Stephen E. Jones

Shroud of Turin quotes: Unclassified quotes: January 2012

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The following are quotes added to my Shroud of Turin unclassified quotes in January 2012. See copyright conditions at end.

[Index: Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec]


6/01/2012
"It's fair to say that, despite the seemingly definitive tests in 1988, the status of the Shroud of Turin is murkier 
than ever. Not least, the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain deeply puzzling." (Ball, P., 
"Material witness: Shrouded in mystery," Nature Materials, Vol. 7, No. 5, May, 2008, p.349).

6/01/2012
"COTTON ON THE OXFORD CARBON DATING SAMPLE Kindly brought to our attention by the Revd. Kim 
Dreisbach of Atlanta is a hitherto unnoticed report in the journal Textile Horizons of December 1988 
concerning the Shroud sample supplied to the Oxford radiocarbon dating laboratory. Apparently the British 
company Precision Processes (Textiles) Ltd of Ambergate, Derbyshire was asked by the Oxford laboratory to 
help identify certain 'foreign' fibres observed, isolated and extracted from the Shroud sample prior to its 
destruction during the carbon dating process. According to Precision Processes managing director, Peter South: 
`It was while the sample was undergoing tests at the radiocarbon acceleration unit in Oxford that Professor 
Edward Hall noticed two or three fibres which looked out of place. He mentioned this to his friend Sir James 
Spooner, chairman of Coats Viyella, to which our firm belongs. Consequently, after several telephone calls, the 
minute samples, which looked like human hair, were sent to us.' Magnified two hundred times by a Precision 
Processes microscope the fibres became immediately identified as cotton. This might have been explicable as 
merely from the cotton gloves worn by members of the STURP team in 1978, but for the subsequent information 
imparted by Peter South: `The cotton is a fine, dark yellow strand, possibly of Egyptian origin and quite old. 
Unfortunately it is impossible to say how it ended up on the Shroud, which 1s basically made from linen. It may 
have been used for repairs at some time in the past, or simply became bound in when the linen fabric was woven.' 
This is not the first time that cotton strands have been identified on a Shroud sample. The Belgian Professor 
Gilbert Raes observed the same on the sample he studied in 1973, and he deduced that this was a strong 
indication of Middle Eastern manufacture. Clearly it could be of great interest to learn more both of the age of this 
cotton, and of the exact reason for its presence on the Shroud." (Wilson, I., "Cotton on the Oxford Carbon Dating 
Sample," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No. 26, September/October 1990, pp.7-8. 
Emphasis original). 

6/01/2012
"Staff at a Derbyshire laboratory have been working on one of their most unusual and fascinating problems 
ever to help unravel a second mystery concerning the world-famous Turin Shroud. The true age of the 
Shroud was announced recently following exhaustive tests by laboratories in Britain, Switzerland, and the 
USA. Precision Processes (Textiles) Ltd. in Ambergate, Derbyshire, earned the distinction of being the only 
lab in the UK to assist Oxford University with the prestigious assignment, their task being identify `foreign' 
bodies found in the cloth. Managing director Peter South explains, `It was while the sample was undergoing 
tests at the radiocarbon acceleration unit in Oxford that Professor Edward Hall noticed two or three fibres 
which looked out of place. He mentioned this to his friend Sir James Spooner, chairman of Coats Viyella, to 
which our firm belongs. Consequently, after several telephone calls, the minute samples, which looked like 
human hair, were sent to us.' The strange fibres were magnified 200 times under a microscope and were 
immediately identified as cotton. `The cotton is a fine, dark yellow strand, possibly of Egyptian origin and 
quite old. Unfortunately, it is impossible to say how it ended up in the Shroud, which is basically made from 
linen,' said Mr. South. `It may have been used for repairs at some time in the past, or simply became bound 
in when the linen fabric was woven. It may not have taken us long to identify the strange material, but it was 
unique amongst the many and varied jobs we undertake." ("Rogue fibres found in the Shroud," Textile 
Horizons, December 1988, p.13).

7/01/2012
"All of these options imply that the sudarium was part of the shroud, without suspecting that it could have 
been used at some point during the burial process without having had anything to do with the shrouding 
itself. The sindonologist Fr. Guilio Ricci was the first to suggest that the sudarium was nothing other than a 
cloth that for reasons of decency was placed on the face of the deceased when it was especially disfigured, 
and that the wounded face of Jesus would have been covered at the time of the descent from the cross and 
during the time when He was being taken to the tomb. It would not have been used in the burial itself, but 
placed in a separate place." (Bennett, J., "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New 
Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, 2001, pp.149-150).

