might also point out that simply because the word `archangel' (in 1 Thessalonians 4:16) occurs in the 
singular and with a definite article (the archangel) does not mean there is only one archangel. In his book 
Angels: Elect and Evil, theologian Fred Dickason notes that `the definite article with archangel does not 
necessarily limit the class of archangel to Michael. The article may be one of identification as the well-known 
archangel instead of limitation as the only archangel. There may be others of the same class or rank, since he 
is described as `one of the chief princes' (Dan. 10:13).' [Dickason, F., "Angels: Elect and Evil," Moody Press: 
Chicago IL, 1975, p. 68, emphasis added] Jewish tradition has always held that there are seven archangels. 
[Bromiley, G.W., ed., "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia," Vol. 3, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, 
p.347] After sharing this, read 1 Thessalonians 4:16 aloud from a reliable translation, such as the New 
International Version: `For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the 
voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first.'" (Rhodes, R., 
"Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, 
Reprinted, 2006, p.182. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Former Jehovah's Witness David Reed suggests mentioning to the Jehovah's Witness that `if using an 
archangel's voice makes the Lord an archangel, then having God's trumpet makes him God-even though 
Watchtower leaders would have us look at only the first part of the verse.' [Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's 
Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1992, p.47] That is a legitimate point. One 
must be consistent in how one approaches the text. One cannot just use the portion of the verse 
that-stripped from its context-supports one's view. Ask... o If the reference to the archangel's voice makes 
the Lord Jesus an archangel, then-to be consistent-doesn't having God's trumpet make Jesus God? (Be sure 
to mention that you don't believe that having God's trumpet means Jesus is God. Belief in Christ's deity is 
based on numerous other passages. However, the above question does illustrate the folly of Watchtower 
reasoning.)" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest 
House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.182-183. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"A careful look at 1 Thessalonians 4:16 reveals that the text never explicitly says that Jesus Himself 
speaks with the voice of the archangel. This is an unwarranted assumption of the Watchtower Society, 
based on a strong theological bias. It is much more natural and logical to read the verse as saying that when 
Jesus comes from heaven to rapture the church from the earth, He will be accompanied by the archangel 
since it is the archangel's voice (distinct from Jesus) that issues the shout. This is not unlike what will 
happen at the Second Coming of Christ (seven years after the Rapture, following the Tribulation period). At 
the Second Coming, "the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels in flaming fire" 
(2 Thessalonians 1:7 NASB, emphasis added). If the angels accompany Christ at the Second Coming, then 
surely the archangel Michael will accompany Him as well." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with 
the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.183. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"The Authority to Rebuke Satan. A key observation regarding Michael the archangel is that he does not 
have the authority to rebuke Satan. Point the Jehovah's Witness to Jude 9, which says, `But even the 
archangel Michael, when he was disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, did not dare to bring a 
slanderous accusation against him, but said, `The Lord rebuke you!' By contrast, Jesus rebuked the devil on 
a number of different occasions (see, for example, Matthew 4:10; 16:23; Mark 8:33). [MacGregor, L., "What 
You Need to Know about Jehovah's Witnesses," Harvest House Publishers: Eugene OR, 1992, p.51] Since 
Michael could not rebuke the devil in his own authority and Jesus could (and did), Michael and Jesus 
cannot be the same person. Ask... o Since Michael the archangel could not rebuke the devil in his own 
authority and Jesus could (and did), doesn't that mean Michael and Jesus cannot be the same person?" 
(Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene 
OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.183-184. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Notice in Jude 9 that Michael the archangel said `The Lord rebuke you!' (emphasis added). The Greek 
word for `Lord' in this verse is kurios. It is the standard word for `Lord' in the New Testament. It is also a 
direct parallel to the word Yahweh or Jehovah in the Old Testament. Now, it's crucial to note that while 
Jesus is called kurios ('Lord') many times in the New Testament, Michael is never called kurios. For 
example, we are told that Jesus is kurios ('Lord') in Philippians 2:9-11, and that at the name of Jesus every 
knee ill bow in heaven and on earth, and every tongue will confess that Jesus is Lord. The apostle Paul, 
an Old Testament scholar par excellence, is here alluding to Isaiah 45:22,23: `I am God, and there is no other. 
By myself I have sworn, my mouth has uttered in all integrity a word that will not be revoked: Before me 
every knee will bow; by me every tongue will swear.' Paul was drawing on his vast knowledge of the Old 
Testament to make the point that Jesus Christ is kurios and Yahweh-the Lord of all humankind. Now, 
the point of my saying all this is that when Michael said `the Lord rebuke you,' he was appealing directly 
to the sovereign authority of the Lord of the universe. And Jesus is clearly the sovereign Lord of the 
universe." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest 
House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.184. Emphasis original)

12/01/2008
"Christ Created the Angels. A final point you will want to make is that Christ is the Creator, and angels 
are among the created. Colossians 1:16,17 tells us that `by Christ `all things were created: things in 
heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were 
created by him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.' Notice that Paul says 
Christ created `thrones,' `powers,' `rulers,' and `authorities.' In the rabbinic (Jewish) thought of the first 
century, these words were used to describe the different orders of angels (see Romans 8:38; Ephesians 
1:21; 3:10; 6:12; Colossians 2:10,15; Titus 3:1). Apparently there was a heresy flourishing in Colossae (to 
where Paul wrote the Book of Colossians) that involved the worship of angels. The end result of that 
worship was that Christ had been degraded. To correct this grave error, Paul emphasized that Christ is the 
one who created all things-including all the angels-and thus, He is supreme and is alone worthy to be 
worshiped. Since Michael is an angel, he would be one of Christ's created beings. Christ therefore cannot be 
the archangel Michael." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], 
Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.185. Emphasis original) 

12/01/2008
"MICHAEL ... [Who is like God?]. 1. The only holy angel other than Gabriel named in the Bible, and the only 
one called `archangel:' (Jude 9) The first occurrence of the name is in the tenth chapter of Daniel, where 
Michael is described as `one of the foremost princes' that came to the aid of a lesser angel who was opposed 
by the `prince of the royal realm of Persia.' Michael was called `the prince of [Daniel's] people,' `the great 
prince who is standing in behalf of the sons of [Daniel's] people.' (Dan. 10:13, 20, 21; 12:1) This points to 
Michael as the angel who led the Israelites through the wilderness. (Ex. 23:20, 21, 23; 32:34; 33:2) Lending 
support to this conclusion is the fact that `Michael the archangel had a difference with the Devil and was 
disputing about Moses' body.' Jude 9." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible Understanding," 
[1969], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1971, p.1152. Emphasis original

12/01/2008
"Scriptural evidence indicates that the name Michael applied to God's Son before he left heaven to become 
Jesus Christ and also after his return. Michael is the only one said to be the `archangel,' meaning `chief 
angel' or `principal angel.' The term occurs m the Bible only in the singular. This seems to imply that there is 
but one whom God has designated chief or head of the angelic host. At 1 Thessalonians 4:16 the voice of 
the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ is described as : being that of an archangel, suggesting that he is, in fact, 
himself the archangel. This text depicts him as descending from heaven with a `commanding call.' It is only 
logical, therefore, that the voice expressing this commanding call be described by a word that would not 
diminish or detract from the great authority that Christ Jesus now has as King of kings and Lord of lords. 
(Matt. 28:18; Rev. 17:14) If the designation `archangel' applied, not to Jesus Christ, but to other angels, then 
the reference to an `archangel's voice' would not be appropriate. In that case it would be describing a voice 
of lesser authority than that of the Son of God." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible 
Understanding," [1969], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1971, p.1152)

12/01/2008
"There are also other correspondencies establishing that Michael is actually the Son of God. Daniel, after 
making the first reference to Michael (10:13), recorded a long-range prophecy reaching down to `the time of 
the end' (11:40), and then stated: `And during that time Michael will stand up' (12:1), that is, will take-up 
power or begin to reign as king. (Compare Daniel 8:22, 23; 11:2, 3, 7, 20, 21.) This implies that a period of 
being seated preceded his standing up as king. In agreement therewith Hebrews 10:12, 13 says regarding 
Christ Jesus: `This man offered one sacrifice for sins perpetually and sat down at the right hand of God, from 
then on awaiting until his enemies should be placed as a stool for his feet.' Michael's standing up was to 
lead to a `time of distress such as has not been made to occur since there came to be a nation until that 
time.'-Dan. 12:1." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible Understanding," [1969], Watchtower 
Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1971, p.1152)

12/01/2008
"The book of Revelation (12:7, 10, 12) mentions Michael in connection with the establishment of God's 
kingdom and links this event with trouble for the earth: `And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his 
angels battled with the dragon. and, the dragon and his angels battled. And I heard a loud voice in heaven 
say: Now I have come to pass the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of 
his Christ, because the accuser of our brothers has been hurled down, ... On this account be glad, you 
heavens and you who reside in them! Woe for the earth and for the sea.' ` Jesus Christ is later depicted as 
leading the heavenly armies in war against the nations of the earth. (Rev. 19:11-16) This would mean a period 
of distress for them, which would logically be included in the `time of distress' to-follow Michael's standing 
up. (Dan. 12:1) Since the Son of God is to fight the nations, it is only reasonable that he was the one who 
with his angels earlier battled against the superhuman dragon, Satan the Devil, and his angels." 
(Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible Understanding," [1969], Watchtower Bible & Tract 
Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1971, p.1152)

12/01/2008
"In his prehuman existence Jesus was called `the Word.' (John 1:1) He also had the personal name Michael. 
By retaining the name Jesus after his resurrection (Acts 9:5), the `Word' shows that he is identical with the 
Son of God on earth. His resuming his heavenly name Michael and his title (or, name) `The Word of God' 
(Rev. 19:13) ties him in with his prehuman existence. The very name Michael, asking as it does, `Who is like 
God?', points to the fact that Jehovah God is without like or equal and that Michael his archangel is his great 
Champion or Vindicator." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible Understanding," [1969], 
Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1971, p.1152)

12/01/2008
"The foremost angel, both in power and authority, is the archangel, Jesus Christ, also called Michael. (1 
Thessalonians 4:16; Jude 9) Under his authority are seraphs, cherubs, and angels." ("The Truth About s," The Watchtower, November 1, 1995)

13/01/2008
"Who Is Michael the Archangel? THE spirit creature called Michael is not mentioned often in the Bible. 
However, when he is referred to, he is in action. In the book of Daniel, Michael is battling wicked angels; in 
the letter of Jude, he is disputing with Satan; and in Revelation, he is waging war with the Devil and his 
demons. By defending Jehovah's rulership and fighting God's enemies, Michael lives up to the meaning of 
his name-'Who Is Like God?' But who is Michael? At times, individuals are known by more than one name. 
For example, the patriarch Jacob is also known as Israel, and the apostle Peter, as Simon. (Genesis 49:1, 2; 
Matthew 10:2) Likewise, the Bible indicates that Michael is another name for Jesus Christ, before and after 
his life on earth. Let us consider Scriptural reasons for drawing that conclusion." (Watchtower Bible & Tract 
Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn 
NY, 2005, p.218. Emphasis original)

13/01/2008
"Archangel. God's Word refers to Michael `the archangel.' (Jude 9) This term means `chief angel.' Notice 
that Michael is called the archangel. This suggests that there is only one such angel. In fact, the term 
`archangel' occurs in the Bible only in the singular, never in the plural. Moreover, Jesus is linked with the 
office of archangel. Regarding the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ, l Thessalonians 4:16 states: `The Lord 
himself will descend from heaven with a commanding call, with an archangel's voice.' Thus the voice of 
Jesus is described as being that of an archangel. This scripture therefore suggests that Jesus himself is the 
archangel Michael." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," 
Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, pp.218-219. Emphasis original)

13/01/2008
"Army Leader. The Bible states that `Michael and his angels battled with the dragon ... and its angels.' 
(Revelation 12:7) Thus, Michael is the Leader of an army of faithful angels. Revelation also describes Jesus 
as the Leader of an army of faithful angels. (Revelation 19:14-16) And the apostle Paul specifically mentions 
`the Lord Jesus' and `his powerful angels.' (2 Thessalonians 1:7; Matthew 16:27; 24:31; 1 Peter 3: 22) So the 
Bible speaks of both Michael and `his angels' and Jesus and `his angels.' (Matthew 13:41) Since God's Word 
nowhere indicates that there are two armies of faithful angels in heaven-one headed by Michael and one 
headed by Jesus-it is logical to conclude that Michael is none other than Jesus Christ in his heavenly 
role." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & 
Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.219. Emphasis original)

13/01/2008
"To what, though, was Jesus referring when he told us to pray: "Let your kingdom come"? What is God's 
Kingdom? How will its coming sanctify God's name, or make it holy? And how is the coming of the Kingdom 
related to the doing of God's will? God's Kingdom is a government established by Jehovah God with a King 
chosen by God. Who is the King of God's Kingdom? Jesus Christ. Jesus as King is greater than all human 
rulers and is called "the King of those who rule as kings and Lord of those who rule as lords." (1 Timothy 
6:15) He has the power to do far more good than any human ruler, even the best among them." 
(Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract 
Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, pp.76-77. Emphasis original)

13/01/2008
"How can we identify the true religion? ... There are, however, hundreds of religions that claim to teach 
the truth about God. Yet, they differ greatly in their teachings about who God is and what he expects of us. 
How can you know the right way to worship Jehovah? You do not have to study and compare the teachings 
of all the many religions. You need only learn what the Bible really teaches about true worship. .... when 
we learn how to identify the true religion, we can recognize those religions that are false. ... Many people 
believe that all religions are pleasing to God, but the Bible does not teach that. .. Like counterfeit money, 
false religion has no real value. Even worse, such religion is actually harmful. ... True religion leads to 
everlasting life. False religion leads to destruction. ... Let us consider six features that identify those who 
practice true religion. Those who practice the true religion worship only Jehovah and make his name 
known. ... On the basis of what we have just considered, ask yourself: `What religious group bases all its 
teachings on the Bible and makes known Jehovah's name? What group practices godly love, exercises faith 
in Jesus, is no part of the world, and proclaims that God's Kingdom is the only real hope for mankind? Of all 
the religious groups on earth, which one meets all these requirements?' The facts clearly show that it is 
Jehovah's Witnesses.-Isaiah 43:10-12." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really 
Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, pp.144-146, 151. Emphasis 
original) 

