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The following are quotes added to my Jesus is Jehovah unclassified quotes database in April 2009.
The date format is dd/mm/yy. See copyright conditions at end.
[Index: Jan, Feb, Mar, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep-Dec]
10/04/2009 "1 Corinthians 15:28-Is Christ `Subject' to the Father? ... First Corinthians 15:28 in the New World Translation reads, `But when all things will have been subjected to him, then the Son himself will also subject himself to the One who subjected all things to him, that God may be all things to everyone' (emphasis added). Reasoning from the Scriptures cites this as a passage that proves beyond any doubt that Jesus is not equal to the Father and is not God Almighty. [p.410] The Watchtower book "Let God Be True" likewise tells us that all people-Jesus included-are in complete subjection to Jehovah-God. [p.104] If Christ were God Almighty, it is argued, He wouldn't be in subjection to anyone. ... As you answer the Jehovah's Witnesses on this verse, you must emphasize that the word `subject' in 1 Corinthians 15:28 has nothing to do with Christ's essential nature or being. Rather, the word points to Christ's functional subjection to God the Father as the God-man and Mediator in the outworking of the plan of salvation. `As the perfect man, Christ had to be obedient to God and thus fulfill God's plan to redeem humanity. Jesus voluntarily submitted to that plan, to God the Father, in order to save humanity from eternal separation from God.' [McDowell, J. & Larson, B., "Jesus: A Biblical Defense of His Deity," Here's Life Publishers: San Bernardino CA, 1975, p.90] Jehovah's Witnesses try to make much of the fact that even now, in the glorified state, Christ is in subjection to the Father. They thus imply that Jesus is not God in the same sense that the Father is. This position assumes, however, that Jesus did not retain His human nature. The Jehovah's Witnesses try to argue that Jesus was raised not in a human body but was raised (or recreated) as a spirit creature. If a Witness can be shown that Jesus still retains His human nature, then his position largely evaporates-for Christ as a man (today and forever) will always be in subjection to the Father. It is critical, then, that you establish your case for Christ's continued existence as the glorified God-man, still in full retention of His human nature. Point out that Christ was raised immortal in the very same human body in which He died (Luke 24:37-39; Acts 2:31; 1 John 4:2; 2 John 7). Jesus Himself said that `a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have' (Luke 24:39). When Christ ascended into heaven, He ascended in the same physical human body, as witnessed by several of His disciples (Acts 1:11). As the Mediator between God and man, Christ is specifically said to presently possess a human nature (1 Timothy 2:5). When Christ returns, He will return as the `Son of Man'-a messianic title that clearly points to His humanity (Matthew 26:64). Because Christ still possesses His human nature, then, Christ is still in submission to the Father. [Bowman, R..M., "Why You Should Believe in the Trinity," Baker: Grand Rapids, 1989, p.80] But in no way does this make Jesus lesser than the Father in terms of His divine nature. Christ is the God-man. On the human side, Jesus is lesser than the Father. But on the divine side, Jesus is forever equal to the Father. You must drive this point home to the Jehovah's Witness." (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," Harvest House: Eugene OR, 1993, Reprinted, 2006, pp.141-142. Emphasis original) 10/04/2009 "Another point is that even apart from His humanity, Jesus has always been and forever will be in subjection to the Father because this is the nature of the relationship of the Persons in the Trinity. Jesus' subjection to the Father transcends His short life on earth as God-incarnate. Again, this does not mean that Jesus is any less God than the Father; it simply reflects the hierarchical relationship in the Trinity. As noted earlier, you must point out that there is no contradiction in affirming both an equality of being and a functional subordination among the Persons in the Godhead. Christ in His divine nature is fully equal to the Father, though relationally (or functionally) He is subordinate or submissive. That's how it is with men and women. Though they are completely equal in their nature (Genesis 1:26-28; Galatians 3:28), there is a hierarchical relationship that exists between them (1 Corinthians 11:3). The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge comments, `The subordination ... of the Son to the Father is a voluntary though evidently permanent relationship which does not detract from or deny the equal deity of the Son, any more than the divine order of the submission of the wife to the husband (1 Corinthians 11:3) in the husband/wife relationship detracts from her essential equality and humanity, or implies her inferiority.' [Smith, J.H., ed., "The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1992, p.1347]" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," Harvest House: Eugene OR, 1993, Reprinted, 2006, pp.142-143. Emphasis original) 10/04/2009 "Finally, you must explain to the Jehovah's Witness what 1 Corinthians 15:28 is really teaching. In the eternal plan of salvation, the eternal Son's role was to become the Mediator (the `go-between') between man and God the Father. But this role as Mediator is