7/01/2012
"For Lopez Fernandez, it is not likely that the sudarium was part of the shrouding ritual for several reasons. 
First, it is never mentioned in this sense. The synoptic Gospels say only that they `wrapped Him in a linen 
shroud,' and none of the evangelists mention a sudarium being used during the burial. Secondly, if the 
sudarium had been part of the shrouding of Jesus, many difficulties arise that are practically irresolvable. If 
the sudarium had been placed underneath the shroud, as was the case with Lazarus, how would it be 
possible for Peter and the other disciple to see it? If it were a chin band, it would have been placed beneath 
the shroud, and would have served no useful purpose, since, by virtue of the rigor mortis when Jesus 
was lowered from the cross, where He had remained with the head inclined on the chest, the mouth could 
not be open. It the Shroud of Turin is authentic, how could the image pass through the sudarium without 
leaving an imprint on it, or at least without leaving some indication on the shroud of a linen underneath? If 
one believes that it was placed on top of the shroud, what function could it possibly have had? Why is 
John so insistent that the sudarium was in a separate place, and not with the other burial cloths? If the cloth 
had indeed been rolled up and moved to a separate place, how could this have brought John to faith in the 
resurrection? On the contrary, it might have convinced him that the body had been stolen." (Bennett, J., 
"Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of 
Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, 2001, p.150).

7/01/2012
"From the studies that have been carried out on the Sudarium of Oviedo, it has been well documented that 
the sudarium could be a linen cloth used to wrap the head, instead of being on the head. It is also likely that 
it was a common cloth, as demonstrated by EDICES, and not the more expensive type of linen used to wrap 
the bodies of the deceased. With these observations they believe it is possible to formulate a new `reading' 
of the Johannine Gospel, in order to clarify how the Sudarium was placed. The scientific investigations lead 
one to exclude the two hypotheses that it was placed on top of the Holy Shroud, in a nonritualistic way, or 
that it would have been placed in contact with the face, with the Shroud placed over it. According to Garcia, 
when Simon Peter entered the tomb and saw the cloth that had covered his head, not with the other burial 
cloths, but rolled up in a separate place [Jn 20:6-7]], the meaning of the Greek verb `entylisso,' in the 
perfect passive participle, now clarifies the series of events. The sudarium was positioned and placed apart 
during the burial process, and was found later, still in the same place as before." (Bennett, J., "Sacred Blood, 
Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius 
Press: San Francisco CA, 2001, pp.150-151).

7/01/2012
"Garcia's studies show that the Sudarium of Oviedo had to have been used before wrapping the body in any 
other linen, particularly in the Shroud of Turin. The image of the face on the Shroud of Turin, as well as that of 
the lateral surface of the head, negates the possibility that this person had another linen placed around his head. 
The stains of blood on the Sudarium of Oviedo also point in the same direction. The sudarium therefore, was not 
part of the shrouding process. It was used during the descent from the cross and during the transport of the 
body to the tomb, in order to cover the disfigured face of Jesus, according to the orders of the Sanhedrin, and to 
prevent loss of blood. It was then removed and placed separately in the tomb. John 20:7 also indicates that Jesus, 
had the Sudarium placed on his head before the burial, but not after. It would have been necessary to remove the 
cloth in order to anoint the facial wounds, and would not have been used to cover the face once again due to the 
large amount of blood it contained. It was sufficient to wrap the body in a clean white linen shroud, and is 
unthinkable that a dirty, bloodstained linen would have left in place on the head of Jesus. While Jewish burial 
customs would have exempted Jesus from the washing ritual, a clean shroud was required by law." (Bennett, J., 
"Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of 
Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, 2001, pp.151-152). 

