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The following are quotes added to my Shroud of Turin unclassified quotes in October 2008. See copyright conditions at end.
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6/10/2008 "The fastest radioactive clock in common use is the carbon 14 clock, and this brings us full circle to the teller of this tale, for wood is one of the main materials subjected to carbon 14 dating by archaeologists. Carbon 14 decays to nitrogen 14 with a half-life of 5,730 years. The carbon 14 clock is unusual in that it is used to date the actual dead tissues themselves, not volcanic rocks sandwiching them. Carbon 14 dating is so important for relatively recent history - much younger than most fossils, and spanning the range of history normally called archaeology - that it deserves special treatment. Most of the carbon in the world consists of the stable isotope carbon 12. About one million-millionth part of the world's carbon consists of the unstable isotope carbon 14. With a half-life measured in only thousands of years, all the carbon 14 on Earth would long since have decayed to nitrogen 14 if it were not being renewed. Fortunately, a few atoms of nitrogen 14, the most abundant gas in the atmosphere, are continually being transformed, by bombardment of cosmic rays, into carbon 14. The rate of creation of carbon 14 is approximately constant. Most of the carbon in the atmosphere, whether carbon 14 or the more usual carbon 12, is chemically combined with oxygen in the form of carbon dioxide. This gas is sucked in by plants, and the carbon atoms used to build their tissues. To plants, carbon 14 and carbon 12 look the same (plants are only 'interested' in chemistry, not the nuclear properties of atoms). The two varieties of carbon dioxide are imbibed approximately in proportion to their availability. Plants are eaten by animals, which may be eaten by yet other animals, so carbon 14 is dispersed in a known proportion relative to carbon 12 throughout the food chain during a time which is short compared to the half-life of carbon 14. The two isotopes exist in all living tissues in approximately the same proportion as in the atmosphere, one part in a million million. To be sure, they occasionally decay to nitrogen 14 atoms. But this constant rate is offset by their continuous exchange, via the links of the food chain, with the ever-renewed carbon dioxide of the atmosphere. All this changes at the moment of death. A dead predator is cut off from the food chain. A dead plant no longer takes in fresh supplies of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. A dead herbivore no longer eats fresh plcarbon 14 in a dead animal or plant continues to decay to nitrogen 14. But it is not replenished by fresh supplies from the atmosphere. So the ratio of carbon 14 to carbon 12 in the dead tissues starts to drop. And it drops with a half-life of 5,730 years. The bottoll when an animal or plant died by measuring the ratio of carbon 14 to carbon 12. This is how it was proved that the Turin Shroud cannot have belonged to Jesus - its date is medieval. Carbon 14 dating is a wonderful tool for dating the relics of relatively recent history. It is of no use for more ancient dating because almost all the carbon 14 has decayed to carbon 12, and the residue is too tiny to measure accurately." (Dawkins, R., "The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution," Houghton Mifflin Co: Boston MA, 2004, pp.522-523) 7/10/2008 "I became involved with the analytical aspect of the Shroud when Ray Rogers asked me for help in conducting certain Shroud image formation studies. He needed an alpha-particle source to complete investigation of possible image formation processes and some radiochemical calculations on the depth of penetration of an emitted alpha-particle into flax fibers. I provided him with both and he asked further for X- ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on a special sample he termed a `spliced thread' or R1 sample. The XPS measurements were made and he was quite excited at the results because they indicated the two ends of the thread were not the same and he additionally asked if there were other specialized non- destructive equipment that might be available. ... Based on evidence he had accumulated, Ray was convinced that the material from the Raes (1973) and C-14 (1988) sampling corner (lower left corner of frontal image area) was significantly different from the original Shroud cloth. ... After conducting analysis at high vacuum with the ToF-SIMS [Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry], the `spliced thread' broke into three distinct pieces; a fuzzy end (Region 1), a tight woven end (Region 2), and a micro-sized circular cocoon-shaped brown crust that seemed to be connecting the two end pieces. The ToF-SIMS results were the first to show that the spectra from the two ends were similar to cotton rather than linen (flax) and the Spectroscopist recommended that the next analysis should be with the FTIR [Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy] instrument. After