not eternal in its scope. In that future time when the task of man's redemption is complete, the Mediator (Christ) voluntarily surrenders the kingdom to the One who sent Him into the world to accomplish redemption, God the Father. At that time, the Son's mediatorial role will be completed. `When he delivers up the administration of the earthly kingdom to the Father, then the triune God will reign as God and no longer through the incarnate Son.' [The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p.1257, emphasis added.] Indeed, `throughout the endless ages of eternity, the triune God Jehovah will permeate the universe with His celestial love and glory. God will then be immediately known by all. What a glorious destiny awaits the redeemed of the Lord.' [Thomas, F W., "Masters of Deception," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1983, p.21]" (Rhodes, R., "Reasoning from the Scriptures with the Jehovah's Witnesses," Harvest House: Eugene OR, 1993, Reprinted, 2006, pp.143- 144. Emphasis original) 10/04/2009 "HE IS LORD Anyone who has read the New Testament through even once knows that, although it calls Jesus `God' only occasionally, it frequently calls him `Lord'-hundreds of times, in fact. Many readers of the Bible have the mistaken impression, though, that the title Lord as applied to Jesus has a lesser significance than God-as though when the Bible calls Jesus Lord it means something like `almost but not quite God:' Nothing could be farther from the truth. The word lord had, of course, a variety of uses, and not everyone who called Jesus `Lord' meant to affirm his deity. Nevertheless, especially after Jesus' resurrection and ascension, the apostles and their associates immediately began speaking of Jesus as `Lord' in a way that strongly indicated that he was God himself." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.157. Emphasis original) 10/04/2009 "Jehovah: The LORD The crucial religious context of this divine sense for Lord was the Jewish practice of using the term (whether in Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek) in place of the Old Testament name Yahweh, or Jehovah (YHWH). (Most modern English Bibles reflect this same practice by translating YHWH in the Old Testament as `LORD ,' with the capitals distinguishing it from `Lord:') As almost everyone recognizes, Jehovah is the personal name of God in the Old Testament-not only the name of the God of Israel, but also of the one God of all creation. The Hebrew Bible affirms in the strongest of terms that YHWH is the one and only true God (Deut. 4:35, 39; 32:39; 2 Sam. 22:32; Isa. 37:20; 43:10; 44:6-8; 45:5, 14, 21-22; 46:9). Thus, far from being a designation for a lesser deity, when used in place of the divine name YHWH, Lord was the highest designation a Jew could use for deity." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, pp.157. Emphasis original) 10/04/2009 "Jesus as `Lord' in Paul's Writings Paul so often spoke of Jesus as `Lord' in contexts that equate him with YHWH that space does not permit us even to mention every such reference. Confessing That Jesus Is Lord (Romans 10:9-13) In Romans, Paul writes, `If you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved' (Rom. 10:9-10 ESV). In this text, which Christians often use when encouraging others to come to Christ for salvation, the apostle states that the saving confession is that `Jesus is Lord' (kurios) and `that God raised him from the dead.' As Paul does regularly in his epistles, he refers to Jesus by the divine title Lord while referring to the Father by the divine title God. [But not always: Paul can also call Jesus `God,' as apparently he did in the previous chapter (Rom. 9:5; cf. Titus 2:13 ...)] That these are both divine titles in Paul's usage will become clear as we proceed." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, pp.161-162) 10/04/2009 "Paul then states, `For the Scripture says, `Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame' (v. 11 ESV). The word `for' (Greek, gar) indicates that Paul is citing this Scripture reference from the Old Testament as support for the statement he has just made about believing in Jesus as the risen Lord for salvation. The reference is to Isaiah 28:16, which Paul had quoted earlier in the same passage: `They [unbelieving Israel] have stumbled over the stumbling stone, as it is written, `Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense; and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame' (Rom. 9:32b-33 ESV). (This is an example of an important principle of biblical interpretation: ignore chapter divisions!) Jesus is, of course, the `stumbling stone' and the `rock of offense' in whom those Jews failed to believe for their salvation (see also Matt. 21:42-44; Mark 12:10-12; Luke 20:17-18; Acts 4:10-12; 1 Peter 2:6-8; cf. Eph. 2:20)." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.162) 10/04/2009 "Next, Paul writes, `For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him' (Rom. 10:12 ESV). Here, Paul is explaining that belief in Jesus for salvation is not just for Jews (or just for Gentiles!) but is for anyone who calls on him for salvation. This is because `the same Lord' (kurios) is Lord `of all.' In this context, the `Lord' here must be Jesus. Paul cannot be referring to this Lord as `the same' Lord if he is a different Lord than the one he just mentioned! Paul states that this same Lord, Jesus, bestows his riches (cf. 2 Cor. 8:9) `on all who call on him:' As we have already noted, calling on Jesus as Lord is an act of prayer, one that Paul elsewhere says characterizes Christians (1 Cor. 1:2). Paul then backs up what he is saying with another Scripture reference: `For "everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved"' (Rom. 10:13 ESV). This reference is Joel 2:32, the same text that Peter quoted in the first Christian sermon (Acts 2:21). In context here in Romans 10, the Lord on whose name everyone calls for salvation (v. 13) must be `the same' one who is Lord `of all' and who bestows his riches of salvation on everyone who calls on him (v: 12). Since that Lord is Jesus (vv. 9-11), Paul is clearly identifying Jesus as the `Lord' of Joel 2:32-who in the Hebrew text is called YHWH, or Jehovah." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, pp.162-163) 10/04/2009 "Confessing One Lord, Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians) Paul frequently refers to Jesus as `Lord' in 1 Corinthians in such a way as to identify him as, or equate him with, the Lord Jehovah of the Old Testament. Three instances appear in the opening ten verses alone. Christians, according to Paul, are `all those who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ' (1 Cor. 1:2). The Old Testament, of course, taught that one should call on the name of the Lord YHWH (e.g., Joel 2:32, which, as we have seen, Paul also applied to Jesus in Romans 10:13). A few verses later, Paul says that Christians hope to be found `blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ' (1:8; see also 5:5), whereas the Old Testament spoke of that judgment day as `the day of YHWH' (e.g., Joel 1:15; 2:1, 11, 31). The allusion to `the day of the Lord' (cf. Joel 2:31) in the same context as `calling on the name of the Lord' (cf. Joel 2:32) makes it all the more likely that Paul's language alludes directly to Joel. He refers to this future day of the Lord Jesus in several other epistles (2 Cor. 1:14; Phil. 1:6, 10; 2:16; 1 Thess. 5:2; 2 Thess. 2:1-2; 2 Tim. 1:18). Paul then exhorts his readers `by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ' (1:10), again placing the focus on the name of the Lord Jesus that Judaism placed on the name of the Lord YHWH ..." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.163. Emphasis original) 10/04/2009 "Paul continues to refer to Jesus as Lord in similar ways throughout the epistle: o After quoting the words of Jeremiah about boasting only in the Lord (Jer. 9:23-24), Paul says that his whole message to the Corinthians could be summed up as `Jesus Christ, and him crucified' (1:31; 2:2). This Jesus who was crucified, Paul says, was `the Lord of glory' (2:8). In context, then, Paul is applying the words of Jeremiah about boasting in the Lord to the Lord Jesus, as he probably does also in 2 Corinthians 10:17 (see also Gal. 6:14; Phil. 3:3)." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.163) 10/04/2009 "Paul quotes the words of Isaiah 40:13, `For who has known the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?' and then comments, `But we have the mind of Christ' (2:16). In other words, we can know the mind of the Lord only if he reveals it to us, and that is what we have in the mind of Christ." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.163) 10/04/2009 "In answer to his critics, Paul states, `The one who examines me is the Lord' (4:4 NASB). This `Lord' must be Jesus because Paul, like the rest of the New Testament writers, regards the Lord Jesus as the one who will sit in judgment (recall 1:8; see also 11:32; 2 Cor. 5:10). It is Jesus who is the `Lord' who will `come' and `bring to light the things hidden in the darkness and disclose the motives of men's hearts' (4:5 NASB). Again, this is what the Old Testament taught that the Lord (YHWH) would do (1 Kings 8:39; 1 Chron. 28:9; Ps. 96:13; 139:23-24; Prov. 16:2; 17:3; Jer. 17:10)." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.164) 10/04/2009 "Paul says that the members of the Christian church assemble `in the name of our Lord Jesus' (5:4 NASB). The `assembly' or `congregation' in the Old Testament was the congregation of YHWH; it gathered in his name. In Paul's thought, the congregations of believers are the congregations (or churches, ekklesiai) of Christ (see Rom. 16:16)." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.164) 10/04/2009 "According to Paul, Christians confess that they are `justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ' (6:11), even though the Old Testament summons all people to be justified `in the Lord' YHWH (Isa. 45:25 NASB). " (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.164) 10/04/2009 "For Paul, the directions received from the Lord are indistinguishable from those received from God: `Only, as the Lord has assigned to each one, as God has called each, in this manner let him walk' (7:17 NASB). " (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.164) 10/04/2009 "Paul wants a Christian to be `anxious about the affairs of the Lord, how to please the Lord,' with the ideal being `unhindered devotion to the Lord' (7:32-35). The purpose of life according to the Old Testament is, of course, to please the Lord YHWH (Exod. 15:26; Deut. 6:18; etc.). The only other use in the New Testament of any form of the verb translated in 1 Corinthians 7:35 as `devotion' (euparedron, also translated `service') is just a couple of chapters later in the same epistle, where Paul says that those who `serve' (paredreuontes) at the altar share in what is offered at the altar (9:13). Thus, Paul makes religious devotion or service to the Lord Jesus the ideal and purpose of the Christian life." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.164) 10/04/2009 "Paul warns, `You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons' (1 Cor. 10:21). Here the cup and table of the Lord refer to the rite of the `Lord's Supper' (cf. 10:16; 11:20) that the Lord Jesus established. The expression `table of the LORD' is an Old Testament expression for the altar, which the prophet Malachi warned against defiling (Mal. 1:7, 12). Paul contrasts the observance of the Lord's Supper with pagan observances that honor the false gods of demonically inspired pagan religion (10:20; echoing Deut. 32:21). Such a contrast implicitly treats the Lord Jesus as the divine object of the religious observance. Paul then asks, `Or are we provoking the Lord to jealousy?' (10:22). This rhetorical question clearly alludes again to Deuteronomy 32:21, where Moses warned against provoking the Lord YHWH to jealousy. Paul's train of thought here makes no sense unless the `Lord' whom we should avoid provoking to jealousy (10:22) is the same `Lord' to whom belong the cup and the table (10:21). In short, Paul here assumes that the Lord Jesus is in fact the Lord YHWH." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, pp.164-165) 10/04/2009 "At the end of the epistle, Paul writes, `If anyone does not love the Lord, he is to be accursed. Maranatha. The grace of the Lord Jesus be with you' (1 Cor. 16:22-23 NASB). In this short space, Paul calls for those who do not love the Lord to be cursed, prays to the Lord to come ... and attributes divine grace or favor to the Lord Jesus. The importance attached to loving the Lord (Jesus) here is especially striking in view of the Old Testament commandment to `love the LORD your God' with all your heart, soul, and strength (Deut. 6:5 ...)." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.165) 10/04/2009 "In addition to these references to Jesus as Lord in contexts that treat him as the divine Lord of the Old Testament, Paul repeatedly speaks of God (the Father) and the Lord Jesus in ways that imply the closest possible unity (see 1 Cor. 1:1-4, 24, 30-31; 3:5-6, 19-20; 4:1, 19-20; 6:13; 7:21-24, 39-40; 9:21; 10:4-5; 12:5-6, 27- 28; 15:57-58)." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, p.165) 10/04/2009 "It is in this broader context that we should read what may be the most striking reference to Jesus as Lord in 1 Corinthians. Paul states that Christians know that `there is no God but one' (1 Cor. 8:4 NIV). `For even if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as indeed there are many `gods' and many `lords'), yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things came and through whom we live' (vv. 5-6 NIV). Verse 6 may well be a creed or confession of faith that Paul is quoting or that he composed himself (translation ours): One God, One Lord, the Father, Jesus Christ, from whom are all things, and through whom are all things, and we from him; and we through him. If Judaism has a creed, it is the words of Deuteronomy 6:4-5, known as the Shema (meaning `hear,' the first word of the verse): `Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might' (ESV). The Septuagint translated the last part of verse 4, `The Lord our God is one Lord' (kurios heis). In first-century Judaism, the affirmations of `one God' and `one Lord' were synonymous and referred to the same divine being, YHWH, the God of the patriarchs, of Moses, and of the prophets. Jesus affirmed the Shema as the first and greatest commandment (Matt. 22:36-38; Mark 12:28-30; cf Luke 10:25-28), and in that regard his view was in the mainstream of Judaism. Paul and other New Testament writers echo the Shema when they affirm that God is one or that there is one God (Rom. 3:30; 1 Cor. 12:6; Gal. 3:20; Eph. 4:6; 1 Tim. 2:5; James 2:19). Jews, however, would just as surely have understood Paul's affirmation of `one Lord' (particularly in the same breath as affirming `one God') as an echo of the Shema-yet with one potentially shocking twist: he identifies this `one Lord' as Jesus Christ." (Bowman, R.M., Jr. & Komoszewski, J.E., "Putting Jesus In His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ," Kregel: Grand Rapids MI, 2007, pp.165-166) 11/04/2009 "[1Cor 15:27-28] The statement that the Son also himself shall be subject to God has been thought by some to lower the dignity of the Son of God, as well as, possibly, to cast a reflection on his deity. The subjection, however, is not that of the Son as Son, but as the incarnate Son. This, of course, does not involve inequality of essence. The son of a king may be officially subordinate and yet equal in nature to his father (cf. Charles Hodge, An Exposition of the First Epistle to the Corinthians, pp. 333-335). Paul's point is this: The Son as incarnate Son has all power now (cf. Mt 28:18). When he delivers up the administration of 'the earthly kingdom to the Father, then the triune God will reign as God and no longer through the incarnate Son. Messiahship is a phase of the Son's eternal Sonship (cf. Moffatt, MNT, p. 249)." (Johnson, S.L., "I Corinthians," in Pfeiffer, C.F. & Harrison, E.F., eds., "The Wycliffe Bible Commentary," Oliphants: London, 1962, Reprinted, 1963, p.1257) 11/04/2009 "Proof of angelic help has often been related in Bible literature published by Jehovah's Witnesses. Such experiences are far too numerous to be dismissed as coincidence. To continue benefiting from angelic guidance and