9/01/2012
"There is an indication that the man of the Shroud was in a state or rigor mortis when placed on the Shroud; 
the absence of a neck space in the front image and an elongated image on the back of the neck area is highly 
suggestive that the head was bent forward in rigor. The leg and foot images are also highly suspect of rigor 
mortis since the right calf shows a greater density than the left. And the left foot shows an imprint of only 
part of the heel suggesting either a very slight bend at the left knee with the foot flexed slightly forward or a 
turning inward of the left foot over the right .... If rigor were not present there should be symmetrical images 
of the legs. Therefore, the man of the Shroud would have been fixed in an attitude of suspension. Moreover, 
when he was taken down from the cross, in addition to breaking the rigor at the knees, the rigor had to be 
broken at the shoulder joint and slightly at the elbows in order to assume the position present on the 
Shroud. Professor James Cameron, a well-known forensic pathologist at the London Hospital, also attributes 
the arm stiffness to rigor mortis and contends that those who took the body down from the cross had to 
forcibly break the rigor at the shoulders so the arms could be placed as they are shown on the Shroud." 
(Zugibe, F.T., "The Cross and the Shroud: A Medical Enquiry into the Crucifixion," [1982], Paragon House: 
New York NY, Revised edition, 1988, p.132). 

9/01/2012
"There are essentially four categories of injuries that anyone, whatever their viewpoint, may reasonably 
`see' and identify on the Shroud: (i) a set of injuries as from a severe whipping (ii) a set of injuries as from 
various forms of incidental abuse (including apparent `crowning with thorns') (iii) a set of injuries as from 
piercing at the hands and feet (iv) a single injury as from the driving of a bladed weapon through the chest 
To which may be added as a final category: (v) evidence of apparent post-mortem blood spillages from (iii) 
and (iv)" (Wilson, I., "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is 
Real," Simon & Schuster: New York NY, 1998, p.31)

9/01/2012
"Which brings us to the fifth and final category of readily visible injury marks on the Shroud, apparent post-
mortem spillages, that is, bloodflows that do not appear to have come from the body during life or its 
immediate expiry, but which broke loose from it while it was being laid in the Shroud. Two examples of this 
may be cited, both readily visible on the back-of the-body image. First, by the right foot there can be seen a 
spillage that has broken away at the level of the ankle, extending several centimetres laterally ... 
Second, right across the small of the back can be seen a large, similarly lateral splash of blood ... In 
the case of this latter, from its position and from the absence of any other obviously related injury, it can 
only have come from the lance wound in the chest. As interpreted by Dr Joseph Gambescia, a professor of 
medicine at the Hannemann University Hospital, Philadelphia, this: `... makes sense only if the body were 
tilted on its side with the side-wound oriented momentarily toward the ground and then turned up on the 
other side so that the flow could make its way transversedly across the back toward the ground."
(Wilson, I., "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence that the World's Most Sacred Relic is Real," Simon & 
Schuster: New York NY, 1998, p.38)

9/01/2012
"Further evidence of the man's death on the cross is found in the numerous identifications of rigor mortis 
apparent on the Shroud image. Rigor mortis develops because of complex chemical processes that cause all 
body muscles to stiffen. The actual stiffening typically begins four to six hours after death and continues for 
another twelve hours. Once complete, rigor mortis gradually declines over the next twelve to twenty-four 
hours and the muscles relax again. The onset of rigor mortis can be accelerated by muscular exertion before 
death, an elevated body temperature, or warm weather. In cases where physical activity has been strenuous 
and intense, as would be the case in a crucifixion, rigor mortis can set in immediately after death, especially 
in a hot climate. If the corpse were then placed in a cool environment, such as a tomb, rigor mortis would 
tend to remain longer. When looking at the back of the man's legs and feet, we see that his left leg is raised 
slightly and that both feet, especially the right one, are flat and pointed down. For the lower extremities to 
have remained in such an awkward position indicates that rigor mortis set in while the man remained 
crucified. Moving up the back of the man, we notice that the thighs, buttocks, and torso are not flat, but 
instead are stiff and rigid. If rigor mortis had declined and the muscles had relaxed, these parts of the body 
would appear flatter and wider. On the frontal image we see the chin drawn in close to the chest and the face 
turned slightly to the right. For the head to remain in this position inside the burial cloth without rotating 
further to the side requires the presence of rigor mortis. The man's expanded ribcage is a sign of asphyxia, 
and the enlarged pectoral muscles drawn in toward the collarbone and arms provide evidence that the man 
had been pulling himself up to breathe. That these parts of the body remained in such positions further 
indicates that the onset of rigor mortis occurred while the man hung suspended. Rigor would also maintain 
the thumbs in the positions held during crucifixion. ... All of the data gleaned from extensive study of the 
pathology evident on the Turin Shroud tells us this piece of linen was wrapped around the corpse of a man 
who was crucified and died while still nailed to a cross. We also know that the man's corpse lay inside the 
burial linen for no more than two or three days. Had he been there longer, decomposition stains would be 
present on the cloth, but the Shroud contains no signs of bodily decomposition." (Antonacci, M., 
"Resurrection of the Shroud: New Scientific, Medical, and Archeological Evidence," M. Evans & Co: New 
York NY, 2000, pp.32-33).