14/01/2008
"Revelation 3:14 And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, 
the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God. (KJV) This verse is one of the Jehovah's 
Witnesses' favorites, in their attempt to `prove' that Jesus Christ is a mere created being, the first angel that 
God made. `Look!' they say. `Jesus is `the beginning of the creation.' But they should be careful. They will 
tell you that God the Father is the speaker at Revelation 21:6 and 22:13, yet in both verses he calls himself 
`the beginning.' Therefore, `the beginning' must mean something else other than the first thing created. 
Actually, in each of these cases, the Greek text says arche, a word listed in Vine's Expository Dictionary 
of New Testament Words as having such varied meanings as `beginning,' `power,' `magistrate,' and `ruler.' 
The Watchtower Bible translates the plural of the same word as `government officials' at Luke 12:11. It is the 
root of our words archbishop, architect, and other words referring to someone who is chief over others. 
Thus, the New International Version at Revelation 3:14 says that Christ is `the ruler of God's creation.' So 
there is no basis for claiming that Revelation 3:14 makes Jesus Christ a created being." (Reed, D.A., 
"Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 
2006, pp.103-104. Emphasis original) 

14/01/2008
"How is a modern translator to know or determine when to render the Greek words Κυριοσ and Θεοσ 
into the divine name in his version? By determining where the inspired Christian writers have quoted from 
the Hebrew Scriptures. Then he must refer back to the original to locate whether the divine name appears 
there. This way he can determine the identity to give to Ky'ri-os and the-os' and he can then clothe 
them with personality. Realizing that this is the time and place for it, we have followed this course in 
rendering our version of the Christian Greek Scriptures. To avoid overstepping the bounds of a translator 
into the field of exegesis, we have tried to be most cautious about rendering the divine name, always 
carefully considering the Hebrew Scriptures. We have looked for some agreement with us by the Hebrew 
versions we consulted to confirm our own rendering. Thus, out of the 237 times that we have rendered the 
divine name in the body of our version, there are only two instances where we have no support or 
agreement from any of the Hebrew versions. But in these two instances, namely, Ephesians 6:8 and 
Colossians 3:13, we feel strongly supported by the context and by related texts in rendering the divine name. 
The notes in our lower margin show the support we have for our renderings from the Hebrew versions and 
other authorities. Not in all cases where the divine name is shown in the lower margin have we rendered it in 
the main body of our version. Thus there are 72 instances where the divine name is shown in the margin 
alone, but not incorporated into the text, the warrant not being strong enough." (Watchtower Bible & Tract 
Society, "The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: 
Brooklyn NY, 1969, pp.18-19)

17/01/2008
"Many theologians describe the eternal relationship of the Son to the Father by the term generation, and 
the eternal relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son by the term procession. Without 
getting too theological, the gist of what is meant by these words is that: (1) The Father begets the Son, and 
it is he along with the Son-from whom the Holy Spirit proceeds, though the Father is neither begotten nor 
does he proceed. (2) The Son is begotten of the Father, and it is he-along with the Father-from whom the 
Holy Spirit proceeds, but he neither begets nor proceeds. (3) The Holy Spirit proceeds from both the Father 
and the Son, but he neither begets nor is he the one from whom any proceed. Theologian Charles Ryrie 
notes that "logically (but in no way chronologically), generation of the Son precedes procession of the 
Spirit. It is fully recognized that both terms are inadequate, but no one has been able to improve on them. 
What single words could ever express the eternal relationships of the Trinity? Certainly the terms imply no 
inferiority of one Person to any of the others. Neither do the words First and Second and Third 
when used of the Persons of the Godhead imply any chronological order. Generation and Procession are 
attempts to denote eternal relationships involving distinctions between equal Persons" (Charles Ryrie, 
The Holy Spirit [Chicago: Moody Press, 1965], p. 21)." (Rhodes, R., "Christ Before the Manger: The Life 
and Times of the Preincarnate Christ," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1992, p.266. Emphasis original)

17/01/2008
"This doctrine is not in conflict with the unity of God. There are three persons in the one essence. ... 
These distinctions are eternal. This is evident from the passages which imply Christ's existence with the 
Father from eternity (John 1:1f. ; 17:5, 24; Phil. 2:6) and from those which assert or imply the eternity of the 
Holy Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Heb. 9:14). The nature of the eternal relationship existing between the Father and the 
Son is commonly spoken of as `generation,' while the relationship between the Father and the Son, on the 
one hand, and the Holy Spirit, on the other, is spoken of as `procession.' By `eternal generation' is meant 
`eternal emanation.' God says, `Thou art My Son, today I have begotten Thee' (Ps. 2:7). The word `today' 
denotes the universal present, the everlasting now. When Jesus said, `For just as the Father has life in 
Himself, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in Himself' (John 5:26), he spoke of an eternal 
communication of the life of the Father to the Son. The term `procession,' as applied to the Holy Spirit, has 
very much the same meaning as the term `generation' in connection with the Son, except that the Holy Spirit 
`proceeds' from both the Father and the Son (John 14:26; 15:26; Acts 2:33: Heb. 9:14). ... The three are 
equal. And yet this does not exclude the arrangement by means of which the Father is first, the Son 
second, and the Spirit third. This is not a difference in glory, power, or length of existence, but simply of 
order. The Spirit and the Son are equal, though subordinate to the Father. This subordination is voluntary, 
not necessary (Phil. 2:5-7)." (Thiessen, H.C. & Doerksen, V.D., "Lectures in Systematic Theology," [1949], 
Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Revised, 1977, p.98. Emphasis original)

17/01/2008
"The eternal generation of the Son. The personal property of the Son is that He is eternally begotten of 
the Father (briefly called `filiation'), and shares with the Father in the spiration of the Spirit. The doctrine of 
the generation of the Son is suggested by the Biblical representation of the first and second persons of the 
Trinity as standing in the relation of Father and Son to each other. Not only do the names `Father' and `Son' 
suggest the generation of the latter by the former, but the Son is also repeatedly called `the only-begotten,' 
John 1:14,18; 3:16,18; Heb. 11:17; I John 4:9." (Berkhof, L., "Systematic Theology," [1932], Banner of Truth: 
London, British Edition, 1958, Third printing, 1966, p.93. Emphasis original)

17/01/2008
"The function of one member of the Trinity may for a time be subordinate to one or both of the other 
members, but that does not mean he is in ,any way inferior in essence. Each of the three persons of the 
Trinity has had, for a period of time, a particular function unique to himself. This is to be understood as a 
temporary role for the purpose of accomplishing a given end, not a change in his status or essence. In 
human experience, there is functional subordination as well. Several equals in a business or enterprise may 
choose one of their number to serve as the captain of a task force or the chairperson of a committee for a 
given time, but without any change in rank. The same is true in military circles. In the days of multimember, 
aircraft crews, the pilot, although the ranking officer on the ship, would follow the instructions of the 
bombardier, a lower-ranking officer, during the bombing run. In like fashion, the Son did not become less 
than the Father during his earthly incarnation, but he did subordinate himself functionally to the Father's 
will. Similarly, the Holy Spirit is now subordinated to the ministry of the Son (see John 14-16) as well as to 
the will of the Father, but this does not imply that he is less than they are." (Erickson, M.J., "Christian 
Theology," [1983], Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Fifth Printing, 1988, p.338. Emphasis original)

17/01/2008
"Essential Equality, Economic Subordination In the recorded words of Jesus, the divine Sonship 
designates a relationship of absolutely essential equality. When we discuss the person and work of Christ 
we shall show that all references to the subordination of the Son to the Father signify a functional 
subordination in the economy of the divine redemptive program. It is of the utmost importance that we 
distinguish between economic, or functional subordination, and essential equality. When Jesus said, 
"The Father is, greater than I" (John 14:28), and, "I can of my own self do nothing" (John 5:30), we must 
understand these statements as referring to His economic subordination in "the days of his flesh." But 
when he said, "The Father does not judge anyone, but he has given all judgment to the Son, in order that all 
should honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the 
Father who sent him" (John 5:22, 23); "I and my Father are one" (John 10:30); it should be clear that in these 
passages we have to do with the essential relationship of equality. This principle is further emphasized in 
the first Epistle of John. "Who is the false one if not he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This one is the 
anti-Christ who denies the Father and the Son. Everyone who denies the Son does not have the Father. He 
who confesses the Son has the Father also" (I John 2:22, 23)." (Buswell, J.O., Jr., "A Systematic Theology of 
the Christian Religion," [1962], Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, Vol. I, Second printing, 1968, p.104 . Emphasis 
original)

17/01/2008
"The preceding chapter in this book explained that Jesus Christ became King in heaven in the year 1914. 
(Daniel 7:13, 14) Soon after he received Kingdom power, Jesus took action. `War broke out in heaven,' says 
the Bible. `Michael [another name for Jesus] and his angels battled with the dragon [Satan the Devil], and 
the dragon and its angels battled.' Satan and his wicked angels, the demons, lost that war and were cast 
out of heaven to the earth. God's faithful spirit sons rejoiced that Satan and his demons were gone. Humans, 
however, would experience no such joy. Instead, the Bible foretold: `Woe for the earth ... because the Devil 
has come down to' you, having great anger, knowing he has a short period of time.'-Revelation 12:7, 9, 12." 
(Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract 
Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, pp.8-9. Emphasis original)

18/01/2008
"Equally self-centered and absurd to the objective observer is the application of Revelation 14:20, which 
identifies the winepress as `the Seventh Volume of Scripture Studies, the work that will squeeze the juice 
out of the "Abominations of the earth"' (p. 229). The distance the blood flows out of the winepress is 
interpreted to mean the mileage from Scranton, Pennsylvania, where The Finished Mystery [Russell, C.T., 
"Studies in the Scriptures: Series VII-the Finished Mystery," International Bible Students Association, 
Brooklyn NY, 1917] was written, to Brooklyn Bethel, where it was published-via `the Lackawanna Railroad ... 
Hoboken Ferry ... Barclay Street Ferry' and `Fulton Ferry' (p. 230)." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witness 
Literature: A Critical Guide to Watchtower Publications," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1993, p.58)

18/01/2008
"Even the nonegocentric interpretations in The Finished Mystery [Russell, C.T., "Studies in the 
Scriptures: Series VII-the Finished Mystery," International Bible Students Association, Brooklyn NY, 1917] 
tend to run contrary to current Watchtower teachings in ways that prove quite startling. For example, while 
the sect's leadership today interprets `Michael and his angels' at Revelation 12:7 to mean Jesus Christ (alias 
Michael the archangel) and subordinate angels, this book says that Michael is `the Pope' and his angels are 
`the Bishops' (p. 188). And in discussing Revelation 1:8 it says that `since His resurrection' Jesus can `be 
called the Almighty' (p. 15)." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witness Literature: A Critical Guide to Watchtower 
Publications," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1993, p.58)

18/01/2008
"Although The Finished Mystery is no longer distributed by the Watchtower Society, it is still a potent 
weapon for creating controversy. Simply drop a copy into the hands of a thinking Jehovah's Witness, and 
see what happens. Few JWs can read this volume without becoming quite upset over the teachings found in 
it. For that reason it has been removed from the libraries of most of their kingdom halls." (Reed, D.A., 
"Jehovah's Witness Literature: A Critical Guide to Watchtower Publications," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1993, 
pp.58-59)

18/01/2008
"Jesus Christ ... ``Let all the angels of God worship him' [that must include Michael, the chief angel, hence 
Michael is not the Son of God].' WT 11/1879, p.48. Jesus is the Alpha and the Omega, the Almighty, of 
Revelation 1:8. STUDIES, Vol. 7, p.15. Michael in Revelation 12:7 is the pope of Rome. STUDIES, Vol. 7, 
p.188. ` Jesus is the Alpha and the Omega of Revelation 21:6. STUDIES, Vol. 7, p.318 ... `There is 
Scriptural evidence for concluding that Michael was the name of Jesus Christ before he left heaven and after 
his return.' WT 5/15/1969, p.307 ... ``Michael the great prince' is none other than Jesus Christ himself.-
Daniel 12:1' WT 12/15/1984, p.29" (Reed, D.A., ed., "Index of Watchtower Errors, 1879 to 1989," Compiled 
by Steve Huntoon and John Cornell, Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1990, pp.85-86. Emphasis original)

18/01/2008
"Apostates ... `Rather we should seek for dependent Bible study, rather than for independent Bible 
study.' WT 9/15/1911, p. 4885. `Any class leader who would make objection to a reference being made to 
The Watch Tower or to Studies in the Scriptures in connection with the discussion of any topic should 
properly be viewed with suspicion as a teacher.' WT 9/15/1911, p. 4885 ... `... an apostate ... thinks he knows 
better than his fellow Christians, better also than the `faithful and discreet slave,' through whom-he has 
learned the best part, if not all that he knows about Jehovah God and his purposes.' WT 8/1/1980, pp. 19-20. 
`... from among the ranks of Jehovah's people ... haughty ones ... say that it is sufficient to read the Bible 
exclusively, either alone or in small groups at home. But, strangely, through such `Bible reading,' they have 
reverted right back to the apostate doctrines that commentaries by Christendom's clergy were teaching 100 
years ago... .' WT 8/15/1981, pp.28-29. `Do you wisely destroy apostate material?' WT 3/15/1986, p.12. `Why 
is reading apostate publications similar to reading pornographic literature?' WT 3/15/1986, p.14. `Beware of 
those who try to put forward their own contrary opinions.' WT 3/15/1986, p.17." (Reed, D.A., ed., "Index of 
Watchtower Errors, 1879 to 1989," Compiled by Steve Huntoon and John Cornell, Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 
1990, pp.61-62. Emphasis original)