protection, we must keep on exalting Jehovah's name even in the face of opposition." ("Let Us Exalt Jehovah's Name Together," Watchtower, March 1, 2007, pp.20-24, p. 24) 11/04/2009 "This would indicate that Jehovah's witnesses today make their declaration of the good news of the Kingdom under angelic direction and support." ("They Shall Know that a Prophet Was Among Them," Watchtower, April 1, 1972, pp.197-200, p. 200) 17/04/2009 "Isaiah 1:24- `the [true] Lord' This is the translation of the Hebrew expression ... ha-A-don', this being the title A-don' ('Lord; Master') preceded by the Hebrew definite article ha. Although there are many lords or masters, this prefixing of the definite article before the title a-don' limits the application of the title to Jehovah God. (See Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, section 126, paragraph d, on pages 404, 405.) In the Hebrew Scriptures this expression ha-A-don' occurs nine times, as listed below: Exodus 23:17 On three occasions in the year every male of yours will appear before the face of the Lord Jehovah. 34:23 Three times in the year every male of yours is to appear before the true Lard, Jehovah, the God of Israel. Isaiah 1:24 Therefore the utterance of the true Lord, Jehovah of armies, the Powerful One of Israel, is: 3:1 For, look! the true Lord, Jehovah of armies, is removing from Jerusalem and from Judah support and stay, 10:16 Therefore the true Lord, Jehovah of armies, will keep sending upon his fat ones a wasting disease, 10:33 Look! The true Lord, Jehovah of armies, is lopping off boughs with a terrible crash; 19:4 `And I will deliver up Egypt into the hand of a hard master, and strong will be the king that will rule over them,' is the utterance of the true Lord, Jehovah of armies. Micah 4:13b and by a ban you will actually devote to Jehovah their unjust profit, and their resources to the true Lord of the whole earth.' Malachi 3:1 Look! I am sending my messenger, and he must clear up a way before me. And suddenly there will come to His temple the true Lord, whom you people are seeking, and the messenger of the covenant in whom You are delighting." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "New World translation of the Holy Scriptures," , Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 1961, pp.1453-1454). 17/04/2009 "[Rom 10:9] For if you publicly declare that `word in your own mouth,' that Jesus is Lord, and exercise faith in your heart ... Lord ... ky'ri-os) ... ha-'a-dhohn', J12-14,16-18,22. Not `Jehovah.'" (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures," , Watchtower Bible & Tract Society: Brooklyn NY, Second edition, 1985, p.706) 17/04/2009 "The [true] Lord'-Heb., ha·'A·dhohn' The title 'A·dhohn', `Lord; Master,' when preceded by the definite article ha, `the,' gives the expression ha·'A·dhohn', `the [true] Lord.' The use of the definite article ha before the title 'A·dhohn' limits the application of this title exclusively to Jehovah God. In M the expression ha·'A·dhohn' occurs nine times, namely, in Ex 23:17; 34:23; Isa 1:24; 3:1; 10:16, 33; 19:4; Mic 4:13; Mal 3:1. The plural of 'A·dhohn' is 'adho·nim' . In M the expression ha·'adho·nim' , `the lords,' occurs twice, namely, in De 10:17; Ps 136:3." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures: With References," , Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 1984, p.1568) 19/04/2009 "ARCHANGEL .. (Gk. archangelos). Chief of the angels (1 Thess. 4:16) and an epithet of Michael (Jude 9). With the heightened interest in angelology during the Persian and Hellenistic periods, a hierarchy was conceived, headed by various numbers of archangels (e.g., Tob. 12:15; I Enoch 87:2-3; 90:31). The seven archangels named by Jewish tradition (Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Sariel, Gabriel, and Remiel) may be the angels indicated at Rev. 8:1." (Myers, A.C., ed., "Archangel," in "The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 1987, Reprinted, 2000, p.81. Emphasis original) 24/04/2009 "[Rev 7:4] John hears the number of the sealed (the perfect esphragismenon may mean 'sealed permanently'; God does not go back on his choice). The number 144,000 is the multiple of the square of twelve (the number of Israel) and the cube of ten (the number of completion). It thus indicates the perfect total of Israel. Some (e.g. Orr) take this to mean the literal, physical Israel (or the converted from Israel), so that a complete number of Israelites will be found among the redeemed. A strong objection is that in this case Israel is sealed for protection but a mighty multitude from all nations (v.9) is saved without this sealing. Surely both would be sealed if they are different groups. Others think of the church as Israel. The church is referred to as 'the twelve tribes' (Jas. 1:1; cf. Mt. 19:28; Lk. 22:30), and this is probably the thought when a letter is sent to 'the Dispersion' (1 Pet. 1:1; RSV, JB). The Christian appears to be the true Jew (Rom. 2:29) and the church 'the Israel of God' (Gal. 6:16). Descriptions of old Israel are piled up and applied to the church (1 Pet. 2:9; cf. Eph. 1:11,14). It is the church which is God's 'very own' people (Tit. 2:14.), and 'the circumcision' (Phil. 3:3). Abraham is the father of all who believe (Rom. 4:11); again these are Abraham's children (Gal. 3:7). Many hold that 'Israel after the flesh' (1 Cor. 10: 18; see RSV mg.) implies an 'Israel after the Spirit'." (Morris, L., "The Book of Revelation: An Introduction and Commentary," The Tyndale New Testament commentaries, , Inter-Varsity Press Leicester: UK, Second Edition, 1987, Reprinted, 2004, pp.111-112) 24/04/2009 "The great multitude ([Rev ]7:9-17) John proceeds to paint an unforgettable picture of a vast crowd of people from every nation on earth but now in the bliss of heaven. They are free from pain and anxiety and suffering and sorrow. 