9/01/2012
"J. Malcolm Cameron, British Home Office pathologist, notes that the arms of the Man on the Shroud 
were forcibly bent across the lower abdomen to break the postmortem rigor (muscle stiffening) of the 
shoulder girdle (a common problem for morticians regardless of the cause of death, in order to get a 
body into position for burial). Drs. Jackson and Jumper of the STURP scientific team noticed, when 
their computer projections were developing three-dimensional images from the Shroud data, that the 
head was bent forward as a result of rigor mortis. Knees bent by the rigor are also observable, 
especially the left. Moreover, their three-dimensional images have further special value for medical 
studies of the Shroud because they show, for instance, the degree of swelling in the right cheek, and 
the overextension of the chest and abdominal muscles." (Tribbe, F.C., "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated 
Story of the Shroud of Turin," [1983], Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, 2006, 
p.100).

9/01/2012
"Did Jesus die on the cross or after he was taken down? This has often been raised by skeptics and 
critics of the Shroud. Scientists studying the Shroud no longer have doubts on that point, for a variety 
of reasons. Professor Giovanni Tamburelli of Turin University has used the computer in his study of 
blood flows on the Shroud. For instance, he has found that all streams of blood on the face flow down 
the face; none of them flow toward the ears or back of the neck or head. Thus it is clear that the death 
of the Man of the Shroud caused the blood to stop running while he was still on the cross. If he were 
alive when removed from the cross, the blood would have still been flowing, and as he lay on his back 
it would have flowed toward his back. Tamburelli also noticed a drop of blood from the right nostril that 
did not fall because its weight was not sufficient. The drop was pointed, not round, proving that the 
blood ceased to flow because of death while he was still on the cross. Another significant 
characteristic is that the Shroud bloodstains have a `halo effect' that is typically suggestive of the 
separation of blood and serum, which happens after the heart has already stoppedevidence of death on 
the cross." (Tribbe, F.C., "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the Shroud of Turin," [1983], 
Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, 2006, p.101).

9/01/2012
"Monsignor Giulio Ricci, an Italian artist, summarized the views of himself and five medically expert 
sindonologists (Hermann Moedder, Germany; David Willis, England; Anthony Sava, Frederick T Zugibe, 
and Robert Bucklin, USA) who agreed with Dr. Barbet that the Man of the Shroud was definitely dead 
before he was taken from the cross and that it must have been a real corpse that had suffered real wounds of 
crucifixion. Various signs of rigor mortis were noted. One contrast was observed, that the head wounds were 
clearly premortem while the wound in the side was postmortem. The latter, typically, oozed with gravity, but 
showed no sign of force from a pumping heart." (Tribbe, F.C., "Portrait of Jesus: The Illustrated Story of the 
Shroud of Turin," [1983], Paragon House Publishers: St. Paul MN, Second edition, 2006, p.101).

10/01/2012
"Ancient Jewish Beliefs Regarding Death, Burial and Resurrection Let us first provide some background 
on the evolution of ancient Jewish theological thought, especially during the Second Temple Period 
regarding death, burial and the idea of resurrection. ... When an individual died, the family was required to 
bury him as quickly as possible because of the climatic conditions favoring the onset of decay. Primary 
burial involved burial in either a wooden coffin in the ground or in a shroud in a cave-tomb cut from the soft 
limestone rocks. In the area of Jerusalem, most people were buried in the cave-tombs carved out of the soft 
limestone outside and near the walls of the city. Cemeteries were required to be outside the city walls. .... 
The body was usually enveloped in a shroud (a large linen sheet called a sindon in the New Testament) 
and laid on a stone shelf in the cave-tomb. ... The burial of Jesus was consistent with the primary burial 
procedures of the Jews. The New Testament relates that Joseph of Arimathea (a distinguished member of 
the Sanhedrin - the Jewish religious ruling body) buried Jesus in a cave-tomb cut from the rock nearby the 
crucifixion site on Golgotha (Calvary) and enveloped Him in a shroud. `Joseph took the body, wrapped it in 
a clean linen shroud and placed it in his new tomb which he had hewn in the rock. Then he rolled a large 
stone across the entrance of the tomb and went away' (Mt 27:59-60). Rt. Rev. John A.T. Robinson notes: 
`The corpse of Jesus enfolded in a simple linen cloth passing lengthwise over the head and covering the 
whole body back and front is not, I submit, what any forger with medieval or modern presuppositions would 
have thought of; but it makes complete sense of the texts and conforms with the other ancient evidence.' 
[Robinson, J.A.T., "The Shroud of Turin and the Grave-Clothes of the Gospels," in Stevenson, K.E., ed., 
"Proceedings of the 1977 United States Conference of Research on The Shroud of Turin," Albuquerque NM, 
1977, p.25] It was not customary in the ancient or medieval world for an artist to paint on linen, and painting 
Jesus naked was unheard of. The Shroud represents a true Jewish burial in a linen shroud." (Iannone, J.C., 
"The Mystery of the Shroud of Turin: New Scientific Evidence," St Pauls: Staten Island NY, 1998, pp.75-76. 
Emphasis original). 