18/01/2008
"Children are not the only ones who ask questions. As we grow up, we keep asking. We do this in order to 
find our way, to learn of dangers that we need to avoid, or to satisfy our curiosity. But many people seem to 
stop asking questions, especially the most important ones. At least, they stop searching for the answers. ... 
Why is it often good to ask questions? ... Why do many stop trying to find answers to the questions that 
matter most?" (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower 
Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.8)

18/01/2008
"The fact that you are reading this book shows that you would like to find out what the Bible teaches. This 
book will help you. Notice that the paragraphs have corresponding questions at the bottom of the page. 
Millions have enjoyed using the question-and-answer method when discussing the Bible with Jehovah's 
Witnesses. We hope you will too. May you have God's blessing as you now enjoy the thrilling and 
satisfying experience of learning what the Bible really teaches!" (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What 
Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.7)

18/01/2008
"GET TO KNOW YOUR BIBLE ... You will quickly become familiar with the Bible by looking up the 
scriptures cited in this publication. Also, why not start a program of daily Bible reading? By reading three to 
five chapters a day, you can read the entire Bible in a year." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What 
Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.7. 
Emphasis original)

19/01/2008
"GOD WANTS TO KNOW WHO HE IS If you want someone to get to know you, what might you do? 
Would you not tell the person your name? Does God have a name? Many religions answer that his name is 
`God' or `Lord,' but those are not personal names. They are titles, just as `king' and `president' are titles. The 
Bible teaches that God has many titles. `God' and `Lord' are among them. However, the Bible also teaches 
that God has a personal name: Jehovah. Psalm 83:18 says: `You, whose name is Jehovah, you alone 
are the Most High over all the earth.' ... The truth is that God's name appears thousands of times in ancient 
Bible manuscripts. So Jehovah wants you to know his name and to use it. In a sense, he is using the Bible to 
introduce himself to you." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really 
Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, pp.12-14. Emphasis original)

19/01/2008
"God gave himself a name that is full of meaning. His name, Jehovah, means that God can fulfill any promise 
he makes and can carry out any purpose he has in mind. God's name is unique, one of a kind. It belongs only 
to him. In a number of ways, Jehovah is unique. How is that so? ... We saw that Psalm 83:18 said of Jehovah: 
`You alone are the Most High.' Similarly Jehovah alone is referred to as `the Almighty.' Revelation 15:3 
says: `Great and wonderful are your works, Jehovah God, the Almighty. Righteous and true are your ways, 
King of eternity.' The title `the Almighty' teaches us that Jehovah is the most powerful being there is. His 
power is unmatched; it is supreme." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really 
Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.15)

19/01/2008
"And the title `King of eternity' reminds us that Jehovah is unique in another sense. He alone has always 
existed. Psalm 90:2 says: `Even from time indefinite to time indefinite [or, forever] you are God.' That thought 
inspires awe, does it not?" (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," 
Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.15)

19/01/2008
"Jehovah is also unique in that he alone is the Creator. Revelation 4:11 reads: `You are worthy Jehovah, 
even our God, to receive the glory and the honor and the power, because you created all things, and 
because of your will they existed and were created.' Everything that you can think of-from the invisible spirit 
creatures in heaven to the stars that fill the night sky to the fruit that grows on the trees to the fish that swim 
in the oceans and rivers-all of it exists because Jehovah is the Creator!" (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, 
"What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 
2005, p.15)

19/01/2008
"The pronunciations `Jehovah' and `Yahweh' By combining the vowel signs of 'Adhonay' and 'Elohim' 
with the four consonants of the Tetragrammaton the pronunciations Yehowah' and Yehowih' were formed. 
The first of these provided the basis for the Latinized form `Jehova(h);' The first recorded use of this form 
dates from the thirteenth century C.E. Raymundus Martini, a Spanish monk of the Dominican Order, used it 
in his book Pugeo Fidei of the year 1270." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible 
Understanding," [1969], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1971, p.884. 
Emphasis original)

19/01/2008
"Hebrew scholars generally favor `Yahweh' as the most likely pronunciation. They point out that the 
abbreviated form of the name is Yah (Jah in the Latinized form), as at Psalm 89:8 and in the expression 
Hallu-Yah' (meaning `Praise Jah, you people!'). (Ps. 104:35; 150:1, 6) Also, the forms Yehoh', Yoh, 
Yah and Ya'hu found in the Hebrew spelling of the names Jehoshaphat, Joshaphat, Shephatiah and 
others can all be derived from Yahweh. Greek transliterations of the name by early Christian writers point in a 
somewhat similar direction with spellings such as Ia be' and Iaoue', which, as pronounced in Greek, 
resemble Yahweh. Still, there is by no means unanimity among scholars on the subject, some favoring yet 
other pronunciations, such as Yahuwa, Yahuah or Yehuah." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, 
"Aid to Bible Understanding," [1969], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 
1971, p.885) 

19/01/2008
"USE OF THE NAME IN THE CHRISTIAN GREEK SCRIPTURES In view of this evidence, it seems most 
unusual to find that the extant manuscript copies of the original text of the Christian Greek Scriptures do not 
contain the divine name in its full form. The name therefore is also absent from most translations of the so-
called `New Testament.' Yet the name does appear in these sources in its abbreviated form at Revelation 
19:1, 3, 4, 6, in the expression `Alleluia' or `Hallelujah' (AV, Dy, JB, AS, RS).'" (Watchtower 
Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible Understanding," [1969], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn 
NY, Second edition, 1971, p.886. Emphasis original)

19/01/2008
"Jehovah's Witnesses are told through Watchtower publications that God's true name is Jehovah. They are 
taught that superstitious Jewish scribes long ago removed this sacred name from the Bible. But there is no 
need to worry, the Watchtower Society says! The Society's New World Translation of the Holy 
Scriptures has `faithfully' restored the divine name in the Old Testament where the Hebrew consonants 
YHWH appear. [Bodine, M., "Bible Answer Man," Christian Research Newsletter, May/June 1992, p.3] 
Moreover, the name "Jehovah" has been inserted in the New Testament by the Watchtower New World 
Bible Translation Committee in verses where the text is believed to refer to the Father. [Ibid] They have 
taken the liberty to do this despite the fact that it blatantly goes against the thousands of Greek 
manuscripts of the New Testament that we have-some of which date from the second century. (The New 
Testament always uses the words "Lord" [Greek: kurios] and "God" [Greek: theos], never "Jehovah"- 
even in quotations from the Old Testament. [Bowman, Robert M., "Understanding Jehovah's Witnesses," 
Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1991, p.114])" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's 
Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.49. Emphasis original)

19/01/2008
"Jehovah's Witnesses misuse the name Jehovah ... They teach that it `is wrong to fail to use that name.' 
(You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth, page 44) For them it is one of the identifying marks of the true 
religion, so that any church or denomination that does not feature the name continually in its worship 
services and in its literature is automatically part of Satan's empire of false religion. The most obvious 
refutation for this is that such a standard would condemn Peter, Paul, John, and the other New Testament 
writers and the first century churches associated with them. There is no evidence that the apostles or the 
early Christians-particularly the Greek-speaking converts who quickly made up the majority of the early 
Church-attached any such special significance to the use of this name. Rather, congregations of believers 
were `assembled in the name of our Lord Jesus.' (1 Corinthians 5:4 NIV) In seasons of persecution Christians 
were `insulted because of the name of Christ.' (1 Peter 4:14) The apostles taught `in the name of Jesus' and 
proclaimed that `there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved.' (Acts 4:12, 
18 NIV)" (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," [1996], Baker: Grand Rapids 
MI, Second printing, 1998, pp.143-144. Emphasis original)

19/01/2008
"The first major error we shall discuss is that Jehovah's Witnesses have restored the divine name `Jehovah' 
to the text of the New Testament. But let us observe this pretext as they stated it in their own words. `The 
evidence is, therefore, that the original text of the Christian Greek Scriptures has been tampered with, the 
same as the text of the LXX [The Septuagint ... a Greek translation of the Old Testament] has been. And, at 
least from the third century A.D. onward, the divine name in tetragrammaton [The Hebrew consonants 
YHWH] form has been eliminated from the text by copyists.... In place of it they substituted the words 
kyrios (usually translated `the Lord') and theos, meaning `God' ` (NWT, 1950, p.18). The `evidence' that 
the Witnesses refer to is a recently discovered papyrus roll of the LXX which contains the second half of 
the book of Deuteronomy and which does have the tetragrammaton throughout. Further than this, the 
Witnesses refer to Aduila (A.D. 128) and Origen who both utilized the tetragrammaton in their respective 
Version and Hexapla. Jerome in the fourth century also mentioned the tetragrammaton as appearing in 
certain Greek volumes even in his day. On the basis of this small collection of fragmentary evidence, 
Jehovah's Witnesses conclude their argument: `It proves that the original LXX did contain the divine name 
wherever it occurred in the Hebrew original. Considering it a sacrilege to use some substitute such as 
kyrios or theos, the scribes inserted the tetragrammaton at its proper place in the Greek version text' 
(NWT, p. 12). The whole case the Witnesses try to prove is that the original LXX and the New Testament 
autographs all used the tetragrammaton (NWT, p. 18) but owing to `tampering,' all these were changed; 
hence their responsibility to restore the divine name. Such is the argument, and a seemingly plausible one, 
to those not familiar with the history of manuscripts and the Witnesses' subtle use of terms." (Martin, W.R. 
& Klann, N., "Jehovah of the Watchtower," [1953], Bethany House Publishers: Bloomington MN, Reprinted, 
1981, pp.131-132. Emphasis original)

19/01/2008
"To explain this error of translation is an elementary task. It can be shown from literally thousands of copies 
of the Greek New Testament that not once does the tetragrammaton appear, not even in Matthew, 
possibly written in Hebrew or Aramaic originally, and therefore more prone than all the rest to have traces of 
the divine name in it-yet it does not! Beyond this, the roll of papyrus (LXX), which contains the latter part of 
Deuteronomy and the divine name only proves that one copy did have the divine name (YHWH) , whereas 
all other existing copies use kyrios and theos, which the Witnesses claim are `substitutes.' The 
testimonies of Aquila, Origen, and Jerome, in turn, only show that sometimes the divine name was used, but 
the general truth, upheld by all scholars, is that the Septuagint, with minor exceptions, always uses kyrios 
and theos in place of the tetragrammaton, and the New Testament never uses it at all. Relative to the 
nineteen `sources' the Watchtower uses (NWT, pp. 30-33) for restoring the tetragrammaton to the New 
Testament, it should be noted that they are all translations from Greek (which uses kyrios and theos, 
not the tetragrammaton) back into Hebrew, the earliest of which is A.D. 1385, and therefore they are of no 
value as evidence." (Martin, W.R. & Klann, N., "Jehovah of the Watchtower," [1953], Bethany House 
Publishers: Bloomington MN, Reprinted, 1981, p.132. Emphasis original)

20/01/2008
"'We may confidently expect,' stated the booklet Millions Now Living Will Never Die, back in 1920, `that 
1925 will mark the return [from the dead] of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the faithful prophets of old ... to the 
condition of human perfection.' Not only was the resurrection of faithful men of old expected in 1925 but 
some hoped that anointed Christians might receive their heavenly reward in that year. The year 1925 came 
and went." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Jehovah's Witnesses, Proclaimers of God's Kingdom," 
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Brooklyn NY, 1993, p.78)

20/01/2008
"'Birth of the Nation'-that was the title of a dramatic article appearing in the March 1, 1925, issue of The 
Watch Tower. It presented an enlightened understanding of Revelation chapter 12 that some found 
difficult to accept. The symbolic characters mentioned in this chapter of Revelation were identified as 
follows: the `woman' that gives birth (vss. 1, 2) as `God's [heavenly] organization'; the `dragon' (vs. 3) as `the 
devil's organization'; and the `man child' (vs. 5, KJ) as `the new kingdom, or new government.' On the basis 
of this, something was clearly explained for the first time: There are two distinct and opposing organizations 
Jehovah's and Satan's. And following the `war in heaven' (vs. 7, KJ), Satan and his demon supporters were 
cast out of heaven and hurled down to the earth. `We sat down and studied it all night until I could 
understand it very well,' wrote Earl E. Newell, who later served as a traveling representative of the Watch 
Tower Society. `We went to an assembly in Portland, Oregon, and there we found the friends all upset and 
some of them were ready to discard The Watch Tower because of this article.' Why was this explanation 
of Revelation chapter 12 so difficult for some to accept? For one thing, it was a striking departure from what 
had been published in The Finished Mystery, which was largely a posthumous compilation of Brother 
Russell's writings. [According to the interpretation set out in The Finished Mystery, the woman of 
Revelation chapter 12 was `the early Church,' the dragon was `the Pagan Roman Empire,' and the man child 
was `the papacy.'] Walter J. Thorn, who served as a traveling pilgrim, explained: `The article on `The Birth of 
the Nation' was ... difficult to take hold of because of a previous interpretation by dear Brother Russell, 
which we believed to be the final word on Revelation.' Little wonder, then, that some stumbled over the 
explanation. `Unquestionably , this interpretation may prove a sifting medium,' noted J. A. Bohnet, another 
pilgrim, `but the really earnest and sincere ones of the faith will stand firm and rejoice.' Indeed, the really 
earnest and sincere ones did rejoice over the new explanation. It was now so clear to them: everyone 
belongs either to Jehovah's organization or to Satan's." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Jehovah's 
Witnesses, Proclaimers of God's Kingdom," Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Brooklyn NY, 1993, pp.78-
79. Emphasis original)