9. John's there before me adds a touch of vividness. He saw it all so clearly. But the great multitude was too large to be counted. He did not know how many there were. The definite number in verse 4 pointed to completion: none was missing. The great throng here shows the impossibility of counting up the number of the redeemed. They came from every nation, tribe, people and language ... expression piled on expression indicates the crowd's universality. Incidentally this is a further indication that spiritual rather than physical Israel is referred to in the earlier part of the chapter, for otherwise the crowd would be the Gentiles only, not all the nations. The vast throng stands before the throne and in front of the Lamb. Once again Christ is accorded a place with the Father." (Morris, L., "The Book of Revelation: An Introduction and Commentary," The Tyndale New Testament commentaries, , Inter-Varsity Press Leicester: UK, Second Edition, 1987, Reprinted, 2004, pp.113-114) 24/04/2009 "John hears the number of the sealed. He does not see their exact number for these sealed ones are still on earth. Only God knows how many truly sealed people there are on earth. The number is 144,000. This, of course, is symbolical. ... It is very clear, therefore, that the sealed multitude of Revelation 7 symbolizes the entire Church militant of the old and new dispensations. ... The 144,000 sealed individuals out of the twelve tribes of literal Israel symbolize spiritual Israel, the Church of God on earth. To say that the symbol ultimately indicates Israel according to the flesh is wrong. The apostle certainly knew that ten of the twelve tribes had disappeared in Assyria, at least to a great extent; while Judah and Benjamin had lost their national existence when Jerusalem fell, in AD 70. Besides, if Israel according to the flesh were meant, why should Ephraim and Dan be omitted? ... Again, notice the order in which the tribes are arranged. Not Reuben but Judah is mentioned first. Remember that our Lord Jesus Christ was of the tribe of Judah (Gn. 49:10) . ... Besides, in chapter 14, we again see this same multitude, the 144,000. Here we are plainly told that they are those who have been purchased out of the earth." (Hendriksen, W., "More than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation," Tyndale Press: London, 1940, Reprinted, 1966, pp.110-111) 26/04/2009 "The triumph of God's Church (14:1-16) ... The blessedness of the redeemed (verses 1-5). The first of these paragraphs shows us the Lamb standing on mount Zion. This is that Zion `which cannot be moved but abides for ever' (Ps. 125:1). It is heaven (Heb. 12:22) because we read, `And I heard a voice from heaven.' With the Lamb the apostle sees 144,000 having His name and the name of His father written on their foreheads. This is the sealed multitude of chapter 7. There these saints were still living on earth, surrounded by enemies. Here they are enjoying the blessedness of heaven after the final judgment. Although the dragon has tried his utmost to make them unfaithful to their Lord, and although he has employed the two beasts to assist him, not a single one of the 144,000 is missing `when the roll is called up yonder'." (Hendriksen, W., "More than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation," Tyndale Press: London, 1940, Reprinted, 1966, p.152) 26/04/2009 "The apostle hears a sound corning out of heaven: the 144,000 are singing the new song. It was like the sound of many waters and as the voice of a great thunder, constant, majestic, sublime. Think of mighty Niagara, with the sound of an ever-increasing crescendo, which reaches a thunderous roar when the waters strike the depths. That is what the new song is like! Whatever is trivial and petty will be absent from it. Yet although it will be majestic, sublime, constant, it will at the same time be the most lovely, sweet, and tender song you have ever heard, like`harpers harping on their harps'. The majestic and the tender, the sublime and the lovely, are beautifully combined in this new song. It will be a new song, for it records a new experience: the 144,000 have been purchased out of the earth. Each of the redeemed sings this song before the throne-for upon it are seated God and the Lamb-and before the cherubim, and before the entire Church in glory. As this song records the experience of having been purchased out of the earth by the precious blood of the Lamb, it follows that only those who had this experience could learn this song." (Hendriksen, W., "More than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation," Tyndale Press: London, 1940, Reprinted, 1966, pp.151-152) 26/04/2009 "These 144,000 are virgins, that is, they are not defiled. They did not become unfaithful to Christ. They follow Him wherever He goes (cf. 2 Cor. 11 :2). `They were purchased away from men, first-fruits for God and for the Lamb.' Christ died for them. One of the results of His death for them was the cleansing work of the Holy Spirit in their hearts whereby they were separated from the sinful life and conversation of men (cf. I Cor. 6:20)." (Hendriksen, W., "More than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation," Tyndale