several scans of individual fibers or strands, the FTIR data showed that the two ends (Region 1 and 2) were definitely cotton and not linen (flax). The crust appeared to be an organic- based resin, perhaps a terpene species, with cotton as a main sub-component. After showing the FTIR data to Barrie Schwortz and Sue Benford, they were quite surprised at the results and decided to send me two other pieces of thread (No. 7 and 14) that were from the same sampling area ... The results of the FTIR analysis on all three threads taken from the Raes sampling area (adjacent to the C-14 sampling corner) led to identification of the fibers as cotton and definitely not linen (flax). Note, that all age dating analyses were conducted on samples taken from this same area. Apparently, the age-dating process failed to recognize one of the first rules of analytical chemistry that any sample taken for characterization of an area or population must necessarily be representative of the whole. The part must be representative of the whole. Our analyses of the three thread samples taken from the Raes and C-14 sampling corner showed that this was not the case. What was true for the part was most certainly not true for the whole. This finding is supported by the spectroscopic data provided in this presentation. The recommendations that stem from the above analytical study is that a new age dating should be conducted but assuring that the sample analyzed represents the original main shroud image area, i.e. the fibers must be linen (flax) and not cotton or some other material. It is only then that the age dating will be scientifically correct." (Villarreal, R., "Analytical Results on Thread Samples Taken from the Raes Sampling Area (Corner) of the Shroud Cloth," in "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Shroud Science Group International Conference, Ohio State University, August 14-17, 2008) 9/10/2008 "One prominent theory regarding the results of the 1988 Carbon-14 (C-14) dating of the Shroud is that the sample area had been repaired with a patch or "invisible reweave," thus producing a dating resulting from a combination of 16th century and first century cloth. This paper recounts the initial doubts about the validity of the C-14 results; the history behind the patch theory; the abundant historical and scientific information support of the theory, especially from the findings of the late Ray Rogers in his paper published in 2005 after his direct examination of the C-14 samples compared with other samples from the main cloth; independent confirmations of Rogers’ findings; criticisms of Rogers’ findings; and refutations of these criticisms. The authors conclude that the invisible reweave is the most reasonable explanation for the dating of the Shroud." (Marino, J.G. & Benford, M.S., "Invisible Mending and the Turin Shroud: Historical and Scientific Evidence," in "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Shroud Science Group International Conference, Ohio State University, August 14-17, 2008) 9/10/2008 "In general it may be said that the resurrection body will not be an entirely new creation. If that were the case, it would not be the present body, but another body. But the body which is sown will be raised (1 Cor. 15:43f., 53f.). Nor, on the other hand, will the resurrection body necessarily be in every detail composed of the identical particles contained in this body (1 Cor. 15:37f.). All that Scripture warrants us in saying, is that the resurrection body will sustain a similar relation to the present body as the wheat in the stalk sustains to the wheat in the ground out of which it grew. An adult has the same body with which he was born, though it has undergone continual change and does not contain the same cells with which it was born. So the resurrection body will be the same body, though its make-up will be changed." (Thiessen, H.C. & Doerksen, V.D., "Lectures in Systematic Theology," , Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, Revised, 1977, pp.383-384) 9/10/2008 Php 3:20-21 (NIV). 20 But our citizenship is in heaven. And we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, 21 who, by the power that enables him to bring everything under his control, will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body. 9/10/2008 1Cor 15:35,41-44 (NIV). 35 But someone may ask, "How are the dead raised? With what kind of body will they come?" ... 41 The sun has one kind of splendor, the moon another and the stars another; and star differs from star in splendor. 42 So will it be with the resurrection of the dead. The body that is sown is perishable, it is raised imperishable; 43it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 9/10/2008 1Cor 15:50-52 (NIV). 