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The following are quotes added to my Shroud of Turin unclassified quotes in December 2008. See copyright conditions at end.
[Index: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov]
10/12/2008 "ABSTRACT Recent research reported new evidence suggesting the radiocarbon dating of the Turin Shroud was invalid due to the intrusion of newer material in the sampling area. This evidence included the detection of anomalous surface contaminates in specimens from the sampling area. This paper reports new data from an unpublished study conducted by the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) team in 1978 that supports the above-referenced research findings. Additionally, this paper reports evidence supporting the identification of replacement material in the Carbon-14 (C-14) sampling region along with previously- unreported radiographic findings, corroborative textile evidence from the adjacent `Raes' sample, blinded- expert analysis of the Zurich laboratory C-14 sub-sample, independent microscopic confirmation of surface contaminates in Holland cloth/C-14 region, and historical restoration information. Based on these new data, the authors conclude that the radiocarbon sampling area was manipulated during or after the 16th Century and that further testing on the Shroud is warranted." (Benford, M.S. & Marino, J.G., "Discrepancies in the radiocarbon dating area of the Turin shroud," Chemistry Today, Vol. 26, No. 4, July-August 2008, pp.4-12, p.4) 12/12/2008 "Test Samples Taken from the Restored Area? As noted earlier, at some point in the history of the Shroud, a selvedge was added to the entire length of the Shroud, most likely to center the image on the cloth. Some scientists have pointed out that the sample may have been taken from this selvedge where there could have been intense handling and wear and possible fraying and reweaving or patches placed there in medieval times. The sample from the Shroud that was carbon-dated was next to the selvedge woven into the fabric of the Shroud. The history and contamination of this selvedge are unknown. Fr. Joseph Marino quotes Gillian Eastwood, a specialist in Near Eastern archaeological textiles: `The existence... of some form of end or selvedge needs to be determined and properly documented. Similarly, the published works concerning the Shroud make no reference to the type of seam used.... It may have constituted an original extension or it may derive from a later repair.' [Marino, J., "The Shroud of Turin and the Carbon 14 Controversy," Fidelity Magazine, February 1989, pp.6-45, p.36] Meacham also noted that the repair area from the fire may actually contain fibers woven in by a restorer in the Middle Ages. Professor Giovanni Riggi, who actually removed the samples from the Shroud for the C14 dating, stated: `I was given permission to cut about eight square centimeters from the cloth in the same area where in 1973 essor Raes. This was eventually reduced to about seven square centimeters due to contamination of the cloth with threads of different origins, which even in small quantities could cause variation in the dating due to their being of later addition.' [Ibid., p.37]" (Iannone, J.C., "The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, 1998, pp.170-171. Emphasis original) 13/12/2008 "Entry: #28 Date: 2000 Data Category: Possibility or direct evidence of invisible reweaving Evidence: Ronald Hatfield, a scientist at Beta Analytic, the world’s largest radiocarbon dating service, performed a theoretical C-14 calculation that supports the theory of a 16th century patch. A merging of threads from AD 1500 into a 2,000 year old piece of linen would augment the C14 content, such that a 60/40 ratio of new material to old, determined by mass, would result in a C-14 age of approximately AD 1210. Source: Beta Analytic Laboratories (Miami, Florida): Personal communication to M.Sue Benford and Joseph Marino June 9, 2000 ("Evidence For The Skewing of the C-14 Dating of the Shroud of Turin" by Joseph G. Marino and M. Sue Benford, http://www.shroud.com/pdfs/marben.pdf). Comments: The Hatfield calculation correlates very closely with the Oxford mean date of AD 1200 as reported in Nature and with the observed ratio of original versus medieval material in the C-14 sample. See figure 3 at "Evidence For The Skewing of the C-14 Dating of the Shroud of Turin" by Joseph G. Marino and M. Sue Benford, www.shroud.com/pdfs/marben.pdf." (Marino, J.G. & Prior, E.J., "Chronological History of the Evidence for the Anomalous Nature of the C-14 Sample Area of the Shroud of Turin," November 2008, p.14. Shroud.com) 13/12/2008 "Entry: #29 Date: 2000 Data Category: Evidence of anomalous nature of C-14 corner & General possibility of repairs Evidence: Adler writes, " a radiocarbon dating examination was authorized and carried out in 1988. As this examination assigned a 14th century date to the Shroud, it only exacerbated the polemics. Unfortunately, the protocol recommended by a convened panel of experts for the taking of proper cloth samples for the radiocarbon analysis was not followed. Only a single sample was taken and that was from a most unsuitable location, i.e., from the edge of a bounded waterstained scorch area where evident repairs had been made. Therefore while this dating study can claim good precision for its reported date, it cannot assign any accuracy to the Shroud’s historical date as it is not clearly established that the location sampled is typical of the rest of the cloth. In order to check this point, fibers from the radiocarbon samples show a distinctly different spectrum and therefore it can be inferred that their composition is not typical of the rest of the cloth. Why this is so is not entirely clear, but it does establish the fact that the accuracy of the radiocarbon date can be questioned on the basis of direct experimental evidence (italics added). Many