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The following are quotes added to my Shroud of Turin unclassified quotes in June 2007. See copyright conditions at end.
[Index: May, Jul, Aug (1), Aug (2), Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec]
1/06/2007 "The Shroud of Turin is a linen cloth of herringbone weave. It is approximately 14 feet long and 3 feet wide; it bears the anatomically correct image of a crucified man. The Man of the Shroud was about 5 feet 7 inches tall; he had a beard and wore long hair gathered in a pigtail at the neck. He must have been laid on one end of the cloth with the remainder drawn up over his head and across his body to his feet because the Shroud bears his image as seen from the front and from the back (see the painting by Clovio). A pattern of dumbbell-shaped marks on his back suggest he was scourged with an instrument that could have been a Roman flagra. What appear to be blood spots ring his forehead: a wound on his right side is a sign he was pierced by a lance. The Man of the Shroud lies posed in an attitude of death, his hands crossed on his pelvis. Nail holes penetrate the wrists; the mark of a single nail penetrates his feet which lie left on top of tight in what has come to be the familiar artistic representation of Christ on the Cross." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.235) 1/06/2007 "An enigma embodied in a piece of good linen, the Shroud of Turin has for centuries both been venerated as the manifestation of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and denounced as a cruel fraud. It is known to be at least 600 years old, as there are good records of its first appearance in France in the 1350's, but even then the family that owned it refused to say much about its origins and Church bishops decried it as a forgery. Nevertheless, the Shroud is a remarkable relic of historic, archeologic, and scientific interest. Two central mysteries surround the Shroud. The lesser is the question of its true age; the greater is the mystery of the image-no one can explain how it was formed. The Shroud, only rarely on public view, has been made available for scientific study even less frequently, and what studies have been conducted have produced only limited data. Nevertheless, on the basis of circumstantial evidence, it is possible to all but rule out some of the more obvious mechanisms of image formation (painting, for example) and to at least speculate that the Shroud was once in Palestine." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.235) 1/06/2007 "A Belgian scientist has reported that bits of cotton that are woven in with the linen fibers are characteristic of cotton used in the Middle East two millennia ago. And the former head of the Zurich Police Scientific Laboratory has found that various particles of pollen on the Shroud are characteristic of pollen from plants that grow only around Palestine." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th- Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.235) 2/06/2007 "Many of the American scientists who for the past few years have made a professional hobby out of unraveling the mystery of the Shroud say they were `hooked' once it became apparent that the process of image formation defied the ready presumption that modern science could come up with an explanation in no time at all. They range in age and religious affiliation but have in common complementary scientific disciplines-physics, aerodynamics, chemistry, computer enhanced image analysis-and come from like institutions-the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Sandia Laboratory, and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, all in New Mexico, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.236) 2/06/2007 "Altogether they number two dozen or so and hope that their collective scientific talents, when put to the test, will reveal (i) the ingenuity of an extraordinarily clever 14th-century forger, (ii) a rare but explicable natural phenomenon, or (iii) the physics of miracles." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.236) 2/06/2007 "The Image as Photographic Negative Those who have seen the Shroud in the original report that the image, which is a sepia tone with a slightly darker color forming the `blood' spots, is extremely subtle-almost indistinguishable to the unaided eye. British Shroud historian and journalist Ian Wilson writes, `... the closer one tries to examine it, the more it melts away like mist.' But in photographic negative, the image is unmistakable; subtlety sharpens into clarity and the face of the Man of the Shroud is revealed, his features strikingly like those that artists since at least the 6th century have given Christ. The first photographs of the Shroud were taken in 1898 by a man named Secondo Pia. What astonished Pia, and continues to astonish Shroud scholars, is that the image that appeared on his photographic plate was not a characteristic negative in which light areas are dark, dark light, and left and right reversed. Instead, Pia's negative showed all the qualities of a positive print. The image of the Man of the Shroud showed gradations of tone that gave the body depth and contour. The face had the qualities of a photographic likeness, not the flatness of a negative. Thus, it seems that the Shroud itself must be, or possess some of the properties of, a photographic negative. It is as if the cloth were a piece of film." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.236. Emphasis original) 2/06/2007 "In 1532 the Shroud was in a fire. It lay folded in a silver casket when the church of Sainte Chapelle in the French town of Chambery burned. The Shroud was saved,. but not before it was scorched by drops of molten silver that left triangular shaped marks along the edges of the cloth. On the basis of the known melting point of silver mixed, as it would have been at the time with some base metal, Rogers estimates that the temperature within the casket reached 200° to 300°C before the Shroud was doused with water. Thus, a calculable thermal gradient existed and serves as the foundation for certain judgments about the nature of the image. If the image were composed of organic pigment or an inorganic pigment in organic vehicle (Rogers has considered more than two dozen pigments and stains known to have been used by 14th century artists), it would have been affected by the intense heat. But there are no indications that any of the color has `run' or that its intensity has changed in proportion to the severity of the heat it received. Similarly, if the image were the result of some natural biologic process related to the decomposition of the human body or to the aloes (oils) and spices with which it was anointed, those products too can be expected to be affected by the heat. Says Rogers, `if large, complicated, natural-product organic molecules were responsible for the image, they should have decomposed, changed color, or volatilized at different rates depending on their distance from the high-temperature zone during the fire. There is so evidence for any variation at all.' An additional strike against the hypothesis that the image is a painting or stain is the observation that the color appears only on the surface of the linen without any penetration of the fibers. But this observation, first reported by individuals who examined the- Shroud in 1973, needs to be confirmed. Rogers says that if the image was painted, `a stable, particulate, inorganic pigment in a water base had to have been used.' Detection of appropriate pigment metals would not prove that the Shroud was painted; however, the painting hypothesis could be conclusively disproved by demonstration of the absence of any inorganic pigment. Rogers says that the best nondestructive test for its presence or absence is x-ray fluorescence. Joseph S. Acetta of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory is the team's fluorescence expert. Because all elements have characteristic emission spectra when excited by x-rays, fluorescence data should yield information about the chemical composition of the image and of the so-called blood spots. Preliminary fluorescence work shows that the image itself, the burn marks, and the blood spots all fluoresce-a finding that has led to some skepticism about the blood because blood does not fluoresce. If the scientists are allowed to conduct x-ray fluorescence studies of the Shroud, one thing they will look for in particular is any evidence of trace elements of blood the appropriate regions of the cloth." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, pp.236- 237) 2/06/2007 "Donald J. Lynn and Jean J. Lorre at JPL were introduced to the problem of the Shroud in the spring of 1975, when deeply involved in computer 'enhancement of photographs being sent back to earth from the Viking Mission to mars, Nevertheless they agreed to do some enhancement studies of the Shroud during what they euphemistically called their `spare time.' ... Working with negatives and slides provided by Jackson, Lynn and Lorre proceeded with two objectives: (i) `to enhance various characteristics of the image in order to present to the eye as much detailed structure ... as possible,' and (ii) `to reveal any information about the intrinsic structure of the image which might indicate the way in which it was formed.' Using a microdensitometer that registers variations in density, the film was scanned and converted into an array of numbers ... that could be read and manipulated by a digital computer. Next, they processed the digital image, which was recorded on magnetic tape, on the IBM 360/65 computer that was developed by JPL's Image Processing Laboratory to support NASA's planetary exploration program. Finally, the digital image was recorded on film. From there, the two image enhancement specialists manipulated their computer images to see what the computer could see that they could not. They got some interesting though tentative results. (Image enhancement, it should be noted, is not an infallible technique.) For instance, they found that `The water marks and the numerous small intense features on the body have abrupt edges, whereas the large burn marks have smoothly decaying edges. This suggests a different mechanism of formation for the two types of features.' In addition, analysis of the facial region revealed that the image is `composed of a wide range of spatial frequencies which are oriented in a random fashion. This indicates that the feature- generating mechanism was probably directionless (a characteristic which would not be consistent with hand application)." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, pp.236-237) 2/06/2007 "While Lynn and Lorre were conducting image analysis experiments, Jackson, his Air Force Academy colleague Eric J. Jumper, and Sandia image analyst William Mottern weroring the Shroud in 3-D. Early on, a French biologist named Paul Vignon had noted that the intensity of the image appeared to vary inversely with what one would assume to be the distance between the body and the cloth, the nose, for example, being more intense than the hair. Jackson decided to test that hypothesis mathematically with the aid of highly sensitive image recording equipment. To begin with, they created a full-scale model of the Shroud by tracing the image from a photographic projection onto a piece of cloth. Then, using an Air Force volunteer who matched the height and general build of the Man of the Shroud as a model, they draped