10/01/2012
"Chemical Nature of the Image. Electromagnetic radiation that is absorbed strongly in air consists of 
photons in the ultraviolet or soft x-ray region. It happens that these photons are also sufficiently energetic 
to photochemically modify cellulose. Such photons are strongly absorbed in cellulose over fibril-like 
distances. Experiments performed by the author have shown that subsequent aging in an oven of 
photosensitized (bleached) cloth by shortwave ultraviolet radiation produces a yellow-browned pattern like 
the Shroud body image composed of chemically altered cellulose. Thus, I posit that radiation from the body 
initially photosensitized the body image onto the Shroud. This pattern would have appeared, if the radiation 
was ultraviolet, as a white (bleached) image on a less white cloth. With time, natural aging would have 
reversed the relative shading of the image to its presently observed state where it appears darker than the 
surrounding cloth (which also aged or darkened with time, but not as fast). This mechanism is consistent 
with (1) the observed lack of pyrolytic products in microchemical studies of Shroud fibrils expected from 
high-temperature cellulose degradation (in this case image coloring occurs by natural aging at ambient 
temperatures over a long period of time) and (2) the absence of substances in the image areas that 
chemically colored the cloth (Note that image coloration is produced onto the cloth only by radiation and 
without any extraneous chemicals)." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image 
Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.341. Emphasis original). 

10/01/2012
"Photochemical Modification of the Shroud Blood. Given that the assumed radiation stimulus induced a 
chemical change in the cellulose of the Shroud, which we refer to generically as the `body image,' it is 
reasonable to ask if analogous chemical changes might also have been induced in the blood which remained 
attached to the Shroud during the hypothesized collapse. "(Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis 
to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, 
Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the 
Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.343. Emphasis original).

12/01/2012
"In the crossfire of the polemic, Gonella justified the limited number of the laboratories by the fact that this 
would reduce to the minimum the damage of the Shroud. Gove, however, answered him by noting that the 
additional amount of fabric necessary for four laboratories did not justify their exclusion. He gave this 
example: the Shroud could be covered by 8,800 22-cent stamps. The amount necessary for the seven 
laboratories would have corresponded to two-and-a-half stamps. Three laboratories need seven-tenths of a 
stamp. [Fidelity, cit., p. 42] Actually, every laboratory would eventually be given a piece of material about 
the size of a stamp. " (Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," 
Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, 1996, p.47). 

12/01/2012
"After about four hours of deliberation, the piece was cut. It was taken from one single place, without 
considering the fact that one particular area is not necessarily representative of the entire object. It was 
cut from the edge, near to the so-called `Raes corner', that is to the right, below the frontal image, 
adjacent to the site from where the Belgian textile expert had cut his piece of linen in 1973. The area 
selected, however, is the worst possible because it is one of the most exposed to contamination. It lies, 
in fact, on one of the two corners from which the Shroud used to be stretched during its expositions to 
the faithful. The piece of cloth was, moreover, cut from a place only a few centimetres away from one of 
the areas t hat was burnt away by drops of molten silver that fell on it during the 1532 fire. In addition, it 
came from an edge that had been stained by the water used to extinguish the fire, where the products of 
pyrolisis accumulated and where the dirt of ages has been deposited." (Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 
"The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: 
Malta, 1996, pp.61-62). 