Press: London, 1940, Reprinted, 1966, p.152) 26/04/2009 "Observe especially that these 144,000 are first-fruits for God and for the Lamb in the sense that they were purchased away from men. In other words, there was a separation; the firstfruits were for the Lord. As such they were set apart from men in general (cf. Jas. 1:18). The world of humanity, which is ripening for the final judgment, is often likened to a harvest (Mt. 9:37; 13:30; Lk. 10:2; Jn. 4:35). We have this symbolism in this chapter (Rev. 14:14. ff). Here, too, the first-fruits are for the Lord (verses 14-16) ; the rest is for Satan (verses 17-20). The symbolism rests upon the Old Testament law with respect to the first-fruits. All the first-fruits were offered to the Lord, after which the Israelite was at liberty to use the rest (Ex. 23:19 ; Nu. 18:12). Similarly, here we have a contrast between first-fruits on the one hand, and men in general on the other. All the redeemed, the full number of the elect, are included in these first-fruits. Whatever does not belong to these first-fruits is not for the Lord and is not elect. These 144,000 are not firstfruits versus other believers. They do not constitute a kind of select group in heaven, a group of super-saints. They are the first-fruits `purchased away from men'. This is also evident from the fact that these 144,000 `had his name and the name of his Father written on their foreheads'. As such they are the opposite of `the small and the great, the rich and the poor, and the free and the bond' who receive the mark of the beast on their right hand or on their forehead (13:16). All believers without exception are sealed with the name of God and of the Lamb. ... Again all the redeemed-not merely a select number of super-saints-sing the new song in glory. None of the others can learn it. Chapter 7:1-8 describes the Church militant here on earth. Chapter 7:9-7 pictures the Church triumphant in heaven. Here, in chapter 14., the same Church triumphant is described from the aspect of its heavenly blessedness and holiness. These 144,000 have not accepted Satan's lie. Consequently, in Christ, they are without blemish (cf. Ex. 12:5 ; Lv. 1:3 ; 19:2 ; Mt. 5:48)." (Hendriksen, W., "More than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation," Tyndale Press: London, 1940, Reprinted, 1966, pp.152-153) 26/04/2009 "Essential to the JW theory of `light getting brighter' is the obvious requirement that any light from God must be true, regardless of whether it is old light or new light, since Jesus Christ is `the way, the truth, and the life.' (John 14:6) Watchtower founder Charles Taze Russell acknowledged this shortly after he left the Adventist group he had been associated with and started his own religious magazine. The Adventists had always been coming up with `new light' to explain prophetic failures and other changes in beliefs. Russell's new magazine denounced that practice. It said: `If we were following a man undoubtedly it would be different with us; undoubtedly one human idea would contradict another and that which was light one or two or six years ago would be regarded as darkness now; But with God there is no variableness, neither shadow of turning, and so it is with truth; any knowledge or light coming from God must be like its author. A new view of truth never can contradict a former truth. `New light' never extinguishes older `light,' but adds to it. - Zion's Watch Tower, February 1881, page 3" (Reed, D.A., "Answering Jehovah's Witnesses: Subject by Subject," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1996, Second printing, 1998, pp.166-167) 26/04/2009 "[Rev 7:]4-8 The enumeration of the tribes one by one serves to emphasize the completeness of the number of God's saints for whom he cares during the coming trials. The list is unusual in several respects. Judah' comes first, instead of Reuben, Jacob's firstborn (Gn. 29:32; cf. Nu. 13:4-15; Dt. 33:6); this doubtless is due to the recognition that Judah is the tribe of the Messiah. Dan is omitted, but Manasseh appears, although the latter is included in Joseph. This is certainly deliberate. Jewish teachers persistently associated Dan with idolatry. ... 9 The vision of the 144,000 sealed against the effects of trial is replaced by that of a great multitude that no- one could count, standing before God and the Lamb in the glory of the kingdom. ... this contrast gives expression to two complementary themes of the Scriptures: on the one hand that God knows the number of his elect, and on the other, that those who inherit the blessing of Abraham are numberless as the stars ..." (Beasley-Murray, G.R., "Revelation," in Carson, D.A., et al., eds, "New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition," Inter-Varsity Press: Leicester UK, 1994, Reprinted, 1997, p.1436) 26/04/2009 "[Rev 7:]13-14 ... The great tribulation out of which the multitude has come is not a general designation of the trials which are the Christian's normal lot, but the tribulation that occurs at the close of this age. The vision depicts the scene after the cessation of the judgments of the Lord within history and the sufferings of Christians at the hands of the opponents of God, and so has in view the last generation. Yet the elder's statement in vs 14b-17 describes the blessedness of the whole church. The difficulty is relieved if we remember that John prophesies of a day that to him is almost on the horizon; it was not given to him to see the period that intervened