theories and explanations have been advanced to attempt to resolve the dating inconsistencies but the matter can really only be resolved by further experimental investigation of cloth samples from the Shroud itself. Source: Adler, Alan. D. "Chemical and Physical Aspects of the Sindonic Images" in The Orphaned Manuscript: A Shroud Spectrum International Special Issue." Torino: Effata Editrice, 2002, pg. 25." (Marino, J.G. & Prior, E.J., "Chronological History of the Evidence for the Anomalous Nature of the C-14 Sample Area of the Shroud of Turin," November 2008, pp.14-15. Shroud.com) 14/12/2008 "Frei always believed that the pollen he found an the Shroud were deposited there by the wind. Both his published statements and unpublished documents bear this out. Aside from his study of the pollen themselves, Frei never went further than noting the presence of same botanical debris--a plant hair from Platanus orientatis and epidermal cells of Aloe soccotrina. Yet, when the atmospheric palynologist, Dr. A. Orville Dahl of the University of Pennsylvania, examined Dr. Frei's unpublished work and the 1978 tapes, he concluded that human activity--Dahl proposed a liturgical explanation-better explained the presence of some 32 entamophilous [insect-pollinated], i.e. floral plant types--on the Shroud. This is supported by my own discovery in the Spring and Summer of 1986 of botanical debris (confirmed by Dr. Dahl ...)--an anther, a filament, bracts, miscellaneous plant cells, stellate hairs, various plant hairs and other fibers of botanical origin, and even the presence of two mites (arachnids) that could be of a type typically found in flowers. Thus, the evidence from the tapes seems to show that there is a much more complex explanation for the presence of pollen on the cloth. Whereas Artemisia herba - alba, and various gymnosperm pollen such as Pinus halepensis anerus oxycedrus (Frei, 1982) are surely explained by wind deposition, others are better accounted for by the two proposed human activities--either the laying-on of flowers during liturgical ceremonies or the actual burial activity itself.." (Maloney, P.C., "A Contribution toward a History of Botanical Research on the Shroud of Turin," in Walsh, B., ed., "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, 2000, p.242) 14/12/2008 "One point that drew flak in Shroud research has centered on the `coins on the eyes:' Some have considered such research pseudo-science and have given it little if any credence. Many scientists themselves felt that since the 1978 photographs failed to reveal such data then the artifacts seen earlier must have been merely anomalies in the cloth weave. ... However, Dr. Robert Haralick used the initial work of the Whangers and the late Father Francis Filas to demonstrate through digital image enhancement the following evidence: `1. the right eye area of the Shroud image contains remnants of patterns similar to those of a known Pontius Pilate coin dating from A.D. 29 ... ; 2. the photographic negative of the Shroud image has qualities similar to three dimensional range data; 3. the face of the Shroud image is similar to the face on an icon of Jesus dating from the sixth century. [Haralick, R., "Analysis of Digital Images of the Shroud of Turin," Spatial Data Analysis Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University: (Blacksburg VA 1983, pp.2] Here from an independent researcher is confirmation not only of the coins, but also of Jackson's 3-D work and of iconography, both the Ian Wilson theory and the Whangers backup data." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.36) 14/12/2008 "Though some in the past were quick to say that such research was about as significant as looking at a Rorschach diagram, that opinion is no longer valid. To begin with, as the Whangers' (who also found seventy-four points of congruence for the Pontius Pilate coin) pointed out in Applied Optics: `Comparing the same area on the 1931 and 1978 photographs, this technique shows that the cloth is not in exactly the same position and drape for the two photographs and that threads over the eye area might have been stretched or rotated. This accounts for some apparent distortion of the letters and images in the 1978 photographs indeed making it more difficult to see them on these photographs.' [Whanger, A. & M., "Polarized Image Overlay Technique: A New Image Comparison Method and Its Applications," Applied Optics, 24 (Mar. 1985): 771.] We know that the 1931 photos were taken with the Shroud stretched taut while our testing platform was specifically designed so as not to stretch or put tension on the cloth. Another interesting consideration is that perhaps this simple technique has given evidence concerning the image formation process. Since the Shroud must be taut in order to show the images of coins, perhaps the Shroud was taut when those images were first formed. Certainly if testable, this would be a strong piece of evidence against the German-Pellicori hypothesis, which states that the Shroud image was the result of `time lapse chemistry.' In other words, chemicals on the body altered the cloth over several hundred years. It goes without saying that quickness to pooh-pooh this data now undermines the scientists' own work." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, pp.36-37) 14/12/2008 "In the work of the late Dr. Frei, once again we find a variance in how significant various researchers feel his pollen finds actually are. Some argued that the pollens meant absolutely nothing. Others simply found fault with his methodology, particularly his controls and documentation. The major complaint seemed to be that the pollen could have been airborne, no matter what its country of origin. Frei responded: Groups A, B and C of plants on the Shroud from Palestine and Anatolia are so numerous, compared to the species from Europe, that a casual contamination or a pollen-transport from the Near East by storms in different seasons cannot be responsible for their presence.... The predominance of these pollens must be the result of the Shroud's stay in such countries.... Migrating birds or contamination with desert plants by pilgrims can be excluded because they had no possibility of direct contact with the Shroud. [Frei, M., "Nine Years of Palynological Studies on the Shroud," Shroud Spectrum International, 1, June 1982, p.7] " (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.37) 14/12/2008 "Mites Another interesting aspect of the microscopic material found on the Shroud is the discovery of mites by Professor Giovanni Riggi. During his analysis of samples vacuumed from between the Shroud and its backing cloth in 1978, he isolated and identified a mite peculiar to ancient burial linens, specifically Egyptian mummy wrappings. [STURP, "First Data Analysis Workshop," Santa Barbara, California, 24-25 March, 1979] If the Shroud was a creation of the Middle Ages, then its forger must have ordered the mites to go with it." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.65. Emphasis original) 14/12/2008 "Artifacts Artifacts visible in the Shroud image areas are the next consideration. These include `coins' over the eyes, a possible phylactery upon the forehead (which logically should have a corresponding `prayer box' on the arm), and other `clothes,' such as a modesty cloth or `bands' at the head, hands, and feet. In 1978 Eric Jumper, John Jackson, and I [Stevenson] co-authored an article which appeared in The Numismatist and postulated the theory that 3-D objects visible on the eyes might in fact be coins. Working with Ian Wilson, we suggested the lepton of Pontius Pilate because the size, shape, and markings seemed uncannily accurate [Jumper, E., Stevenson, K.E. & Jackson, J., "Images of Coins on a Burial Cloth?" The Numismatist, July 1978, 1356]." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, pp.65-66. Emphasis original) 14/12/2008 "To begin with, many lambasted The Numismatist for even including an article on the Shroud. Others suggested that we took great liberties in supposing that the use of coins was compatible with early Jewish burial customs. There were also some who made helpful suggestions for additional research. The final blow seemed to come when the 1978 photographs failed to reveal the same details over the eyes as was seen on the earlier photographs. While at least one of my co-authors on the article may have changed his view, I retained an interest that has been somewhat vindicated by independent research." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.66) 14/12/2008 "First, the late Father Filas proceeded to find coins that matched the initial lepton, right down to a peculiar misspelling. The coin's inscription contained the letter sequence UCAI. The correct spelling should have been UKAI. Father Filas found several extant copies of the lepton with this spelling error. Apparently, the die used to make the coin was misstruck in the same way as a twentieth-century three-legged buffalo nickel. And it was used until the error was finally detected. Josh McDowell and many others who were suspicious of the Shroud's authenticity criticized Shroud supporters asserting that `the coin striker would have had to be either drunk or ignorant' to mint a coin with such an error. [McDowell, J. & Stewart, D., "Answers to Tough Questions Skeptics Ask About the Christian Faith," San Bernardino CA: Here's Life Publishers: San Bernardino CA, 1980, p.168] It seems they forget that Romans, like the rest of us, made mistakes occasionally, even honest ones." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.66) 14/12/2008 "Second, Father Filas submitted that research to Dr. Haralick who independently confirmed the presence of the `coins' ... Finally, a separate 3-D analysis also confirmed the identification. [Haralick, R., "Analysis of Digital Images of the Shroud of Turin," Spatial Data Analysis Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University: Blacksburg VA, 1983, p.34] It is most interesting to me that the 3-D photos of the `coins' actually reveal more clearly the letter shapes which match the Pilate coin inscription. Also, the earlier photographs were apparently taken with the cloth stretched tautly on a board. In the 1978 photos, the Shroud was only loosely held to the testing platform. This difference is significant in that the minute details visible on the earlier photographs would likely be hidden in the crevices of the Shroud when loosely held." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, pp.66-67) 14/12/2008 "Personally, I spent some time with Jewish scholars in an attempt to clarify the burial custom controversy. Once again, however, the results were inconclusive. While some felt that nothing precluded the custom, others felt there was relatively little to support it either. Though no clear custom can be established, coins have been found in skulls in the Middle East dated in and around the first century A.D. Alternate theories can be advanced to explain this archaeological fact, but no one knows for certain in the absence of either a written record or eyewitness testimony." (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.67) 14/12/2008 "The primary significance is that if the coin is in fact the Pilate lepton, it is strong corroborating evidence that both the image and the cloth date to the first century. And with this form of dating, the margin of error is substantially less than with C-14. ... If indeed these artifacts are what they appear to be, then not only do they add to the case for longevity, but they also mitigate strongly against forgery. " (Stevenson, K.E. & Habermas, G.R., "The Shroud and the Controversy," Thomas Nelson: Nashville TN, 1990, p.67. Emphasis original)
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Created: 11 December, 2008. Updated: 30 March, 2010.