50 I declare to you, brothers, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51 Listen, I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed- 52 in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 9/10/2008 "The laboratory in Zurich divided each sample in half, each of which was further subdivided into three. One third received no additional treatment, one third was treated with a weak solution of .05 % hydrochloric acid, followed by 0.25% sodium hydroxide, followed again by 0.5% hydrochloric acid at room temperature with intermittent washings. The last third was treated with a strong solution of 5% hydrochloric acid, then by 2.5% sodium hydroxide, which was followed again with 5% hydrochloric acid at temperatures of 80°C and intermittent washings. The laboratory in Arizona divided each sample into four sub-samples. One pair was treated with diluted hydrochloric acid, diluted sodium hydroxidehydroxide, and again with hydrochloric acid with intermittent washings. The other pair was cleaned with commercial detergents, hydrochloric acid, ethanol, and distilled water. The laboratory in Oxford divided the samples into three. Each was treated with hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and again with hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 80°C with intermittent washings. Two of the three pieces were also bleached in sodium hypochlorite. [Nature, February 16, 1989, p.613]" (Guerrera, V., "The Shroud of Turin: A Case for Authenticity," TAN: Rockford IL, 2001, pp.130-131) 23/10/2008 "Could the Shroud date back to the sixth century? Looking back in time from 1204, we are in a period in which, if the radiocarbon dating is to be believed, there should be no evidence of our Shroud. The year 1260 was the earliest possible date for the Shroud's existence by radiocarbon dating's calculations. Yet artistic likenesses of Jesus originating well before 1260 can be seen to have an often striking affinity with the face on the Shroud, insofar as anyone would have been able to make this out on the cloth itself, as distinct from the hidden photographic negative. Purely by way of example we may cite from the twelfth century the huge Christ Pantocrator mosaic that dominates the apse of the Norman Byzantine church at Cefalu, Sicily ... ; from the tenth century, the Christ Enthroned from the Church of San Angelo in Formis, Italy ... ; from the sixth century, a Byzantine-style medallion portrait of Christ on a silver vase discovered at Homs, the ancient Emesa, in Syria ... . The common features of all these are a very distinctive rigidly front-facing Jesus with long sidelocks, an individualistic long nose and a slightly forked beard, all strikingly similar to the face on the Shroud ... . And curiously, this type of likeness does not stretch all the way back to the first century, but seems to stop at the sixth, as if there was something which emerged at this time which sparked off this particular way of representing Jesus. One easy explanation is, of course, that the Shroud's fourteenth- century forger simply copied this likeness as one cunning element of his forgery. But what if there were a firm historical record, specifically between the sixth century and 1204, of an actual piece of cloth, imprinted with Jesus's likeness, that Byzantine artists looked to for inspiring portraits of Jesus of the kind listed above? And what if the Christ portraits produced during these centuries bore certain tiny but tell-tale features suggesting that their artists had been copying, even if at second or third hand, from our Shroud? Would we feel quite so confident that our Shroud simply could not date so far back in time?" (Wilson, I., "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, 1998, pp.141-142. Emphasis original) 25/10/2008 "My presentation summarizes work connected with digitalizing Shroud photographs taken by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931, enhancing the digitized images to improve details, translating the enhanced images’ grayscale data into depth data, generating a sequence of up to 625 images of each of these, and combining these images with a holoprinter to produce 3D images (holograms) of the Shroud. It also summarizes my study of these holograms and discovery of heretofore unseen details, which confirm many previous findings and reveal some surprises." (Soons, P., "The Shroud of Turin, the Holographic Experience," in "The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma," Shroud Science Group International Conference, Ohio State University, August 14-17, 2008) 25/10/2008 "ts'n ... com. dec. 1 a, collect.-I. small cattle, sheep and goat. - II. flock, flocks of sheep and goats ; metaph. of a people. tso'n idem, Ps. 144:13 ... " (Davidson, B., "The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon," Samuel Bagster & Sons: London, 1966, p.638. My transliteration) 25/10/2008 "s'n ... Assumed root of the following. 1864a ... so'n flock, sheep. (ASV and RSV very similar.) so'n is the generic term for "small cattle" comprised mostly of sheep and goats, but the emphasis in the word is on sheep (cf. Gen 38:17; I Sam 25:2)." (Harris, R.L., Archer, G.L. & Waltke, B.K., eds, "Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament," Moody Press: Chicago IL, 1980, Twelfth printing, 1992, Vol. II, p.749) 25/10/2008 "ts'n for ts'on; as Psa. 144:13 ... a collect. noun, flocks, small cattle, i.e. sheep and goats ... Gen. 4:2; 26:14; 29:2; and very frequently. Opp. to baqar herds, which 699 see, Gen. 27:9; Levit. 