20/01/2008
"`You are my witnesses,' is the utterance of Jehovah, `and I am God.' (Isa. 43:12) Starting in the 1920's, the 
Bible Students became increasingly aware of the deep significance of these words of the prophet Isaiah. 
Through the pages of The Watch Tower, attention was repeatedly drawn to ' our responsibility to bear 
witness to Jehovah's name and his Kingdom. A milestone, though, was reached at a convention held in 
Columbus, Ohio, in 1931. On Sunday, July 26, at noon, Brother Rutherford delivered the public discourse 
`The Kingdom, the Hope of the World,' which was broadcast over a vast radio hookup, with more than 300 
additional stations later rebroadcasting the message. At the end of the discourse, Brother Rutherford served 
notice on Christendom by reading a stinging resolution entitled `Warning From Jehovah,' which was 
addressed `To the Rulers and to the People.' To his invitation that they adopt the resolution, the entire 
visible audience stood and shouted, `Aye!' Telegrams later received indicated that many of those listening 
on the radio likewise raised their voices in agreement. From one o'clock, when the public discourse was 
finished, until four o'clock, when Brother Rutherford reentered the auditorium, the atmosphere was charged 
with excitement. Brother Rutherford had specially requested that everyone who was really interested in the 
noonday warning to Christendom be in his seat at four o'clock. Promptly at four, Brother Rutherford began 
by stating that he regarded what he was about to say as of vital importance to everyone who could hear his 
voice. His listeners were keenly interested. During his discourse he presented another resolution, this one 
entitled `A New Name,' which was climaxed by the declaration: `We desire to be known as and called by the 
name, to wit, Jehovah's witnesses. `The thrilled convent' again jumped to their feet with the ringing shout 
`Aye!' They would henceforth be known as Jehovah's Witnesses!" (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, 
"Jehovah's Witnesses, Proclaimers of God's Kingdom," Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Brooklyn NY, 
1993, pp.79,82. Emphasis original)

26/01/2008
Dt 18:19-20 NWT. "And it must occur that the man who will not listen to my words that he will speak in my 
name, I shall myself require an account from him. However, the prophet who presumes to speak in my name 
a word that I have not commanded him to speak or who speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet must 
die. And in case you should say in your heart: `How shall we know the word that Jehovah has not spoken?' 
when the prophet speaks in the name of Jehovah and the word does not occur or come true, that is the word 
that Jehovah did not speak. With presumptuousness the prophet spoke it. You must not get frightened at 
him."

26/01/2008
"We know Armageddon is near for another reason. Jesus said that the generation of people living when the 
`time of the end' began would not pass away before Armageddon breaks out. When did Jesus say this? 
When he told us about the many parts of the sign of the `time of the end.' That sign is made up of different 
happenings. All these happenings must come upon one generation to make up the sign. Since 1914 they 
have come. What does this mean? Jesus answers: `When you see all these things, know that he is near at 
the doors. Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.' 
(Matthew 24: 33, 34) Many are the people alive since 1914 who will still be living when it is time for 
Armageddon to begin." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "From Paradise Lost to Paradise Regained ," 
Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, 1958, p.205) 

26/01/2008
"The Last Days of This Wicked System of Things THE Bible speaks of the time in which we are living as 
the `last days' or the `time of the end.' (2 Timothy 3:1; Daniel 11:40) The facts show that this is a limited 
period that has a definite beginning and a definite end. It began in 1914 when Jesus Christ was enthroned as 
king in the heavens. It will end when God destroys this present wicked system of things. What a relief it will 
be when the organizations and persons that cheat and oppress, and all who endanger the security of their 
fellowmen, are gone! ... How soon will that be? God's own Son, Jesus Christ, gives the answer. After 
drawing attention to the many things that mark the period from 1914 onward as the `time of the end,' Jesus 
said: `This generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.' (Matthew 24:34) Which 
generation did he mean? ... Jesus had just referred to persons who would `see all these things.' `These 
things' are the events that have taken place since 1914 and those yet to occur down to the end of this 
wicked system. (Matthew 24:33) Persons born even as much as fifty years ago could not see `all these 
things,' They came on the scene after the foretold events were already under way. But there are people still 
living who were alive in 1914 and saw what was happening then and who were old enough that they still 
remember those events. This generation is getting up in years now. A great number of them have already 
passed away in death. Yet Jesus very pointedly said: `This generation will by no means pass away until all 
these things occur.' Some of them will still be alive to see the end of this wicked system. This means that 
only a short time is left before the end comes! (Psalm 90:10 ...) So now is the time to take urgent action if you 
do not want to be swept away with this wicked system." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "The Truth 
that Leads to Eternal Life," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, 1968, pp.94-95. Emphasis 
original)

26/01/2008
"In addition, Jesus showed that it would be a composite sign. So, along with widespread war, there would 
be noteworthy famines, earthquakes and plagues, to name a few. These would all come upon one 
generation. (Matthew 24:32-34) Appreciating this, and looking over human history, many persons discern 
clearly that the `sign of the conclusion of the system of things' has now appeared. ... Revelation 6:4 
indicated that there would be earth-wide war. Has there been? Yes, beginning with the war of 1914-1918." 
(Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Happiness-How to Find It," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New 
York: Brooklyn NY, 1980, pp.145-146. Emphasis original) 

26/01/2008
"After considering the foregoing, is it not clear that `the sign' Christ gave and the evidences foretold by his 
disciples are now being fulfilled? Although there are many other proofs, those listed here should be enough 
to show that we really are living in the time the Bible foretold as the `last days.' ... Yet some persons may 
say: `Such things as wars, famines, pestilences and earthquakes have occurred often throughout history. So 
it would not be hard to foretell that they would occur again.' But think: The Bible not only foretold these 
things, but indicated that they would occur on a worldwide scale. Also, the Bible said that all these 
things would happen upon the generation that was alive in 1914. Yet what were prominent world leaders 
foretelling just before 1914? They were saying that conditions promising world peace were never more 
favorable. Yet the terrible troubles the Bible foretold began right on time, in 1914! In fact, world leaders now 
say that 1914 was a turning point in history. ... After drawing attention to the many things that have marked 
the period from 1914 onward, Jesus said: `This generation will by no means pass away until all these things 
[including the end of this system] occur.' (Matthew 24:34, 14) Which generation did Jesus mean? He meant 
the generation of people who were living in 1914. Those persons yet remaining of that generation are now 
very old. However, some of them will still be alive to see the end of this wicked system. So of this we can be 
certain: Shortly now there will be a sudden end to all wickedness and wicked people at Armageddon." 
(Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth," [1982], Watchtower Bible 
& Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1989, p.154. Emphasis original) 

26/01/2008
"Matthew 24:34 "Assuredly, I say to you, this generation will by no means pass away till all these things 
are fulfilled." (NKJV) Which generation? The subject is a matter of debate among Christian Bible readers-but 
not among Jehovah's Witnesses, because their organization has told them specifically that `the evidence 
points to the 1914 generation as the generation spoken of by Jesus. Thus, "this generation will by no means 
pass away until all these things (including the apocalypse) occur"' (The Watchtower, 2/15/86, p. 5). For 
many years, each issue of their Awake! magazine has featured this statement of purpose on page 2: `Most 
importantly, this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure New Order 
before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away.' The Awake! issue of October 8, 1968, 
defined the generation even more precisely by saying, `Jesus was obviously speaking about those who 
were old enough to witness with understanding what took place,' suggesting that these would be 
`youngsters 15 years of age' (p. 13, italics theirs). They said most definitely that `the `generation' logically 
would not apply to babies born during World War I' (The Watchtower, 10/1/78, p. 31). One need only 
calculate that someone fifteen years old in 1914 would be twenty-five years old in 1924, thirty-five years old 
in 1934-and eighty-five years old in 1984-to realize that the Watchtower's `generation that will not pass 
away' was almost gone by the mid-1980s. The prophecy was about to fail. But, rather than change the 
prophecy, JW leaders simply stretched the generation. Instead of fifteen-year-olds, who could witness `with 
understanding' what took place in 1914, they began to indicate instead that the generation would be made 
up of `those born around the time' (the very babies that they had earlier excluded!), saying: `If Jesus used 
`generation' in that sense and we apply it to 1914, then the babies of that generation are now 70 years old or 
older' (The Watchtower, 5/15/84, p. 5)." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," 
Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, pp.56-57. Emphasis original)

26/01/2008
"Genuine Christians pray eagerly for the Lord to come again. And we wait and watch for his coming. But 
persons who make false prophecies fall into the categories of those the Lord warned us to watch out for: 
`For false christs and false prophets will arise and show great signs and wonders, so as to deceive, if 
possible, even the elect' (Matt. 24:24, NKJV). For information on the Watchtower organization's hundred-
year history of false prophesying, see our discussion of Deuteronomy 18:20-22." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's 
Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, p.57)

26/01/2008
"Deuteronomy 18:20-22 `However, the prophet who presumes to speak in my name a word that I have not 
commanded him to speak or who speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet must die. And in case you 
should say in your heart: `How shall we know the word that Jehovah has not spoken?' when the prophet 
speaks in the name of Jehovah and the word does not occur or come true, that is the word that Jehovah did 
not speak. With presumptuousness the prophet spoke it. You must not get frightened at him.' (NWTim.' (NWT). The 
Watchtower organization identifies itself as `The Prophet,' saying: `This `prophet' was not one man, but was 
a body of men and women. It was the small group of footstep followers of Jesus Christ, known at that time 
as International Bible Students. Today they are known as Jehovah's Christian witnesses. They are still 
proclaiming a warning...' (The Watchtower, 4/1/72, p. 197). The added claim is made that: `Unless we are in 
touch with this channel of communication that God is using, we will not progress along the road to life, no 
matter how much Bible reading we do' (The Watchtower, 12/1/81, p. 27)." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's 
Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, pp.30-31. 
Emphasis original)

26/01/2008
"Are these claims true? Is the Watchtower organization really the Prophet, the channel of communication 
from God? Or, is it a false prophet, fitting the description of Deuteronomy 18:20-22? The test is simple: Step 
#1-We know the organization `spoke in the name of Jehovah'; Step #2-We must determine whether or not 
the prophecies actually did occur or come true. Let's examine the facts: Throughout half of its hundred-year 
history, the Watchtower Society taught the belief of its founder and first president, Charles Taze Russell, 
that the Great Pyramid of Egypt was `inspired' of God just like the Bible (see the Watchtower's book Thy 
Kingdom Come, 1903 edition, p. 362). The Society's publications translated inches of pyramid 
measurements into calendar years, in attempts to foretell future events. Thus, they predicted that the Battle 
of Armageddon `will end in A.D. 1914 with the complete overthrow of earth's present rulership' (The Time 
Is at Hand, 1904 edition, p. 101). Obviously, this did not occur or come true. Still determined to act as a 
prophet, the Watchtower Society went on to predict an earthly resurrection for the year 1925: `They are to 
be resurrected as perfect men and constitute the princes or rulers in the earth, according to his promise.... 
Therefore we may confidently expect that 1925 will mark the return of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the faithful 
prophets of old' (Watchtower's book Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1920, pp. 89-90). Did this occur 
or come true? No! More recently, the organization misled millions into believing that `the end' would come in 
1975. They asked: `Why Are You Looking Forward to 1975?' (title of article in The Watchtower, 8/15/68, p. 
494): Are we to assume from this study that the battle of Armageddon will be all over by the autumn of 1975, 
and the long-looked-for thousand-year reign of Christ will begin by then? Possibly, but we wait to see how 
closely the seventh thousand-year period of man's existence coincides with the sabbathlike thousand-year 
reign of Christ. If these two periods run parallel with each other as to the calendar year, it will not be by mere 
chance or accident but will be according to Jehovah's loving and timely purposes... . It may involve only a 
difference of weeks or months, not years [p. 499]. Certainly, by now, enough weeks, months, and years have 
passed to prove that this prophecy concerning 1975 did not occur or come true." (Reed, D.A., "Jehovah's 
Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 2006, pp.31-32. 
Emphasis original)

26/01/2008
"A JW may try to defend the Watchtower Society, saying that those false prophecies were all `mistakes' and 
that the organization has learned from these mistakes and no longer makes prophetic statements about when 
the end will come. In that case, ask the Witness to take out a copy of his latest Awake! magazine. Inside 
the front cover, on the page listing the contents of the magazine, there is a statement of purpose telling why 
Awake! is published. Ask the Witness to read it. As of this writing (1986), each issue still says: `Most 
importantly, this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure New Order 
before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away.' Another prophecy! ... The facts are 
inescapable: The Watchtower Society spoke as a prophet, in the name of God, and what was prophesied did 
not come true. What does this mean for the individual Jehovah's Witness? Invite one to read what God's 
Word says about false prophets-and then ask what God would have him or her do. The Bible contains these 
warnings from Jesus Christ: `Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing but inwardly are 
ravenous wolves.' `For false Christs and false prophets will arise ... ` (Matt. 7:15, and 24:24, RSV). And the 
strong words quoted above from Deuteronomy 18:20-22, besides expressing God's judgment that the false 
prophet `must die,' also tell listeners, `You must not get frightened at him.' Rather than remain fearfully 
obedient to Watchtower leaders, the individual Jehovah's Witness who recognizes the organization as a 
false prophet should quit following it and start following the true Prophet, Jesus Christ." (Reed, D.A., 
"Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1986, Thirty-first printing, 
2006, pp.32-33)

26/01/2008
"'Jesus was obviously speaking about those who were old enough to witness with understanding what 
took place when the `last days' began.... Even if we presume that youngsters 15 years of age would be 
perceptive enough to realize the import of what happened in 1914, it would still make the youngest of `this 
generation' nearly 70 years old today... . Jesus said that the end of this wicked world would come before 
that generation passed away in death.' A 10/8/1968, p. 13. `Thus, when it comes to the application in our 
time, the `generation' logically would not apply to babies-born during World War I' WT 10/1/1978, p. 31. 
`It is the generation of people who saw the catastrophic events that broke forth in connection with World 
War I from 1914 onward.... If you assume that 10 is the age at which an event creates a lasting impression ...' 
WT 10/15/1980, p. 31. `If Jesus used `generation' in that sense and we apply it to 1914, then the babies of 
that generation are now 70 years old or older.... Some of them `will by no means pass away until all things 
occur.' WT 5/15/1984, p.5." (Reed, D.A., ed., "Index of Watchtower Errors, 1879 to 1989," Compiled by 
Steve Huntoon and John Cornell, Baker: Grand Rapids MI, p.102, 1990. Emphasis Reed's)