their shroud over him and, from a set of photographs, measured the cloth-body distance from the ridge line of the cloth model. (The ridge line indicates the body's highest points of contact with the Shroud.) Scanning the image with a microdensitometer to record variations in intensity, they proceeded to measure image intensity along the ridge line and correlate that with cloth-body distance. `It is apparent that a definite correlation exists,' Jackson says, explaining that this means that the image on the Shroud contains three-dimensional information about the body it covered. Evidence to support the 3-D hypothesis came when Mottern, using Interpretation System's VP-8 Image Analyzer, which converts shades of light and dark to vertical relief, produced a three-dimensional recreation of the Shroud image. The researchers pointed out the significance of this finding in their 1977 paper for the Albuquerque conference. ` ... [O]rdinary photographic images cannot usually be converted to true three-dimensional reliefs,' they said. `The photographic process does not cause the objects filmed to become exposed in inverse relationship to distance from, the camera; hence, three-dimensional information is not usually recorded onto film. Only when the degree of illumination received from an object depends, in some way, upon its distance (for example, in a stellar photograph), would three-dimensional analysis and reconstruction be possible (by the VP-8 Image Analyzer).' To illustrate their point, they produced a three-dimensional relief of a photograph of Pope Pius XI; the nose appears distorted and looks pushed into the face, the arms seem to be pushed into the chest, and the `entire relief appeared flat and unnatural.' By contrast, in a three-dimensional relief of the face of the Shroud, features appear correctly defined." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th- Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, pp.237-238) 2/06/2007 "Jackson and his colleagues believe that the three-dimensional quality image on the Shroud suggests strongly that the image-forming process did not depend on direct contact with the body and that, whatever it was, it acted uniformly on both sides of the body. This too, mitigates against any hypothesis that the image was painted, as, Jackson believes, does another feature of the image that was first revealed by his experiments. There appear to be button-like objects placed over the eyes of the Man of the Shroud which, on preliminary analysis, seem to be coins. (Ancient burial customs include the placing of coins or potsherds over the eyes of the deceased.) To Jackson's mind, the coins cover the eyes, if that's what they turn out to be, could contribute to evidence of the authenticity of the Shroud, especially if it is possible, with new photographs of the eye region, to identify markings on the objects." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.238) 2/06/2007 "Jackson and his colleagues conclude: `if the identification of these images as solid objects over the eyes is correct, then another significant aspect of the image forming process comes to light: whatever process formed the image had to have acted the same way not only over the body and hair, but also over presumably organically inert fragments sited atop the eyes. This conclusion, we believe, is of significance, for it places great restrictions on the possible image formation process. In short, three-dimensionality implies that the image forming process acted uniformly through space over the body, front and back, and even seemed to act independently of the type of surface, organic and inorganic, from which the image was generated.' [Jackson, J.P., et. al., "The Three Dimensional Image On Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, p.91]'" (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.238) 2/06/2007 "The Anatomy of Crucifixion Since the early 1900's, the Shroud has attracted the attention of biologists interested in the anatomy of crucifixion. Among the first to approach the problem were Paul Vignon, a French biologist, and Yves Delage, an anatomy professor at the Sorbonne. In 1902, Delage gave a lecture to the Paris Academy of Sciences in which he reported that the image appeared to be in every respect anatomically correct. Although The Lancet critiqued his paper as being sound, Delage's peers at the Academy did not think much of it and refused publication. Subsequently, Delage wrote: `If, instead of Christ, there were a question of some person like a Sargon, an Achilles or one of the Pharaohs, no one would have thought of making any objection... . I recognize Christ as a historical personage and I see no reason why anyone should be scandalized that there still exist material traces of his earthly life.' [Walsh, J.E., "The Shroud," W.H. Allen: London, 1963, p.107]. Physicians and anatomists in England, Italy, Germany, and the United States who have examined the image all come to the same conclusion-anatomically, it fits. Of particular interest is the observation that the nail marks penetrate the wrists rather than the palms, as is characteristic of most artistic portrayals of the crucifixion. The weight of a human body could not be supported by nails through the palms, whereas it could be held by nails through the muscles of the wrists. Those gathering evidence in support of the authenticity of the Shroud claim that a forger would have to know a lot about crucifixion to be clever enough to produce such an anatomically accurate representation." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.238. Emphasis original) 2/06/2007 "Speculation How, then, might the image have been formed? There is no uniform view among the scientific team; indeed, many are unwilling to even speculate. But Jackson, Jumper, and Rogers say the best guess is that the image was caused by a scorch which would account for several properties of the Shroud. For example, scorch marks fluoresce; so does the shroud. They would not be affected by heat as in the fire of 1532. They make sense with respect to the sepia color of the image. However, as Jackson notes, one problem with the scorch hypothesis is the clarity of the image of the Man Shroud-the incredible detail. Various attempts have been made to produce the image by scorching cloth with a variety of instruments from a mercury lamp to a laser beam (Rogers recently spent days searching the Los Alamos-Albuquerque area for yards of pure linen for some experiments) but so far no one has managed to create a clear image, though they can reproduce the general color of the image on the Shroud. In any event, the real drawback of the scorch hypothesis lies in postulating the source of the heat which would have had to have acted uniformly on both sides of the body to account for the fact that the front and back images seem to be equally intense. Jumper wrote that radiation occurring in a `very short molecular -burst' ` of `around 3 sec' could be the mechanism of image formation. Rogers talks of `flash photolysis,' a short, intense burst of light. But neither has any plausible notion of what the source of the radiant energy might have been." (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th-Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, pp.238-239. Emphasis original) 2/06/2007 "Still, Rogers, in a philosophical frame of mind muses, `What better way, if you were a deity, of regenerating faith in a skeptical age, than to leave evidence 2000 years ago that could be defined only by the technology available in that technical age?'" (Culliton, B.J., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin Challenges 20th- Century Science," Science, Vol. 201, 21 July 1978, pp.235-239, p.239) 2/06/2007 "If our conjecture is true that these images are of coins, then we may have a truly unique method of dating the image. Computer enhancement of high quality closeup photographs of the eye region followed by a statistical correlation with known coinage of a given era and locality may be able to: (1) identify the objects as coins and (2) date and locate the probable time and place the image and not just the cloth was formed. Indeed, we have some computer enhancements which, though lacking sufficient resolution for positive identification, indicate a possible structure on the surface of the objects. In addition, Ian Wilson has suggested several Judean Bronze Lepton coins which are about the correct size as the buttonlike images. In particular, a Lepton of Pontius Pilate coined in A.D. 30-31 seems to agree especially well. On the other hand, a silver Denarius of Tiberius, coined in A.D. 14-37 was entirely too large. According to Wilson, a Lepton would probably be a likely candidate for Joseph of Arimathaea, an orthodox Jew, to use since it was acceptable as a Temple offering. It should be noted in passing that the fact that objects are found on the eyes indicates that the head of Jesus must have been in a nearly horizontal position, for otherwise they would have fallen off the eyelids. It is interesting to note further that these objects might have been mistaken for open eyes at one time; for example, Ian Wilson points out that the image on the Mandylion cloth (possibly the Shroud) was thought to be a face with the eyes open. If the identification of these images as solid objects over the eyes is correct, then another significant aspect of the image forming process comes to light: whatever process formed the image had to have acted the same way not only over the body and hair, but also over presumably organically inert fragments situated atop the eyes. This conclusion, we believe, is of significance, for it places great restrictions on the possible image formation processes. In short, three dimensionality implies that the image forming process, acted uniformly through space over the body, front and back, and even seemed to act independently of the type of surface, organic and inorganic, from which the image was generated. In addition, this identification of the `objects' seems to strengthen the authenticity of the Shroud. For what artist or forger in the Fourteenth Century would have thought to place objects on the eyes of Jesus?" (Jackson, J.P., Jumper, E.J. Mottern, B. & Stevenson, K.E., ed., "The Three Dimensional Image On Jesus' Burial Cloth," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., "Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Bronx NY, 1977, pp.90-91) 2/06/2007 "The work of one other person in still another country was very important in our early research in the story of the flowers. Dr. Max Frei, a Swiss criminalist and botanist, founded the scientific department of the Zurich Criminal Police and was its director for twenty-five years. In this work, he developed the technique of using sticky tape to pick up materials such as pollens and threads and of securing these tapes to microscopic slides for microscopic examination. In 1973 and 1978, Dr. Frei used this technique to obtain materials from the Shroud. From the debris on those tapes, he was able to identify fifty-eight kinds of pollen. [Frei-Sulzer, M., "Nine Years of Palynological Studies on the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, Issue 1, No. 3, June 1982, pp.3-7] Some of these were known to him, but many were unknown because they do not grow in Europe. So over the next four years he made seven trips to Israel and the Middle East gathering plant specimens to enable him to identify the species from which the pollens on the Shroud sticky tapky tapky tap