1:10; 22:21 (compare 19); rarely used only of sheep, 1 Sam. 25:2. To this collective (which is also used with numerals) corresponds the noun of unity seh a sheep, or goat. Exod. 21:37, `if any one steal a sheep (seh), he shall restore four sheep' ('arba' tso'n); Eze. 45:15. Note. As to gender, it is joined with a masc., where it means rams and he- goats. Gen. 30:39 ... `and the rams (and he-goats) rutted;' with a .fem., where it means ewes and she-goats; ibid., ... `and the sheep brought forth;' but, Gen. 31:10, it is joined, like epicoene nouns, with a masc., although it means ewes." (Tregelles, S.P., transl., "Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids: MI, 1949, Eighth printing, 1967, pp.698-699. My transliteration) 26/10/2008 "Strong's Number: 05006 ... Transliterated ... Na'ats ... Definition to spurn, contemn, despise, abhor (Qal) to spurn, contemn (Piel) to spurn to cause to contemn (Hiphil) to spurn (Hithpolel) to be contemned King James Word Usage ... despise 8, provoke 5, abhor 4, blaspheme 4, contemn 2, flourish 1, great occasion to blaspheme 1" ("The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon," Crosswalk.com) 26/10/2008 "... na'as ... despise, abhor. Derivatives .... ne'asa contempt (II Kgs 19:3 = Isa 37:3). ... ne'asa contempt, blasphemy (Neh 9:18,26; Ezk 35:12).... Our root signifies the action or attitude whereby the former recipient of favorable disposition and/or service is consciously viewed and/or treated with disdain. Consider the following synonymous parallels: mara `to rebel against authority' (Ps 107:11); 'aba `to be unwilling and disinclined toward obedience' (Prov 1:30); sane' `to hate' (Prov 5:12), not believing in the Lord (Num 14:1), to forsake God (`azab, Isa 1:4), ma'as `to reject,' Isa 5:24, harap `to say sharp things, reproach, scorn' (Ps 74:10). ... God prophesies Israel's utter apostasy in the face of overwhelming blessing (Deut 31:20ff.). The rejection of the covenant will result in a reversal of divine favor (Deut 32:19). The root connoting the opposite of covenantal favor was applied to judgment as a warning (Num 16:30) and fulfillment (Isa 1:4; Lam 2:6). God's longsuffering (Rom 2:4) overlooked repeated rejections and scorning of his person (Num 14:11; Ps 10:3), sanctions (Ps 10:13), counsel (Ps 107:11), and word (Isa 5:24). To the `despiser' nothing that is God's is considered holy (Isa 52:5; cf. Isa 1:4; Deut 31:19). Thus, he not only `deprecates God's power and ability to carry out his threats' but his contemptuous view of God leads him to prefer sin to God and to express this contempt in conscious contempt of God ... The eschaton will see the divine conquest of oppressor and scoffer (cf. Jer 33:24; Isa 60:14)." (Harris, R.L., Archer, G.L. & Waltke, B.K., eds, "Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament," Moody Press: Chicago IL, 1980, Twelfth printing, 1992, Vol. II, p.543. Emphasis original) 26/10/2008 "na'ats fut. to deride, to despise, to reject with contempt and derision (apparently kindred to ..., as instruction, admonition; with an acc. Jer. 33:24; Pro. 1:30; 5:12; 15:5; the counsel of God, Ps. 107:11. Often used of God as rejecting men, Deut. 32:19; Lam. 2:6 ; absol. Jer. 14:21, "reject not, for thy name's sake!" Comp. syn. ma'as. PIEL ... fut. ... (1) i.q. Kal, to reject, to contemn, Isa. 60:14; especially God, Ps. 10:3, 13; 74:18; Isa. 1:4; 5:24; Num. 14:23; 16:30. (2) causat. to cause to speak evil, to give occasion for evil speaking, 2 Sam. 12:14. HIPHIL, fut. ... In the Syriac manner for ..., intrans. to be despised, to be contemned, Ecc. 12:5. - LXX, Vulg., Syr., shall flourish (as if from ...), but this does not agree with the context. HITHPOEL, part. ... for .. Isa 52:5, contemned, rejected, prop. exposed to contempt ... ... contumely, reproach, Isa. 37:3; and ... f. pl. ... id. Neh. 9:18, 26, and ... Eze. 35:12." (Tregelles, S.P., transl., "Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids: MI, 1949, Eighth printing, 1967, p.525. My transliteration) 26/10/2008 "... na'ats fut. ... to deride, despise, contemn, reject. Pi. ...(§ 14. rem. 1).-1 to despise, contemn.-II. to give occasion for blasphemy, 2 Sam. 12:14. Hiph intrans, to be despised Ec 12:5. Hithpo, to be despised, contemned, Is. 52:5 ... fem. reproach, insult. ... fem. id. pl. ... Ne. 9:18,26. ... Eze. 35:12. ... Piel (§ 14. rem. 1) pret. 3 pers. sing. masc.; or, 2 Sa. 12:14, inf. (§ 10. rem. 2) ... ... 1 noun fem. sing.; ... bef ... " (Davidson, B., "The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon," Samuel Bagster & Sons: London, 1966, p.529. My transliteration) 26/10/2008 "Strong's Number: H5006 .... na'ats, naw-ats'; a prim. root; to scorn; or (Eccles. 