27/01/2008
"'THIS GENERATION' OF CHRIST'S PROPHECIES When Bible prophecy speaks of `this generation,' it is 
necessary to consider the context to determine what generation is meant. Jesus Christ, when denouncing 
the Jewish religious leaders, concluded by saying: `Truly I say to you, All these things will come upon this 
generation.' History recounts that about thirty-seven years later (in 70 C.E.) that contemporary generation 
personally experienced the destruction of Jerusalem, as foretold.-Matt. 23:36. Later that same day, Jesus 
again used practically the same words, saying: `Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means 
pass away until all these things occur.' (Matt. 24:34) In this instance, however, Jesus was not speaking only 
of the things that would befall natural Israel. He was answering a question as to what `sign' would mark his 
`presence' and `the conclusion of the system of things.' Therefore, he outlined things that would befall the 
Jewish nation during the execution of Jehovah's judgment upon Jerusalem at the hands of the Roman 
general Titus. (Dan. 9:26) But his words also were evidently to have a later and larger fulfillment upon the 
system of things that would be in existence during his second presence, when he would came `in his glory.' 
(Matt. 25:31-33; Rev. 1:7) In both instances Jesus was using the word `generation' in a literal sense, not in a 
symbolic or figurative sense, for the events Jesus described in the context were literal.-Matt. chap. 24. The 
people of this twentieth-century generation living since 1914 have experienced these many terrifying events 
concurrently and in concentrated measure -international wars, great earthquakes, terrible pestilences, 
widespread famine, persecution of Christians, and other conditions that Jesus outlined in Matthew chapter 
24, Mark chapter 13 and Luke chapter 21." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Aid to Bible 
Understanding," [1969], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1971, pp.641-642. 
Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"Before the last members of the generation that was alive in 1914 will have passed off the scene, all the 
things foretold will occur, including the `great tribulation' in which the present wicked world will end.-Matt. 
24:21, 22, 34. When will the end of this wicked world come? Jesus answered: `Concerning that day and 
hour nobody knows, neither the angels of the heavens nor the Son, but only the Father.' However, he also 
stated: `Truly I say to you that this generation [that was alive when `the sign' of `the last days' began its 
fulfillment] will by no means pass away until all these things occur.'-Matt. 24:36, 34. Also, after telling of 
events that would follow the establishment of the Kingdom in the hands of Jesus Christ in 1914, Revelation 
12:12 adds: `Be glad, you heavens and you who reside in them! Woe for the earth and for the sea, because 
the Devil has come down to you, having great anger, knowing he has a short period of time." 
(Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Reasoning from the Scriptures," [1985], Watchtower Bible & Tract 
Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1989, pp.97-98. Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"Last Days Definition: The Bible uses the expression `last days' to refer to the concluding time period 
leading up to a divinely appointed execution that marks the end of a system of things. The Jewish system 
with its worship built around the temple in Jerusalem experienced its last days from 33 to 70 C.E. What 
occurred then was pictorial of what would be experienced in a greatly intensified way and on a global scale 
at a time when all nations would be facing the execution of judgment decreed by God. The present wicked 
system of things, which extends worldwide, entered its last days in 1914, and some of the generation alive 
then will also be on hand to witness its complete end in the `great tribulation.'" (Watchtower Bible & Tract 
Society, "Reasoning from the Scriptures," [1985], Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn 
NY, Second edition, 1989, p.234. Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"To what do all these events of `the last days' point? Luke 21:31, 32: `When you see these things 
occurring, know that the kingdom of God is near [that is, the time when it will destroy the present wicked 
world and itself take full charge of earth's affairs]. Truly I say to you, This generation will by no means pass 
away until all things occur.' (The `generation' that was alive at the beginning of fulfillment of the sign in 1914 
is now well along in years. The time remaining must be very short. World conditions give every indication 
that this is the case.)" (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "Reasoning from the Scriptures," [1985], 
Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1989, p.239. Emphasis 
original)

27/01/2008
"When Jesus told his followers to pray, `Let your kingdom come,' it was clear that the Kingdom had not 
come at that time. ... There was a waiting period. ... For how long? During the 19th century, sincere Bible 
students calculated that the waiting period would end in 1914. ... World events that began in 1914 confirm 
that the calculation of these sincere Bible students was correct. The fulfillment of Bible prophecy shows that 
in 1914, Christ became King and God's heavenly Kingdom began to rule. Hence, we are living in the `short 
period of time' that Satan has left. (Revelation 12:12; Psalm 110:2) We can also say with certainty that soon 
God's Kingdom will act to cause God's will to be done on earth." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What 
Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, pp.84-
85. Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"Matthew 24:34-The 1914 Generation ... The New World Translation renders Matthew 24:34, `Truly I 
say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur' (emphasis added). 
The Watchtower Society teaches Jehovah's Witnesses that `this generation' is the 1914 generation. It is this 
group of people that will not pass away, they say, until all these things (prophecies, including Armageddon) 
come to pass. Now, it is an enlightening experience to study how the Watchtower Society has dealt with 
this verse throughout its history. Back in 1968, the Society was teaching its followers that Jehovah's 
Witnesses who were 15 years of age in 1914 would be alive to see the consummation of all things. Indeed, a 
1968 issue of Awake! magazine said of `this generation': `Jesus was obviously speaking about those who 
were old enough to witness with understanding what took place when the `last days' began.... Even if we 
presume that youngsters 15 years of age would be perceptive enough to realize the import of what 
happened in 1914, it would still make the youngest of `this generation' nearly 70 years old today... . Jesus 
said that the end of this wicked world would come before that generation passed away in death (emphasis 
added). [Awake!, 8 October 1968, p.13]" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's 
Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.363-364. Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"Some ten years later, a 1978 issue of The Watchtower magazine said: `Thus, when it comes to the 
application in our time, the `generation' logically would not apply to babies born during World War I' 
[The Watchtower, 1 October 1978, p.31] (emphasis added). It is clear that at this time, the Watchtower 
Society was still holding out to the view that those who were teenagers during 1914 would see the 
culmination of all things. However, as David Reed points out, `one need only calculate that someone fifteen 
years old in 1914 would be twenty-five years old in 1924, thirty-five years old in 1934-and eighty-five years 
old in 1984-to realize that the Watchtower's `generation that will not pass away' was almost gone by the mid-
1980s. The prophecy was about to fail. But, rather than change the prophecy, [Watchtower] leaders simply 
stretched the generation. [Reed, D., "Jehovah's Witnesses Answered Verse by Verse," Baker: Grand Rapids 
MI, 1986, p.57]" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest 
House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, p.364. Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"A 1980 issue of The Watchtower magazine said of `this generation': `It is the generation of people who 
saw the catastrophic events that broke forth in connection with World War I from 1914 onward.... If you 
assume that 10 is the age at which an event creates a lasting impression' [The Watchtower, 15 October 
1980, p.31] (emphasis added). The Watchtower leaders reduced the age from 15 to 10 in order to allow for 
five more years for a `generation' that was quickly dying off. The 1980 solution didn't alleviate the problem. 
Another step had to be taken. So, in a 1984 issue of The Watchtower magazine, we read, `If Jesus used 
`generation' in that sense and we apply it to 1914, then the babies of that generation are now 70 years old 
or older... . Some of them `will by no means pass away until all these things occur' [The Watchtower, 15 
May 1984, p.5] (emphasis added). Along these same lines, a 1985 issue of The Watchtower said, `Before 
the 1914 generation completely dies out, God's judgment must be executed.' [The Watchtower, 1 May 
1985, p.4] More recently, a 1988 issue of Awake! magazine said, `Most of the generation of 1914 has 
passed away. However, there are still millions on earth who were born in that year or prior to it.... Jesus' 
words will come true, `this generation will not pass away until all these things have happened.' [Awake!, 8 
April 1988, p.14] Reasoning from the Scriptures (1989) tells us that time is running short: `The `generation' 
that was alive at the beginning of the fulfillment of the sign in 1914 is now well along in years. The time 
remaining must be very short. World conditions give every indication that this is the case.' [Reasoning 
from the Scriptures, p.239]" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," 
[1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.364-365. Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"Since the 1940s the Watch Tower publications have represented the words of Jesus Christ, `Truly I say to 
you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur,' as having begun to apply 
as of the year 1914. The `1914 generation' was spoken of, and was presented as referring to the period in 
which the final fulfillment of the `last-days prophecies' would take place and a new order would enter. In the 
1940s the view held was that a `generation' covered a period of about 30 to 40 years. This lent itself to the 
constant insistence on the extreme shortness of time left. At least some Bible examples could also be cited 
as corroboration. (See, for example, Numbers 32:13.) With the arrival of the 1950s, however, the time period 
provided by that definition had effectively elapsed. Some `stretching' was needed, and hence in the 
September 1, 1952 Watchtower, pages 542, 543, the definition was changed and, for the first time, the time 
period covered by a `generation' was defined as representing an entire lifetime, thus running-not just for 30 
or 40 years-but for 70, 80, or more years." (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: 
Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, p.255)

27/01/2008
"For a time this seemed to provide a comfortable span of time in which the published predictions might 
occur. Still, with the passing of the years the application of the term `1914 generation' underwent further 
adjustment and definition. Note the statements here underlined from an article in the Awake! magazine of 
October 8,1968 (pages 13,14): `Jesus was obviously speaking about those who were old enough to witness 
with understanding what took place when the `last days' began. Jesus was saying that some of those 
persons who were alive at the appearance of the `sign of the last days' would still be alive when God 
brought this system to its end. Even if we presume that youngsters 15 years of age would be perceptive 
enough to realize the import of what happened in 1914, it would still make the youngest of `this generation' 
nearly 70 years old today. So the great majority of the generation to which Jesus was referring has already 
passed away in death. The remaining ones are approaching old age. And remember, Jesus said that the end 
of this wicked world would come before that generation passed away in death. This, of itself, tells us that 
the years left before the foretold end comes cannot be many.' When the Awake! magazine discussed this 
more than thirty years ago in the pre-1975 days the stress was on how soon the generation of 1914 would 
be running out, how little time was left for that generation's life span. For any of Jehovah's Witnesses in 
1968 to have suggested that things might go on for another thirty years or more would have been viewed as 
manifesting a poor attitude, one not indicative of strong faith." (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], 
Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.255-256. Emphasis original)

27/01/2008
"When 1975 passed, however, the emphasis changed. Now the effort was made to show that the 1914-
generation's span was not as narrow as one might think, that it could stretch for quite a long ways yet. 
Thus, the October l, 1978, Watchtower now spoke, not of those witnessing `with understanding what 
took place' in 1914, but of those who `were able to observe' the events beginning that year. Mere 
observation is quite different from understanding. This could logically lower the minimum age limit for the 
ones forming `this generation.' Continuing this trend, two years later, the Watchtower of October 15, 
1980, cited an article in the U. S. News & World Report magazine which suggested that ten years of age 
could be the point at which events start creating `a lasting impression on a person's memory.' The news 
article said that, if such be true, `then there are today more than 13 million Americans who have a 
recollection of World War I' `Recollecting' also allows for a more tender age than does understanding, earlier 
suggested as being found among `youngsters 15 years of age' in the 1968 Awake!. (Actually, World War 
I continued up into 1918, with American involvement beginning only in 1917. So the suggested 10-year-old 
age given in the news magazine quoted does not necessarily apply to 1914.)" (Franz, R., "Crisis of 
Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, p.256. Emphasis 
original)

28/01/2008
"Though different systems of measuring may have gained a year or so here and there, the fact remained that 
the generation of the 1914 period was shrinking with great rapidity, since the death rate is always highest 
among those of older age. The Governing Body was aware of this, for the matter came up for discussion a 
number of times. The issue arose during the June 7, 1978, session of the Body. Earlier factors led to this. 
Governing Body member Albert Schroeder had distributed among the members a copy of a demographic 
report for the Unihe United States. The data indicated that less than one percent of the population who were out of 
their teens in 1914 were still alive in 1978. ... When the matter was brought up, following Schroeder's return... 
it was voted that a `Question from Readers' be run in a forthcoming issue of the Watchtower reaffirming 
the standard teaching regarding `this generation.' [Watchtower, October 1, 1978] The issue emerged again 
in both the March 6 and November 14, 1979, sessions. ... Lyman Swingle, as head of the Writing Department 
... directed the Body's attention to some of the dogmatic, insistent statements published in several 1922 
issues of the Watch Tower, reading portions of these aloud to all the members. He said that he had been too 
young in 1914 (only about four years old then) to remember much about it? But he said that he did remember 
the discussions that took place in his home regarding 1925. That he also knew what had happened in 1975. 
He said he personally would not want to be misled regarding another date." (Franz, R., "Crisis of 
Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.257-258. 
Emphasis original)