before the end. The last persecution may come at any time. Those who have gone before, having witnessed a good confession, are of course included in this throng, but it was superfluous to state that. The church of the present is the subject in view, and its situation fills John's canvas. For us, nearly two millennia later, the church is mainly in heaven, but we may know that all believers, including ourselves, will be among that throng." (Beasley-Murray, G.R., "Revelation," in Carson, D.A., et al., eds, "New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition," Inter-Varsity Press: Leicester UK, 1994, Reprinted, 1997, pp.1436-1437) 26/04/2009 "Sealing of the 144,000 of Israel ([Rev ]7:1-8). ... The number 144,000 represents completeness, twelve thousand from each of the twelve tribes (v. 4). John is saying that all of those who are marked out by God are those whom God will save. Their number is complete and all of them will be protected until the end. Israel, God's people of old, is used as the descriptive vehicle by John to get his point across. Evidently he is not literally referring to the actual tribes of Israel because he does not actually list them. In fact, he leaves two of them out, while still saying all the tribes are there (vv. 4-8). John's list is unlike any other in the Bible, in that Dan and Ephraim are removed ..." (Elwell, W.A., "Revelation," in Elwell, W.A., ed., "Evangelical Commentary on the Bible," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1989, Second printing, 1990, p.1211) 26/04/2009 "Vision of the redeemed multitude of the earth ([Rev ]7:9-11). There is much discussion about the relationship between this multitude and the 144,000 just mentioned, with two major views on the subject. First, some scholars hold that the 144,000 represent all the redeemed on earth and the redeemed multitude is a different group, representing only the redeemed martyrs of earth and to be identified with the group seen under the altar in 6:9-11. There they cried out `how long ... until ... you avenge our blood?' (6:10) and were told to wait a little longer (6:11). Here in chapter 7 they are seen as glorified. That the redeemed multitude and the martyrs are the same may be seen in that both groups wear white robes (6:11; 7:9) and both groups appear to have had violent deaths (6:11; 7:14 suggests that they were killed). Second, others see the two groups-the 144,000 and the redeemed multitude-as the same group, representing all of the saved on earth, but in two separate visions. Points in favor of this view are that the size of the group, `a great multitude that no one could count' (7:9), argues that it is not a subgroup of martyrs only, but the whole group of the saved. Also, their description as being `from every nation, tribe, people and language' (v. 9) is the same as that describing the whole people of God as praised by the twenty-four elders (5:9-10). Finally, all of God's people are given white robes, not just the martyrs (3:4-5, 18; 4:4; 19:8, 14), and the white garments represent their righteous deeds, not their martyrdom." (Elwell, W.A., "Revelation," in Elwell, W.A., ed., "Evangelical Commentary on the Bible," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, 1989, Second printing, 1990, p.1211) 27/04/2009 "Jesus remained faithful until death-a cruel and painful death at the hands of his enemies. (Philippians 2:8) Consider what he endured on the last day of his life as a human. He was arrested, accused by false witnesses, convicted by corrupt judges, laughed at by mobs, and tortured by soldiers. Nailed to a stake, he took his last breath, crying out: `It has been accomplished!' (John 19:30) However, on the third day after Jesus died, his heavenly Father resurrected him back to spirit life. (1 Peter 3:18) A few weeks later, he returned to heaven. There, he `sat down at the right hand of God' and waited to receive kingly power.- Hebrews 10:12, 13." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.46) 27/04/2009 "The Bible describes in detail the suffering that Jesus endured before his death. He experienced harsh whipping, cruel impalement, and an agonizing death on a torture stake. (John 19:1, 16-18, 30 ...) Why was it necessary for Jesus to suffer so much? In a later chapter of this book, we will see that Satan has questioned whether Jehovah has any human servants who would remain faithful under trial. By enduring faithfully in spite of great suffering, Jesus gave the best possible answer to Satan's challenge. Jesus proved that a perfect man possessing free will could keep perfect integrity to God no matter what the Devil did. Jehovah must have rejoiced greatly over the faithfulness of his dear Son!-Proverbs 27:11." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?," Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.51) 27/04/2009 "From where will God's Kingdom rule? Well, where is Jesus? You will remember learning that he was put to death on a torture stake, and then he was resurrected. Shortly thereafter, he ascended to heaven. (Acts 2:33) Hence, that is where God's Kingdom is-in heaven. That is why the Bible calls it a "heavenly kingdom." (2 Timothy 4:18) Although God's Kingdom is in heaven, it will rule over the earth.-Revelation 11:15." (Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, "What Does the Bible Really Teach?" Watchtower Bible & Tract Society of New York: Brooklyn NY, 2005, p.77)
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Created: 10 April, 2009. Updated: 20 November, 2011.