12:5); by interch. for H5132, to bloom:--abhor, (give occasion to) blaspheme, contemn, despise, flourish, X great, provoke." ("Parsons Hebrew-Greek Bible Dictionary," Quickverse 2) 27/10/2008 "The Johannine requirement of having Nisan 14 fall on a Friday (and Nisan 15 on a Saturday) can be satisfied in A.D. 30 under (1) and in A.D. 33 under (1), both of which years seem to be well within the range of likelihood. Astronomically calculated, therefore, the likely dates for the crucifixion of Jesus appear to be either Friday Apr 7, A.D. 30, or Friday Apr 3, A.D. 33. Therewith, in terms of the standard Jewish calendar, the representation of the day in the Fourth Gospel appears to be confirmed." (Finegan, J., "Handbook of Biblical Chronology: Principles of Time Reckoning in the Ancient World and Problems of Chronology in the Bible," Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ, 1964, p.296) 27/10/2008 "[Jn 19:]40. In linen cloths (othoniois). Late diminutive for the old othone, used for ships' sails, in N.T. here and Luke 24:12. Case here either locative or instrumental. With the spices (meta ton aromaton). Late word aroma for spices, from fumes. To bury (entaphiazein). Late verb, from entaphia (en, taphos) the burial preparations of all sorts (flowers, perfumes, etc.), in N.T. only here and Matt. 26:12." (Robertson, A.T., "Word Pictures in the New Testament: Volume V: The Fourth Gospel & the Epistle to the Hebrews," Broadman Press: Nashville TN, 1932, p.307) 28/10/2008 "ts'n (273 X) sf. ... Ne 10:37 ... Ps 144:13; f.: coll. small cattle, i.e. sheep & goats Gn 4:2; sheep only 1S 25:2; males only (thus m.) Gn 30:40; bene so'n individual animals Ps 114:4; metaph. = Isr. 2S 24:17." (Holladay, W.L., "A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament: Based upon the Lexical work of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids MI, 1971, p.302. My transliteration) 29/10/2008 "ts'eg ...Kal. imp. pl. masc.; gimel bef. yatsa' " (Davidson, B., "The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon," Samuel Bagster & Sons: London, 1966, p.638. My transliteration) 29/10/2008 "yatsa' fut. yetse', imp. tse', inf. c. tse't (§ 95. No. 2d) -I. to go out, go forth; with sin, also acc. of the place whence, with b (rarely sin) of the place through or by which. one goes out.-II. to come forth, to issue, descend, of children, posterity.-III to escape, as danger, with 'et Ecc. 7:18.-IV. to rise, as the sun, stars, &c.-V. to shoot forth, spring up, as plants; to spring forth, of water.-VI. to go forth, be issued, published, as a decree.-VII. to go out, to end, of a period of time. Hiph. hotsiy'. to cause to go, come out or forth, to lead, bring forth or out.-II. to cause to spring up, to yield, as the earth plants.-III. to cause to lay out, as money, to exact, with `al, 2 Ki. 15:20.-IV. ta spread abroad, to publish, with `al, le of the person. -V. to produce, make, Is. 54:16.-VI. to take out, to separate, Je. 15:19. Hoph. to be led, brought forth or out. yatsa' Chald. Shaph. shotse', sheyey (§ 48) to bring to an end, to finish. ... masc. dec. 3a, issued, proceeded, 2 Ch. 32:21. ... fem. dec. 10 (for ...) excrement, ordure. ... .or ... adj. masc., filthy, Zec. 3:3,4. ..., .... fem. dec. 10, excrement, ordure, filth. ... m. pl. (of ... dec. 1, § 31. rem. 1). I. productions of the earth.-II. offspring, children. .... masc. dec. l b (§ 31. rem. 1).-I. a going out, an outgoing; a rising, of the sun-II. the place of going or coming out, applied to a gate, fountain, the east (where the sun rises).-III. that which comes out, i. e. proceeds, is uttered, as words, speech.-IV. origin, race, breed, 1 Ki 10:28.-V. pr. name masc. of two different persons. ... fem. dec. 10 (comp. § 31. rem. 1).-1. a going out, origin, Mi. 5:1.-II. draught-house, 2 Ki. 10:27. ... fem. pl. (of ... dec. IIa)-I. termination, extremity.-II. deliverance, escape, Ps. 68:21.-III. issue, result, Pr. 4:23 ..." (Davidson, B., "The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon," Samuel Bagster & Sons: London, 1966, pp.336-337. My transliteration) 29/10/2008 "yatsa' ... TO GO OUT, TO GO FORTH .... In Syriac and Chaldee the word which radically corresponds ... to germinate, to expand, as a plant, they use in the sense of going out, when speaking of men and other things ... Specially to go out, to go forth, is used--- (a) of soldiers-(a) to war, 1 Sa. 8:20; Job 39:21; Isa. 42:12; Zechariah 14:3 (and similarly shepherds against wild beasts, 1 Sa. 17:35).-(B)out of a city in order to surrender it, Isa. 36:16.- (b) merchants and sailors for purposes of trade, Deut. 33:18.-(c) slaves manumitted by their owners, Ex. 21:3, 4, 11; Lev. 25:41, 54 ... (d) children, descendants are said to come forth from their father, or the ancestor of the race; Gen. 17:6, ... to come forth from the womb, from the loins of any one, Job 1:21 ; Gen. 46:26.-(e) those who are delivered from danger are said to come forth ... Ecc. 7:18, ... 1 Sa. 14:41 ... It is applied to inanimate things. So- (f) the sun is said to go forth, i.e. to rise, Gen. 19:23; Ps. 19: 6; the stare, Neh. 4:15; the morning, Hos. 6:5. - (g) to plants which spring forth, 1 Ki. 5:13; Isa. 11:1 ; flowers, Job 14:2... (h) water flowing, gushing forth from a fountain, Gen. 2:10 ; Deut. 8:7; ... Isa. 41:18. It is used also- (i) of a boundary, terminus, running on, running through, Josh. 15:3, 4,9,11- (k) of money which is laid out, expended, 2 Ki. 12:13. ... (l) of things which go forth to the people, are promulgated; of an edict, Hab. 1:4; of the sentence of a judge, Ps. 17:2; compar judge, Ps. 17:2; e Gen. 24:50.