28/01/2008
"In the course of the session, I pointed out that the Society's 607 B.C.E. starting date had no historical 
evidence whatsoever for support. As for 1914 and the generation then living, my question was: If the 
organization's traditional teaching is valid, how can we possibly apply Jesus' accompanying words to the 
people living in 1914? He said: `When you see all these things, know that he is near at the doors,' and `as 
these things start to occur, raise yourselves erect and lift your heads up, because your deliverance is 
getting near.' The publications regularly stated that those words began applying from 1914 onward, to those 
Christians living in 1914. But if so, then to whom among them could this apply? To those who were then 
50 years old? But such ones if still alive would now (that is, in 1979, the time of the discussion) be 115 years 
old. The 40-year-olds? They would be 105. Even the 30-year-olds would be 95 and those just out of their 
teens would already be 85 in 1979. (Even these would be over 100 if still living today.) If then those stirring 
words `lift up your heads because your deliverance is getting near, it's at the doors' indeed applied to 
people in 1914 and meant that they could hope to see the final windup, reason ably that exciting 
announcement would need to be qualified by saying: `Yes, you may see it-that is, provided you are now 
quite young and live a very, very long life.' ... So I asked the Body how meaningful the application of Jesus' 
words in Matthew 24:33, 34, could have been in 1914 if the only ones who could hope to see them fulfilled 
were children just in their teens or younger? No specific reply was offered." (Franz, R., "Crisis of 
Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, p.258. Emphasis 
original)

28/01/2008
"A number of members, however, did voice their continued support for the organization's existing teaching 
about `this generation' and the 1914 date. Lloyd Barry expressed personal dismay that doubts existed within 
the Body regarding the teaching. Referring to Lyman Swingle's reading of statements from the 1922 Watch 
Towers, he said that he saw nothing to be concerned about in these, that they were `present truth' for the 
brothers at that period.' As to the advanced age of the 1914 generation, he pointed out that in some parts of 
the Soviet Union there are regions where people live to be 130 years old. He urged that a united position be 
expressed to the brothers so that they would maintain their sense of urgency. Others expressed concurring 
views. When later recognized by the Chairman, my comment was that it seemed we would need to keep in 
mind that what is today taught as `present truth' may also in time become `past truth,' and that the `present 
truth' that replaces such `past truth' may itself become replaced by `future truth.' I felt that the word `truth' 
used in such a manner became simply meaningless. ... At the discussion's end, with the exception of a few 
members, the Body members indicated that they felt that 1914 and the teaching about `this generation' tied 
to it should continue to be stressed. The Writing Committee Coordinator, Lyman Swingle, commented, `All 
right, if that is what you want to do. But at least you know that as far as 1914 is concerned, Jehovah's 
Witnesses got the whole thing-lock, stock and barrel-from the Second Adventists.' Perhaps one of the most 
disturbing things to me was knowing that, while the organization urged the brothers to maintain unwavering 
trust in the interpretation, there were men in responsible positions within the organization who had 
themselves manifested that they did not have full confidence in the predictions based on the 1914 date." 
(Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third 
printing, pp.258-259. Emphasis original)

28/01/2008
"Despite all this evidence of divided viewpoint as to the validity of the claims regarding 1914 and the `1914 
generation,' bold, positive, forceful statements regarding 1914 and `this generation' continued to be 
published as Biblically established fact by the `prophet' organization, and all of Jehovah's Witnesses were 
urged to put full trust in this and carry the message about it to other people earthwide. In an apparent effort 
to calm concern about the diminishing ranks of the 1914 generation, the same Watchtower (October 15, 
1980, page 31) that implied that the age limit for that generation's members could be lowered to ten years of 
age, also said: `And if the wicked system of this world survived until the turn of the century, which is highly 
improbable in view of world trends and the fulfillment of Bible prophecy, there would still be survivors of the 
World War I generation. However, the fact that their number is dwindling is one more indication that `the 
conclusion of the system of things' is moving fast toward its end.' That was written in 1980. Twenty years 
later, by the turn of the century, the ten-year-olds of 1914 would be ninety-six years old. Still, there might 
be a few of them yet around and evidently that was viewed as all that was necessary for Jesus' words to be 
fulfilled-depending, of course, on the acceptance of the idea that Jesus was directing his words particularly 
to ten-year-old children. This illustrates the extremes to which the organization was willing to go to hold on 
to its definition of the `1914 generation.'" (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: 
Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, p.264. Emphasis original)

28/01/2008
"More years passed and now no mention was made of `ten-year-olds' but instead the reference was simply 
to `those living in 1914' or similar. This, of course, allowed for newborn babies to be included in the `1914 
generation.' But with the arrival of the 1990s, and with the third millennium about to begin, even this 
`adjustment in understanding' provided only momentary relief for the problem. Even a newborn in 1914 
would be approaching 90 by the year 2000. One thing I can say with positiveness about the matter is that I 
personally found the reasoning employed within the Governing Body to be incredible. I found it tragic that a 
time prophecy could be proclaimed to the world as something solid upon which people could and should 
confidently rely, build their hopes, form their life plans, when the very ones publishing this knew that within 
their own collective body there did not exist a unanimity of genuine, firm conviction as to the rightness of 
that teaching." (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 
2002, Third printing, pp.264-265)

28/01/2008
"Throughout the half century in which the organization promulgated the concept of a `1914 generation,' its 
span consistently proved like a couch that is too short for comfort, and the reasonings used to cover that 
doctrinal `couch' proved like a woven sheet that is too narrow, not able to shut out, in this case, the cold 
facts of reality. The leadership had made numerous adjustments and now had few remaining options. There 
was the 1957 starting date for `this generation' proposed by members Schroeder, Klein and Suiter, but that 
seemed an unlikely choice. There was Albert Schroeder's idea of applying the phrase to the `anointed' class 
(an idea that had been floating around the organization for many, many years) which offered certain 
advantages - there are always additional persons (some fairly young) who each year decide for the first time 
that they are of the `anointed' class. So this would offer an almost limitless extension of time for the teaching 
about `this generation.' There was another option. They could acknowledge the historical evidence placing 
Jerusalem's destruction twenty years later than the Society's 607 B.C.E. date. This would make the Gentile 
Times run out (using their 2,520-year interpretation) about 1934. But such enormous importance has been 
placed on 1914 and, as has been shown, so much of the doctrinal superstructure is linked to it, that this also 
seemed an unlikely step." (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth 
edition, 2002, Third printing, p.265)

28/01/2008
"The inevitable signs of yet further `adjustment of understanding' began to appear with the February 15, 
1994, Watchtower. In it the beginning of the application of Jesus' statement about `signs in sun and moon 
and stars, and on the earth anguish of nations' was moved up from the year-1914 to a point following the 
start of the yet future `great tribulation.' Likewise, the foretold `gathering of the chosen ones from the four 
winds,' previously taught as running from 1919 onward, was now also moved to the future, following the 
start of the `great tribulation' and subsequent to the appearance of the celestial phenomena. Each of the 
now-abandoned positions had been taught for some fifty years. (See, as but one of numerous examples, the 
Watchtower of July 15, 1946.) Though heralded as `new light,' the changes simply moved Watch Tower 
teachings closer to understandings presented long ago by those the organization disdains as 
`Christendom's scholars.'" (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth 
edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.265-266)

28/01/2008
"In September 1994, the eighth printing of Crisis of Conscience discussed this February 15, 1994 issue of 
the Watchtower and its moving the application of portions of Matthew 24 forward to the start of the 
`great tribulation.' ... Just thirteen months later articles appeared in the November 1, 1995 Watchtower 
which did almost precisely what had been pointed to in that 1994 edition of Crisis of Conscience. As 
indicated, they now unlinked the phrase `this generation' (Matthew 24:34) from the date of 1914, but still 
retained the date as Biblically significant. This was accomplished by a new definition of the sense of 
`generation' in this text. About 70 years ago, The Golden Age magazine of October 20, 1926, connected 
Jesus' words about `this generation' to the date of 1914 (as did subsequent Watchtower magazines). 
Some 25 years later, the June 1, 1951, Watchtower, page 335, in connection with 1914, stated, `Hence our 
generation is the generation that will see the start and finish of all these things, including Armageddon.' In 
the July 1,195 1, issue, page 404, `this generation' was again linked to 1914. Of Matthew 24:34, it said: `The 
actual meaning of these words is, beyond question that which takes a `generation' in the ordinary sense, as 
at Mark 8:12 and Acts 13:36, or for those who are living-at the given period.' It then added: `This therefore 
means that from 1914 a generation shall not pass till all is fulfilled, and amidst a great time of trouble.' For 
over forty years thereafter Watch Tower publications continued to assign a temporal sense to the 
`generation' of Matthew 24:34. The aging of the 1914 generation was pointed to again and again as clear 
evidence of the shortness of the remaining time. In the revised 1995 definition, however, rather than having 
parameters of time limitations or any set starting point, the `generation' is instead said to be identified, not 
temporally, but qualitatively, by its characteristics, as in the reference to an `evil and adulterous 
generation' in Jesus' time. `This generation' is now said to be `the peoples of earth who see the sign of 
Christ's presence but fail to mend their ways.'" (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: 
Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.266-267. Emphasis original)

28/01/2008
"1914 is not discarded, however, something the organization could not do without dismantling the major 
theological structure and distinctive tenets of the religion. 1914 remains as the claimed date of Christ's 
enthronement in heaven, the beginning of his second, invisible, presence, as also the start of the `last days.' 
And it still figures, though obliquely, in the new definition of `this generation,' since the `sign of Christ's 
presence'-which the doomed ones see and reject or ignore-supposedly began to be visible worldwide from 
and after 1914. What then is the significant difference? It is that now, to qualify as part of "this generation," 
a person need no longer have been alive in 1914 to form part of "this generation." Anyone can see the 
supposed "sign of Christ's presence" at any time-even if for the first time in the 1990s, or for that matter in 
the third millennium-and still qualify as part of "this generation." This allows the phrase to float free of any 
starting date and reduces considerably the need to explain the embarrassing length of time that has 
elapsed since 1914, and the rapidly diminishing ranks of persons who were alive at that date." (Franz, R., 
"Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.267-
268. Emphasis original)

28/01/2008
"Perhaps the most graphic evidence of this change is seen in the masthead of the Awake! magazine. Up 
until October 22,1995, it read: `Awake! Why Awake! Is Published Awake! is for the 
enlightenment of the entire family. It shows how to cope with today's problems. It reports the news, tells 
about people in many lands, examines religion and science. But it does more. It probes beneath the surface 
and points to the real meaning behind current events, yet it always stays politically neutral and does not 
exalt one race above another. Most important, this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a 
peaceful and secure new world before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away. The 
statement that `this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure new world 
before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away,' appeared year after year from 1982 until 
October 22, 1995. With the November 8, 1995 issue, the statement was altered to read: `Awake! Why 
Awake! Is Published Awake! is for the enlightenment of the entire family. It shows how to cope with 
today's problems. It reports the news, tells about people in many lands, examines religion and science. But it 
does more. It probes beneath the surface and points to the real meaning behind current events, yet it always 
stays politically neutral and does not exalt one race above another Most important, this magazine builds 
confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure new world that is about to replace the present 
wicked, lawless system of things. All reference to 1914 is now deleted, presenting graphic evidence of 
this crucial change-as well as, in effect, indicating that `the Creator' had somehow reneged on his `promise' 
tied to the 1914 generation." (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, 
Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, p.268. Emphasis original)

28/01/2008
"It remains to be seen what the ultimate effect of this change will be. I would think that those feeling its 
effects most acutely would be those older, longtime members who had embraced the hope of not dying 
before the realization of their expectations regarding the complete fulfillment of God's promises. Proverbs 
13:12 says that `hope deferred [expectation postponed, NW] makes the heart sick, but a desire fulfilled is 
a tree of life.' (NRSV) Any feelings of heartsickness these may now experience are not the responsibility 
of the Creator but of the men who implanted and nourished in them false expectations tied to a date. Those 
younger or more recently affiliated will not likely feel as severely the impact of the change. It is, after all, 
clothed in language that makes no acknowledgment of error on the organization's part, but which shrouds 
the change in terms of `progressive understanding' and `advancing light.' The May l, 1999 Watchtower 
(page 13) says; `Our progress in understanding the prophecy in Matthew chapters 24 and 25 has been 
thrilling,' this, while contemporaneously discarding one interpretation after another taught for years as 
divine truth! The many newer ones may not be aware of the intense insistence with which, for decades, the 
`1914 generation' concept was advanced, how positively it was presented as a certain indicator of the 
`nearness of the end.' They may not realize how adamantly the `1914 generation' teaching was presented as 
being, not of human origin, but of divine origin, not a timetable based on human promise, but based on 
`God's promise.' This 40-year-long, implicit tying of God and his Word to a now-failed concept only adds to 
the heaviness of the responsibility. One is reminded of Jehovah's words at Jeremiah 23:21: `I did not send 
the prophets, yet they ran; I did not speak to them, yet they prophesied.'" (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," 
[1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.268-269)

28/01/2008
"This basic change can only have come as the result of a Governing Body decision. As shown, the essential 
issue involved came up for discussion as far back as the 1970s. One cannot but wonder as to the thoughts 
of the Governing Body members today, what sense of responsibility they feel. Every member of that body 
knew then and knows now what the organization's record has been in the field of date-setting and 
predicting. Through the publications this is excused on the basis of `a fervent desire to realize the fulfillment 
of God's promises in their own time,' as if one cannot have such fervent desire without presuming to set a 
timetable for God, or to make predictions and attribute them to God, as based on his Word. They know also 
that, despite mistake after mistake, the organization's leaders kept on feeding its membership new 
predictions. They know that the leadership has consistently failed to shoulder full responsibility for the 
errors, to admit that it, the leadership, was simply and plainly wrong. They have sought to protect their 
image and their claim to authority by endeavoring to make it appear that the errors were those of the 
membership as a whole. In an article on `False Predictions or True Prophecy,' the June 22, 1995 Awake! 
(page 9) said: `Bible Students, known since 1931 as Jehovah's Witnesses, also expected that the year 1925 
would see the fulfillment of marvelous Bible prophecies. They surmised that at that time the earthly 
resurrection would begin, bringing back faithful men of old, such as Abraham, David, and Daniel. More 
recently, many Witnesses conjectured that events associated with the beginning of Christ's Millennial 
Reign might start to take place in 1975. Their anticipation was based on the understanding that the seventh 
millennium of human history would begin then." (Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary 
Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third printing, pp.269-270)