(m) of the outgoing, i. e. the end of a period of time; Exod. 23:16, ... Ezek. 7:10; hence of the end, the destruction of a city, Eze. 26:18. ... to cause to go out, or come forth, hence of animate beings; to lead out, e. g. the people from Egypt, Ex. 12:51; 16:6; of inanimate beings, to carry out, Gen. 14:18; to draw out, to take out, Ex. 4:6,7; Job 28:11; to take out as from a case, Gen. 24:53. Specially it is (a) causat. ... to put forth plants (as the earth), Gen. 1:12, 24; Isa. 61:11.-(b) .... to cause to lay out, to exact money, followed by .., to lay on a tribute, 2 Ki. 15:20 ... (c) ... to publish a report, followed by ... of the pers. concerning whom the report is spread, Nu. 14:37; Deu. 22:14, 19; to report words, followed by ... of the pers. to whom they are brought, Neh. 6:19; to promulgate doctrine, Isa.42:1, ... ... Isa. 42:3.- (d) to produce as an artisan, Isa. 54:16. (e) to lead forth, i.e. to separate, Jer. 15:19. ... to be brought forth, to be taken out, Eze.38:8; 47:8." (Tregelles, S.P., transl., "Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures," Eerdmans: Grand Rapids: MI, 1949, Eighth Printing, 1967, pp.359-360. My transliteration. Emphasis original) 29/10/2008 "yasa' ... go out, come out, go forth.... yasa' ... has the usual causative meaning `cause to go out, bring out, lead out.' ... The basic notion of yasa' is `to go out.' It is used literally of going out from a particular locality or from the presence of a person. It is used of nature, i.e. water out of a rock, sun rising out of the east, etc. For our purposes we shall note the following uses. First, it is used frequently of the great exodus event which forms the major focus of theological attention in the OT. The Hiphil with its causative function is used extensively. Moses is the human element in bringing the people of God out of Egypt (e.g. Ex 3:10ff.; 14:11). Aaron is mentioned with Moses in Ex 6:13, 26f. But far greater emphasis is given to Yahweh, the Lord God who is involved in this great act of redemption from Egypt. Moses himself puts the emphasis on God's work in Ex 13:3 as he addresses the people of God on that memorable day, `Remember this day in which you went out from Egypt, from the house of slavery; for by a powerful hand the Lord brought you out from this place.' .... `I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery' (Ex 20:2). The record shows that history is theologically related, the great `going out' event was to symbolize the mighty redemption of God's people from the shackles of sin by his sovereign powerful grace. In Deut 4:37 a reason is given: `Because he loved your fathers, therefore he chose their descendants.... And he personally brought you from Egypt'... Throughout Israel's history, the covenanted people of God are called to remember this God-initiated redemption and to live accordingly. (Cf. Deut 6:12; 26:8; Jud 2:12; I Sam 12:8; I Kgs 8:16; Jer 11:4; Dan 9:15 ... Ps 136:11, ... 106:6-12.) A second usage arises from the exodus motif. In a technical sense yasa' is used for the emancipation of a Hebrew slave, probably an indentured servant. Exodus 21:2 puts the maximum limit of service at six years, `But on the seventh he shall go out as a free man without payment.' ... reminding the people of God that as you went forth from Egyptian bondage, even so shall your identured servant go out free. Somewhat related is a technical usage meaning `revert.' Leviticus 25:8-55 records the regulations for the year of Jubilee. Property or dwellings which had been sold on account of poverty, no near of kin being able to redeem it, `at the jubilee [it] shall revert (lit. `go out'), that he may return to his property' (25:28, 30, 31, 33). It may well be that Isaiah had the above two ideas in mind when he uttered the evangelical message `to proclaim liberty to captives, and freedom to prisoners; to proclaim the favorable year of the Lord' (61:2-3). Another theological usage of yasa' is an extension of the exodus theme. The prophets see the irremediable corruption of Israel and Judah which inevitably leads to exile but after that a return. Ezekiel ... quotes the Lord's promise of a new exodus-like redemptive activity from the exile. `As a soothing aroma I shall accept you, when I bring you out from the peoples and gather you from the lands where you are scattered' (20:41; cf. v. 34). Its true fulfillment may only come after the good shepherd `will bring them out from the peoples and gather them from the countries and bring them to their own land' (34:13). Hence, an eschatological note of hope is introduced." (Harris, R.L., Archer, G.L. & Waltke, B.K., eds, "Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament," Moody Press: Chicago IL, 1980, Twelfth printing, 1992, Vol. I, pp.393-394) 30/10/2008 "One other well-publicized set of attempts to show how the image may have been faked came from artist Joe Nickell. His chief example involved applying a dry powder mixture of myrrh and aloes to