28/01/2008
"The November 1, 1995, Watchtower magazine presenting the new teaching regarding `this generation' 
follows the same tactic, saying (page 17): `Eager to see the end of this evil system, Jehovah's people have at 
times speculated about the time when the `great tribulation' would break out, even tying this to calculations 
of what is the lifetime of a generation since 1914. However, we `bring a heart of wisdom in,' not by 
speculating about how many years or days make up a generation, but by thinking about how we `count our 
days' in bringing joyful praise to Jehovah. (Psalm 90:12) Rather than provide a rule for measuring time, the 
term `generation' as used by Jesus refers principally to contemporary people of a certain historical period, 
with their identifying characteristics.' The leadership thus shrugs off the responsibility that rightfully rests 
with them, piously counseling the membership on their spiritual outlook as if it were their wrong spiritual 
viewpoint that produced the problem. They do not acknowledge that the membership originates nothing 
and that the membership embraced hopes as to various dates solely because the leaders of the 
organization fed them material clearly designed to stir up such hopes, that every date mentioned and all the 
`surmising,' `conjectures' and `speculations' and `calculations' connected to those dates, originated, not with 
the membership, but with the leaders. It is somewhat like a mother, whose children become ill with 
indigestion, saying of such children, `They weren't careful about what they ate,' when in fact the children 
simply ate what the mother served them. And not only served them but insisted that the food should be 
accepted as wholesome, part of a superior diet unobtainable elsewhere, so much so that any expression of 
dissatisfaction with what was fed them would bring threat of punishment. The men now on the Governing 
Body all know that, for as long as any of the organization's teachings connected with the 1914 date were in 
effect, any open questioning or disagreement regarding these could and did bring disfellowshipment." 
(Franz, R., "Crisis of Conscience," [1983], Commentary Press: Atlanta GA, Fourth edition, 2002, Third 
printing, pp.270-271. Emphasis original)

28/01/2008
"Thirty-seven years after Peter quoted those words of Joel the city of Jerusalem with its gorgeous temple 
was destroyed for the second time. The remnant of Jews who had called upon Jehovah's name through faith 
in his Son Jesus Christ escaped the frightful destruction upon earthly Jerusalem and Mount Zion at that 
climax of the `great and illustrious day of Jehovah.' This is not without solemn meaning for this generation 
living since A.D. 1914. For what happened back there to literal Jerusalem and Judea was a prophetic pattern 
of what is to happen inside this generation to their modern counterparts, Christendom and her religious 
organization, in the opening phase of the `war of the great day of God the Almighty.'" (Watchtower Bible & 
Tract Society, "You May Survive Armageddon into God's New World," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: 
Brooklyn NY, 1955, pp.191-192)

28/01/2008
"Proving that the larger and final fulfillment of Joel's prophecy is within this generation, the prophet follows 
up his words above with the further prophecy: `For behold, in those days, and in that time, when I shall turn 
again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem, I will also gather all the nations, and will bring them down into 
the valley of Jehoshaphat, and I will enter into judgment with them there on account of my people and mine 
inheritance, Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations: and they have parted my land; and they 
have cast lots for my people.' (Joel 3:1-3, Da) No such gathering of all the nations and bringing them down 
to the valley of Jehoshaphat to punish them for their mistreatment of Jehovah's people occurred back there 
in the days of Peter and his fellow apostles. That leaves Joel's prophecy concerning the outpouring of God's 
spirit and all related events to be fulfilled completely in all its details down here within this generation." 
(Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "You May Survive Armageddon into God's New World," Watchtower 
Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, 1955, p.1923) 

28/01/2008
"'This Generation' `Jesus was obviously speaking about those who were old enough to witness with 
understanding what took place when the `last days' began.... Even if we presume that youngsters 15 years of age 
would be perceptive enough to realize the import of what happened in 1914, it would still make the youngest of 
`this generation' nearly 70 years old today... . Jesus said that the end of this wicked world would come before that 
generation passed away in death.' A 10/8/1968, p.13.... the generation alive in 1914, some will see the major 
fulfillment of Christ Jesus' prophecy and the destruction... .' A 10/8/1973, p.19.`Thus, when it comes to the 
application in our time, the `generation' logically would not apply to babies born during World War I' WT 
10/1/1978, p.31.`It is the generation of people who saw the catastrophic events that broke forth in connection 
with World War I from 1914 onward.... If you assume that 10 is the age at which an event creates a lasting 
impression...... WT 10/15/1980, p.31.`If Jesus used `generation' in that sense and we apply it to 1914, then the 
babies of that generation are now 70 years old or older.... Some of them `will by no means pass away until all 
things occur.' WT 5/15/1984, p.5.`Before the 1914 generation completely dies out, God's judgment must be 
executed.' WT 5/1/1985, p.4. Awake!.magazine discontinues statements in masthead about the generation 
that saw 1914. A 1/8/1987, p.4. Awake!.magazine resumes statements in masthead about the generation that 
saw 1914. A 3/8/1988, p.4.`The Hebrews ... reckon seventy-five years as one generation... .' A 4/8/1988, 
p.14.`Most of the generation of 1914 has passed away. However, there are still millions on earth who were born 
in that year or prior to it.... Jesus' words will come true, `this generation will not pass away until all these things 
have happened.' A 4/8/1988, p.14. `He [the apostle Paul] was also laying a foundation for a work that would be 
completed in our 20th century.' WT 1/1/1989, original magazine, p.12.`He [the apostle Paul] was also laying a 
foundation for a work that would be completed in our day.' WT 1/1/1989, bound volume, p.12." (Reed, D.A., 
ed., "Index of Watchtower Errors, 1879 to 1989," Compiled by Steve Huntoon and John Cornell, Baker: Grand 
Rapids MI, 1990, pp.110-111. Emphasis original) 

28/01/2008
"A third way of coming to know Jehovah God is through his representatives. In ancient times he sent 
prophets as his special messengers. While these men foretold things to come, they also served the people 
by telling them of God's will for them at that time, often also warning them of dangers and calamities. People 
today can view the creative works. They have at hand the Bible, but it is little read or understood. So, does 
Jehovah have a prophet to help them, to warn them of dangers and to declare things to come? ... These 
questions can be answered in the affirmative. Who is this prophet? The clergy of the so-called `Christian' 
nations hold themselves before the people as being the ones commissioned to speak for God. But, as 
pointed out in the previous issue of this magazine, they have failed God and failed as proclaimers of his 
kingdom ... However, Jehovah did not let the people of Christendom, as led by the clergy, go without being 
warned ... He had a `prophet' to warn them. This `prophet' was not one man, but was a body of men and 
women. It was the small group of footstep followers of Jesus Christ, known at that time as International 
Bible Students. Today they are known as Jehovah's Christian witnesses." ("They shall know that a Prophet 
was among them," The Watchtower, April 1, 1972, pp.197-198, p.197)

28/01/2008
"THE fact that fifty-four years of the period called the `last days' have already gone by is highly significant. 
It means that only a few years, at most, remain before the corrupt system of things dominating the earth is 
destroyed by God. How can we be certain of this? One way is by noting what Jesus said when he gave his 
great prophecy about the `last days'. After he listed the many events that would mark this period, he also 
stated, `Truly I say to you that this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.' - 
Matt. 24:34. `Jesus was obviously speaking about those who were old enough to witness with 
understanding what took place when the `last days' began. Jesus was saying that some of those persons 
who were alive at the appearance of the `sign of the last days' would still be alive when God brought this 
system to its end. Even if we presume that youngsters 15 years of age would be perceptive enough to realize 
the import of what happened in 1914, it would still make the youngest of `this generation' nearly 70 years old 
today. So the great majority of the generation to which Jesus was referring has already passed away in 
death. The remaining ones are approaching old age. And remember, Jesus said that the end of this wicked 
world would come before that generation passed away in death. This, of itself, tells us that the years left 
before the foretold end comes cannot be many.." ("What will the 1970's Bring?," Awake!, October 8, 1968, 
p.13-14. Emphasis original)

29/01/2008
"John 8:58, `Jesus said unto them ... Before Abraham was [born], I am' (KJV). In comparing this with the 
Septuagint translation of Exodus 3:14 and Isaiah 43:10-13, we find that the translation is identical. In Exodus 
3:14, Jehovah, speaking to Moses, said, `I AM,' which is synonymous with God. Jesus literally said to them, 
`I AM Jehovah' (I AM), and it is clear that they understood Him to mean just that; for they attempted, as the 
next verse reveals, to stone Him. Hebrew law on this point states five cases in which stoning was legal, and 
bear in mind that the Jews were legalists. Those cases were: (1) Having a familiar spirit, Leviticus 20:27; (2) 
Cursing (blasphemy), Leviticus 24:10-23; (3) False prophets who lead to idolatry, Deuteronomy 13:5-10; (4) 
Stubborn son, Deuteronomy 21:18-21; and (5) Adultery and rape, Deuteronomy 22:21-24 and Leviticus 20:10. 
Now, the only legal ground the Jews had for stoning Christ (and actually they had none at all) was the 
second violation, namely, blasphemy." (Martin, W.R. & Klann, N., "Jehovah of the Watchtower," [1953], 
Bethany House Publishers: Bloomington MN, Reprinted, 1981, p.52).

30/01/2008
"Titus 2:13-Our Great God and Savior The Watchtower Teaching. The New World Translation renders 
Titus 2:13, `While we wait for the happy hope and glorious manifestation of the great God and of [the] 
Savior of us, Christ Jesus' (emphasis added). This is in contrast to, for example, the New American 
Standard Bible, which renders this verse, `Looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of 
our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus' (emphasis added). Notice how the two translations are different. 
The Jehovah's Witnesses mistranslate Titus 2:13 to make it appear that two different persons are in view-
God Almighty and Christ the Savior. Yet all legitimate translations have only one person in view in this 
verse-our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ. ... The Biblical Teaching. A study of the Old Testament 
indicates that it is only God who saves. In Isaiah 43:11, God asserts: `I, even I, am the LORD [Yahweh], 
and apart from me there is no savior' (emphasis added). This is an extremely important verse, for it 
indicates that 1) a claim to be Savior is, in itself, a claim to deity; and 2) there is only one Savior-God. 
Since the New Testament clearly refers to Jesus Christ as the Savior, the only conclusion that makes sense 
is that Christ is indeed God. Shortly after His birth, an angel appeared to a group of nearby shepherds and 
said, `Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord' (Luke 2:11). John's 
Gospel records the conclusion reached by the Samaritans: Jesus `really is the Savior of the world' (John 
4:42)." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: 
Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.88-90. Emphasis original) 

30/01/2008
"In Titus 2:13 Paul encourages Titus to await the blessed hope, the `glorious appearing of our great God and 
Savior, Jesus Christ.' An examination of Titus 2:10-13, 3:4, and 3:6 reveals that the phrases God our Savior 
and Jesus Christ our Savior are used interchangeably four times. The parallel truths that only God is the 
Savior (Isaiah 43:11) and that Jesus Himself is the Savior constitute a powerful evidence for Christ's deity. 
One must keep in mind that the apostle Paul (who wrote Titus) had been trained in the strictest form of 
Judaism (its main tenet being monotheism-the belief that there is only one true God). It is against this 
backdrop that Paul unabashedly affirms that Jesus is `our great God and Savior.' Now, we must emphasize 
that Greek grammarians have taken a solid stand against the Watchtower's view that there are two persons-
Jehovah and the Savior Jesus-in Titus 2:13. Indeed, these scholars are emphatic that only one person-'our 
great God and Savior, Jesus Christ'-is found in this verse. Greek scholar Bruce Metzger writes: `In support of 
this translation ['our great God and Savior'] there may be quoted such eminent grammarians of the Greek 
New Testament as P.W. Schmiedel, J.H. Moulton, A.T. Robertson, and Blass-Debrunner. All of these 
scholars concur in the judgment that only one person is referred to in Titus 2:13 and that therefore, it must 
be rendered, `our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ.' [Metzger, B.M., "The Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus 
Christ," Theology Today, April, 1953, pp.78-79] Likewise, Dana and Mantey's authoritative Manual 
Grammar of the Greek New Testament positively affirms that Titus 2:13 'asserts that Jesus is the great God 
and Savior.' [Dana, H.E. & Mantey, J.R., "A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament," Macmillan: New 
York, 1957, p.147] Such Greek scholars argue their case based upon a detailed study of a number of identical 
sentence constructions in the Greek New Testament. Greek scholars have thus come up with a guiding 
principle or rule for interpreting such constructions: `When two nouns in the same case are connected by 
the Greek word `and,' and the first noun is preceded by the article `the,' and the second noun is not preceded 
by the article, the second noun refers to the same person or thing to which the first noun refers, and is a 
farther description of it.' [Wuest, K.S., "Wuest's Word Studies," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 1953, Vol. 3, 
p.31] In Titus 2:13, two nouns-'God' and `Savior'-are joined together with the Greek word for `and,' and a 
definite article ('the') is placed only in front of the first noun ('God'). [Bowman, R.M., "Why You Should 
Believe in the Trinity," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1989 p.105.] The sentence literally reads: `the great God 
and Savior of us.' In this particular sentence construction in the Greek New Testament, the two nouns 
in question-'God' and `Savior'-are referring to the same person, Jesus Christ. [Ibid., p.105] As scholar Robert 
Reymond explains, `The two nouns [`God' and `Savior'] both stand under the regimen of the single definite 
article preceding `God,' indicating ... that they are to be construed corporately, not separately, or that they 
have a single referent.' [Reymond, R.L., "Jesus, Divine Messiah: The New Testament Witness," Presbyterian 
& Reformed: Phillipsburg NJ, 1990, p.276] Indeed, `the presence of only one definite article has the effect of 
binding together the two titles [`God' and `Savior'].' [ Bruce, F.F., ed., "Titus," in "The International Bible 
Commentary," Zondervan: Grand Rapids MI, 1979, p.1495.]" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures 
with the Jehovah's Witnesses," [1993], Harvest House: Eugene OR, Reprinted, 2006, pp.90-91. Emphasis 
original)

30/01/2008
"In still another crucial verse the New World Translation has garbled the meaning of the original so as to 
avoid referring to Jesus Christ as God. In Titus 2:13 it reads, `We wait for the happy hope and glorious 
manifestation of the great God and of our Savior Christ Jesus.' This rendering, by separating `the great God' 
from `our Savior Christ Jesus,' overlooks a principle of Greek grammar which was detected and formulated in 
a rule by Granville Sharp in 1798. This rule, in brief, is that when the copulative kai connects two nouns of 
the same case, if the article precedes the first noun and is not repeated before the second noun, the latter 
always refers to the same person that is expressed or described by the first noun. This verse in Titus, 
therefore, must be translated, as in fact the Revised Standard Version (1952) renders it, `Awaiting our 
blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ.' In support of this 
translation there may be quoted such eminent grammarians of the Greek New Testament as P. W. Schmiedel, 
J. H. Moulton, A. T. Robertson, and Blass-Debrunner. All of these scholars concur in the judgment that 
only one person is referred to in Titus 2:13 and that therefore it must be rendered, `Our great God and Savior 
Jesus Christ." (Metzger, B.M., "The Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Reprint of article in Theology 
Today, April, 1953, Princeton Theological Seminary: Princeton NJ, 1953, pp.65-85, pp.78-79. Greek 
transliteration mine)

30/01/2008
"Exactly similar to the last error considered above is the rendering of II Pet. 1:1 in the New World 
Translation, `... by the righteousness of our God and the Savior Jesus Christ.' All that has been written in the 
preceding section, including the judgment of the grammatical authorities cited there, applies with equal 
appropriateness to the correct rendering of II Pet. 1:1. Accordingly, in this verse also there is an express 
declaration of the deity of Jesus Christ, `... of our God and Savior Jesus Christ.'" (Metzger, B.M., "The 
Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Reprint of article in Theology Today, April, 1953, Princeton 
Theological Seminary: Princeton NJ, 1953, pp.65-85, p.79. Ellipses original) 

30/01/2008
"In this short letter of only twenty-five verses Jude refers to Jesus no less than six times by name and 
always in conjunction with one or more additional titles: `Jesus Christ' (vs 1 [twice]), `our Lord Jesus Christ' 
(vss 17, 21), `Jesus Christ, our Lord' (vs 25), and `our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ' (vs 4). All ascribe 
to Jesus both the messianic investiture and Lordship, while the contexts in which they occur suggest that 
for Jude Christ's was a station not below the Father himself insofar as divine status is concerned. For if it is 
in God the Father that the called are loved, it is in or for Jesus Christ that they are kept (vs 1). If they are to 
keep themselves in the Father's love, they are no less to wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to grant 
them eternal salvation (vs 21). If it is the Father who is to be glorified for the final salvation of the called, it is 
through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, that such praise is to be mediated (vs 25). If it is the Father who is the `only 
God' (vs 25), it is Jesus Christ who is `our only Master and Lord' (... ton monon despoten kai kurion) (vs 
4). And if Jude sees himself as a servant, it is as a servant of Jesus Christ (vs 1) precisely because it is Jesus 
Christ who is `our only Master and Lord' (vs 4)." (Reymond, R.L., "Jesus, Divine Messiah: The New 
Testament and Old Testament Witness," [1990], Mentor: Fearn UK, 2003, pp.482-483)

30/01/2008
"There is some debate, it must be admitted, as to whether the full title in verse 4 refers only to Christ ('our 
only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ') or to both the Father ('the only Master') and to Jesus ('our Lord Jesus 
Christ'). Many commentators argue that the latter is the more likely interpretation, but mainly on apriori 
theological grounds. In my opinion, two factors militate against this view in favor of the former 
interpretation. First, both nouns ('Master' and `Lord') stand under the regimen of the single article before 
`Master,' suggesting that they are to be construed together as characterizations of the same person. While it 
is certainly true that ... kurios `Lord' ... does not require the article, it is also true that had Jude intended to 
refer both to God the Father and to Jesus, he could have made that intention explicit either by placing `our 
Lord' after `Jesus Christ' as he does in verse 25, or by employing a second article before `our Lord Jesus 
Christ' as he does in the other two places where he refers singly to Jesus by that title (vss 17, 21). Second, 2 
Peter 2:1, with a similar statement, evidently refers to Jesus as the Master. These two factors place it beyond 
all reasonable doubt that Jude intended to describe Jesus as both our Master and our Lord. Since it is 
doubtful that the two titles are a pleonasm or tautology, what did Jude intend to imply by the former title? In 
addition to the fact that Jesus is `our Lord,' Jude by this title highlights the fact that Jesus is the `Owner' of 
Christians by virtue of his messianic work with the right that inheres in such ownership to command and to 
expect his followers' immediate and humble response." (Reymond, R.L., "Jesus, Divine Messiah: The New 
Testament and Old Testament Witness," [1990], Mentor: Fearn UK, 2003, p.483)

30/01/2008
"But there is still more that Jude implies about Jesus. For in addition to the six direct references to Jesus by 
name, there is sound reason to think that he may well have had Jesus in mind when he refers to `the Lord' in 
verses 5 and 14. Consider the latter context first. Can there really be any doubt, regardless of who the 
referent is in 1 Enoch 1:49, that Jude intended to refer to Jesus in verse 14 when he wrote: `Behold, the Lord 
will come ... elthen, an aorist with prophetic (future) intention] with his myriad holy ones' (see Matt 16:27; 
25:31; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; 1 Thes 3:13; 2 Thes 1:7-10)? In light of consentient Christian testimony, no other 
referent will suffice. But then, this being so, Jude here ascribes the divine prerogative of eschatological 
judgment to Jesus." (Reymond, R.L., "Jesus, Divine Messiah: The New Testament and Old Testament 
Witness," [1990], Mentor: Fearn UK, 2003, pp.483-484)

30/01/2008
"In the former verse (vs 5), apart from the fact that `Jesus' may well be the original reading instead of `Lord,' 
even with the reading `the Lord,' there is every reason to believe that Jesus may still have been Jude's 
intended referent. Consider the following facts. First, there is no question that Jude employed `Lord' to refer 
to Jesus four times (vss 4, 17, 21, 25). Second, we have just seen that the almost certain referent of `Lord' in 
verse 14 is Jesus. And third, this occurrence of `Lord' in verse 5 comes hard on the heels of Jude's certain 
reference to Jesus in the immediately preceding verse as `our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ.' So it is 
not only possible but also virtually certain that it is to Jesus, in his preincarnate state as the Yahweh of the 
Old Testament, that he ascribes, first, the deliverance of Israel from Egypt and then the destruction of those 
within the nation who rebelled; second, the judgment of the angels at the time of their primeval fall; and 
third, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. And if all this is true, Jude was clearly thinking of Jesus 
Christ in terms that encompass the Old Testament Deity. But however one interprets this last verse, it is 
apparent from the others that, for Jude, Christ was the sovereign Master and Lord of men, who at his coming 
will exercise the prerogative to dispense eschatological salvation and judgment as the Savior and Judge of 
men. There can be no doubt, in light of these facts, that for him Christ was divine." (Reymond, R.L., "Jesus, 
Divine Messiah: The New and Old Testament Witness," [1990], Mentor: Fearn UK, 2003, p.484)

30/01/2008
"'In the former verse (vs 5), apart from the fact that `Jesus' may well be the original reading instead of `Lord,' 
... Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, 725-26, explains with respect to 
the reading ... ho kurios, in the UBS Greek New Testament that `a majority of the Committee was of the 
opinion that the reading ... Iesous ... was difficult to the point of impossibility, and explained its origin in 
terms of transcriptional oversight.' But Metzger himself and Allen Wikgren affirm that `Critical principles 
seem to require the adoption of ... Iesous, which admittedly is the best attested reading among Greek and 
versional witnesses [e.g., A, B, 33, Vulgate, and some significant church fathers]. Struck by the strange and 
unparalleled mention of Jesus in a statement about the redemption out of Egypt (yet compare Paul's 
reference to ... Christos, in 1 Cor 10.4) copyists would have substituted ... [ho] kurios] or ... [eo 
theos].' In short, Iesous, is both the best supported reading textually and undoubtedly the hardest of 
the variant readings-canons of criticism which, when both are true of a given reading, normally carry the 
field." (Reymond, R.L., "Jesus, Divine Messiah: The New and Old Testament Witness," [1990], 
Mentor: Fearn UK, 2003, pp.484-485)

31/01/2008
"The third approach to finding (and demonstrating) Jesus in the Old Testament is just as bold, and indeed, 
may well appear still more bizarre to many moderns. The focus here is on a number of Old Testament 
passages that narrate manifestations of God (the technical term for such a scene is `theophany'). In this 
approach these events are presented as manifestations of the `preincarnate' Son of God. Yet again, Justin 
gives us the most examples from our period of concern. In Dialogue 61.1 Justin makes the general claim to 
his Jewish dialogue partners that Jesus can be identified in terms of a number of Old Testament 
manifestations of God. That is, he asserts that `in general the Old Testament theophanies were appearances 
of the Son, not the Father.' `I shall give to you testimony from the scriptures, my friends, that before all 
created things God begat from himself a Beginning [arche], a certain rational power [dynamin logiken], 
who is also called by the Holy Spirit `the Glory of the Lord,' and sometimes `Son,' and `Wisdom,' and 
`Angel,' and `God,' and `Lord,' and `Word'; and he once called himself `Captain' [archistrategon] when he 
appeared in the form of a man to Joshua the son of Nun ... The Old Testament allusions here are: `Beginning' 
(Gen. 1:1, `in/by the beginning' taken as a reference to the Son as the divine agent of creation); `Glory of the 
Lord' (e.g., Exod. 16:7; etc.); `Son' (e.g., Ps. 2:7); `Wisdom' (Prov. 8:22-36; Ps. 104:24 [103:24 LXX]); `Angel [of 
the Lord]' (e.g., Gen. 31:11-13); `God' (e.g., Gen. 32:28-30); `Lord' (e.g., Gen. 18:1; 28:13); `Word' (Ps. 33:6 [32:6 
LXX]); `Chief Officer' (Josh. 5:14). By `rational power' Justin refers to this divine figure's chief function as 
expression of the will/mind of God, which is also, of course, conveyed particularly in the epithets `Word' and 
`Wisdom.'" (Hurtado, L.W., "Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity," Eerdmans: Grand 
Rapids MI, 2005, pp.574-575)

31/01/2008
"However, in Justin (and the Christian tradition he reflects) it is not simply or primarily an academic debate 
over what one might make of biblical texts. Instead they explore certain theophanic accounts to confirm and 
celebrate Jesus' divine status for themselves, and to persuade others to embrace him as divine. For the early 
Christian handling of these Old Testament texts that Justin exemplifies, the prior and essential basis is the 
belief that the historic Jesus was the incarnate form of the preexistent and divine Son/Word of God, through 
and with whom God created all things. This belief certainly goes back early into first-century Christianity, as 
attested by such passages as 1 Corinthians 8:4-6, Philippians 2:6-8, Colossians 1:15-17, Hebrews 1:1-3, and 
John 1:1-2. Given this belief, it was not so strange for early Christians such as Justin to look for references to 
the preincarnate Jesus/Son/Word in their Scriptures." (Hurtado, L.W., "Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus 
in Earliest Christianity," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 2005, p.576)

31/01/2008
"In fact, the conviction that one could find Old Testament passages in which the preincarnate Jesus was 
manifested is reflected in first-century Christian texts. Most obviously, of course, the New Testament 
references to Jesus as the one through whom God created all things (1 Cor. 8:4-6; John 1:1-2; Col. 1:15-17) all 
reflect such a reading of Old Testament statements about the creation of the world. Furthermore, Paul's 
statement in 1 Corinthians 10:4 that the rock from which Israel drank in their wilderness trek `was Christ' 
must surely be taken as asserting that in his preincarnate mode Jesus was the divine figure who engaged 
Israel in the Exodus narrative .Also, whether the original reading in Jude 5 referred to `Jesus' or `the Lord,' it 
is a good bet that this verse likewise portrays the preincarnate Jesus rescuing Israel from Egypt. Further, as 
we noted in an earlier chapter, John 12:41 asserts that the divine figure seen by the prophet in Isaiah 6:1 was 
`the Lord' Jesus. These references to passages in Exodus and Isaiah exhibit first-century christological 
interpretations of Old Testament theophanic passages." (Hurtado, L.W., "Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to 
Jesus in Earliest Christianity," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 2005, pp.576-577).

31/01/2008
"So Justin did not originate the basic idea that the preincarnate Jesus could be found active in certain Old 
Testament passages. ...  Justin was essentially building upon a line of christological argument already 
available. He reflects an approach to the Old Testament that had been a feature of devotion to Jesus during 
the first decades of the Christian movement. In turn, his programmatic finding of the preincarnate Jesus in 
Old Testament passages is probably one of the traditions that helped shape Irenaeus's idea that Jesus is the 
full and final manifestation of the divine Logos who has been active throughout human history." (Hurtado, 
L.W., "Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 2005, 
p.577)

29/07/2008
"We declare without equivocation that God the Father and His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, appeared in 
person to the boy Joseph Smith. When I was interviewed by Mike Wallace on the 60 Minutes program, 
he asked me if I actually believed that. I replied, `Yes, sir. Thats the miracle of it.' That is the way I feel about 
it. Our whole strength rests on the validity of that vision. It either occurred or it did not occur. If it did not, 
then this work is a fraud. If it did, then it is the most important and wonderful work under the heavens." 
(Hinckley, G.B., "The Marvelous Foundation of Our Faith," Ensign, November 2002, p.78)

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Created: 3 January, 2008. Updated: 24 February, 2012.