a damp cloth which had been carefully fitted around a bas-relief face. The result is also an image of the face, created by the powder, which, to an untrained eye, resembles the face on the Shroud. [Nickell, J., "The Turin Shroud: Fake? Fact? Photograph?," Popular Photography, November 1979, pp.99,147] Nickell's methods have been analyzed frequently, especially since his work was first publicized in 1978. He has changed his methods over the years, but his various attempts (as well as similar ones) have all been tested with devastating results to Nickell's claims. The absence of powder on the Shroud and the disproving of any artistic process by both chemical and physical testing wielded death blows to Nickell's theories. Also, Nickell's models failed the 3-D test and were badly distorted when checked by the VP-8 image analyzer, as pointed out by John Jackson. Problems with shading and the fact that Nickell's model is not superficial (despite his claims to the contrary) led to the assessment that it was `unacceptable.' [Jackson, J., in Murphy, C., "Shreds of Evidence," Harper's, November 1981, pp.42-65, p.55] Heller likewise listed as a major failure of both bas-reliefs and block prints the fact that they do not reproduce a 3-D image, as the Shroud does. He also pointed out that no such bas-reliefs or artistic method existed in medieval times. [Heller, J.H., "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1983, p.208]" (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.122) 30/10/2008 "Don Lynn and Jean Lorre of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory discovered that the Shroud's image is nondirectional (has no linear direction). In other words, the image was apparently not caused by any movement of a hand across cloth, which `would not be consistent with hand application' [Lynn, D. & Lorre, J., in Murphy, C., "Shreds of Evidence," Harper's, November 1981, pp.42-65, p.55] - the crux of Nickell's theories. This poses a big problem, not only for Nickell, but for anyone who suggests that hand artistry caused the image. Many other problems could be mentioned, [Zugibe, F.T., "The Cross and the Shroud," Angelus Books: New York, 1982, p.180] but as Heller asserted, bas-reliefs were `examined and rejected because they could be ruled out-both theoretically and experimentally,' [Heller, J.H., "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1983, p.203] STURP scientists tested many different models and rejected all of them. Another suggested method of fakery given considerable attention was `acid-painting,' a chemical alteration of a linen cloth to produce an image. But STURP's tests with acid also failed to create a viable image. Achieving uniform density like that in the Shroud's image was a problem for this method, as was the presence of capillarity and even the destruction of the cloth itself. [Heller, Ibid; Murphy, Ibid] For these and other reasons, acid-painting was rejected as a viable cause. [Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "Verdict on the Shroud," Servant Books: Ann Arbor PA, 1981, p.193]" (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.122) 30/10/2008 "Another attempt at producing a contact image came from draping a cloth over a statue or bas-relief. Although scientists used various designs, their attempts failed to account for the image. In the words of Ron London, `You can scorch cloth.... You just can't make it look like what we see [on the Shroud].' [London, R., in Murphy, C., "Shreds of Evidence," Harper's, November 1981, pp.42-65, p.56] Numerous problems, such as the lack of 3-D information, plague these theories involving heated images. Heller noted that these hypotheses are `seriously flawed' with regard to this distance information. [Heller, J.H., "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1983, pp.203, 208, 211] Another problem is the inability of heat to cause a resolute image because heat diffuses.- STURP also discovered that when the heat was high enough for the contact areas to mark the linen, the contact areas `burned through the cloth,' [Heller, Ibid., p203] which again fails to match the characteristics of the Shroud's image." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.122) 30/10/2008 "Consequently, STURP rejected all these theses. [STURP, "Text," p.2] In Rogers' words, "The image is too sharp and too uniform for any of the hot statue theories.' [Rogers, R., in Murphy, C., "Shreds of Evidence," Harper's, November 1981, pp.42-65, p.65] Heller rejected them on both theoretical and experimental grounds. [Heller, J.H., "Report on the Shroud of Turin," Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1983, Chapter 14] Even Mueller, skeptical of the Shroud's authenticity, recognized their failure at this point. [Mueller, M.M., "The Shroud of Turin: A Critical Appraisal," Skeptical Inquirer, 6(3), Spring 1982, pp.15-34, p.27] For such reasons as these, fakery theories have been ruled out by STURP The testing revealed no pigments, paints, dyes, or stains on the linen fibrils which could account for the image. As the STURP statement released at New London in 1981 proclaims, `[The image] is not the product of an artist.' [STURP, Ibid.] To quote John Heller again, the Shroud's image `could not have been made by artistic endeavor... . The Shroud could not be the result of eye/brain/hand.' [Heller, Ibid., pp.207-209] This conclusion rests on thousands of hours of tests, many of the results of which are not even presented here." [See Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "Verdict on the Shroud," Servant Books: Ann Arbor PA, 1981, pp.191-193]" (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, pp.123-124) 31/10/2008 "These examples aside, any explanation of how the Shroud's image was formed depends greatly upon what prior opinion is held by those doing the explaining. As is generally understood from examinations such as that by STURP, the Shroud image's key characteristics are a monochromatic coloration, the semblance of a `photograph' (particularly when seen in negative), some semblance of X-ray properties, an absence of brushstrokes, no signs of its having been painted or dyed, a lack of any directionality to the lighting, `true' three-dimensionality when seen via VP-8 and relative stability when subjected to water, heat and some chemicals. Whether the Shroud is authentic or a forgery, these characteristics somehow need to be accounted for in any explanation which is offered, though an immediate difficulty is that not all the characteristics are universally accepted." (Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, 2000, p.120) 31/10/2008 "Thus ... the Chicago microanalyst Dr Walter McCrone continues to insist that paint particles are responsible for what the eye sees as the Shroud's `body' and `blood' images. In his explanation for how the Shroud image was formed, McCrone wholeheartedly agrees with the fourteenth-century bishop of Troyes, who claimed that the Shroud was `cunningly painted', envisaging that the unknown mediaeval painter: `... carefully studied the New Testament, sources of information on the crucifixion and other artists' paintings of Christ. He then thought about a shroud image in terms of a dark tomb. Instead of the usual portrait with normal light and shadow, he assumed that the image could only be produced by body contact with the cloth. He painted directly on the cloth to image the body-contact points (forehead, bridge of nose, cheekbones, moustache, beard, etc.), over the entire body, front and back. This automatically creates a negative image; areas that normally catch available light and appear bright, like the bridge of the nose, would instead all be dark with a paint. However, those areas appear bright on a photographic negative. He decorated the body with blood-stains as required by the New Testament descriptions. These he rendered dark on the Shroud, hence they form a photographic positive image superimposed on the otherwise negative Shroud body image.' [McCrone, W., "The Shroud of Turin: Blood or Artist's Pigment?," Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1990, p.82]" (Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, 2000, pp.120-121) 31/10/2008 "However straightforward and plausible this might sound when expressed just in words, when anyone is confronted with the actual task of creating on 437 cm of untreated linen an image with the Shroud's tonal subtleties it is an entirely different matter, as I can confirm from my own very limited attempts. Nor is this just my experience. When in the late 1970s the British artist John Weston was given the task of copying the Shroud tone by tone for the TV documentary The Silent Witness he found himself so deeply impressed that he became convinced of the Shroud's genuineness. The crudity of the dozens of life-sized copies of the Shroud painted during centuries after the fourteenth century show just how difficult otherwise competent artists of the Renaissance and later eras found performing this task." (Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, 2000, p.121) 31/10/2008 "In order to demonstrate his claims Dr Walter McCrone specially commissioned an artist, Walter Sanford, to paint just the Shroud face the way that he thought a medieval artist might have done it. Because it was painted in iron oxide, the painting's coloration is significantly redder than that of the Shroud's image, and despite the artist's best efforts to emulate the Shroud's tones, it still looks humanly created. Furthermore, although his lavishly illustrated Judgement Day for the Turin Shroud, [McCrone, W., "Judgement Day for the Turin Shroud," Microscope Publications: Chicago IL, 1996] did not show how Sanford's version might look in negative, Barrie and I are able to do this here. You must judge this for yourself, but be assured that, had the Shroud's `hidden negative' been of anything like this mediocrity, then neither of us would ever have given the subject a second glance." (Wilson, I. & Schwortz, B., "The Turin Shroud: The Illustrated Evidence," Michael O'Mara Books: London, 2000, p.121)
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Created: 30 April, 2008. Updated: 15 March, 2010.