12/01/2012
"That exclamation mark The day after the Turin announcement, a press conference was organized by 
the British Museum. Tite sat between Hall and Hedges. Behind them lay a blackboard with "1260-1390!" 
written on it. The exclamation mark reeks of derision. According to Hall, no scientist worthy of his name 
can believe in the authenticity of the Shroud any more. It is a fake, full stop. The hurry to conclude the 
affair by declaring that the Shroud was definitely medieval is suspicious; especially if this brusque 
attitude on the part of the scientists is linked to their decision not to proceed with further 
investigations by refusing to collaborate with other specialists. The radiocarbon test did not provide 
any ordinary date, but exactly the date desired by those who deny the authenticity of the relic: the date, 
that is, of the Shroud's first appearance in France. There were, in brief, the prejudices in favour of the 
Shroud's medieval date from the outset." (Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., "The Enigma of the Shroud: A 
Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, 1996, p.108. Emphasis 
original).

12/01/2012
"Somebody else, albeit with greater moderation, will blame the Cardinal for having accepted the anomalous 
result perhaps too lightly and with excessive deference towards the scientists. Ian Wilson explains it by 
means of an example: "We do not expect the captain of an Atlantic crossing jumbo jet, spotting that his fuel 
gauge suddenly read `Empty', immediately to ditch his aircraft in the sea, without a few further checks." 
[BSTS, no. 20, October 1988, p.4] Certainly the concordance of the three results appear as the decisive proof 
of the medieval date. But Wilson points out that the three laboratories dated the same piece of cloth and 
that they used exactly the same new AMS method, recently introduced and as yet not peaceably accepted 
by the scientific world, and certainly little employed on textiles. The AMS laboratories are engageh their competitors, such as Harwell and Brookhaven, which use the method of proportional 
measurement, the more conventional and the more tried method. All wanted to participate in the Shroud 
dating project in order to demonstrate the opportunities offered by their competing methods and to gain 
some publicity for themselves. The laboratories, then, not only knew which specimen was the Shroud 
because they had had the opportunity of viewing the fabric in Turin, but they had been informed, without 
any necessity at all, of the exact dates of the other two specimens in the covering letter written by Gonella 
and signed by Tite and Ballestrero. " (Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., "The Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge 
to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, 1996, p.109).

12/01/2012
"Paul Vignon, born at Lyons, France, in 1865, became an artist before undertaking his major scientific work. 
He was the ideal person to shoulder the great task of investigating the Shroud. His visual sense and 
knowledge of pigments, combined with his training in chemistry and biology, were valuable assets in 
determining whether the impressions on the Shroud were really chemical phenomena or the work of a 
painter. Vignon's book made a tremendous impression. The first printing and a revised edition both sold out 
within a month, and were followed by the English translation soon afterward. Again a sensation; again the 
theory that the markings were painted on the Shroud. It was difficult to fault Vignon's scientific case, but 
many critics questioned the historical evidence. Eventually, with the intervention of World War I, the 
controversy languished. Vignon was occupied by other affairs for many years, but the Shroud continued to 
dominate his thoughts, and he revised and perfected many details arising from his book. He also developed 
a brilliant theory to show how a series of characteristic artistic representations of the face of Jesus Christ, 
over many centuries, presented common features found on the Shroud impressions. His `Iconographic 
Theory' was published in a second book La Saint Suaire de Turin devant la science, l'archaeologie, 
l'histoire, l'zconographie, la logique, a work not thus far translated into English. During the occupation of 
France in World War II, many of Vignon's papers were impounded by the Nazis. Vignon died October 17, 
1943." (Shepard, L., "Foreword," Vignon, P., "The Shroud of Christ," University Books: New York NY, 1902, 
Reprinted, 1970, p.ix).

14/01/2012
"Another area Vignon pioneered was the study of the way ancient icons and paintings depicted Jesus. Of 
course, as an accomplished artist, he had no problem realizing how difficult it would be for a painter to try to 
make a positive picture out of a negative. For that matter, the concept of a negative was completely foreign to 
anyone until after the camera was invented, and it certainly was not even suspected in medieval times when the 
Shroud was first discovered in the possession of the de Charnys. Not only did Vignon learn that the trend in 
painting pictures of Christ altered completely in the Fifth Century, when He began to be shown as a long-haired, 
bearded man, instead of a beardless, short-haired youth, but he also found nearly twenty anomalies in the 
paintings of the icons which his trained eye revealed immediately to be elements of a human face in negative 
form. By studying these anomalies it is easy for others who have researched the icons of the Fifth Century to 
realize that the face of the icons is the face of the Shroud. Dr. Vignon could conceive of other painters 
throughout the centuries attempting to paint portraits of Jesus and using the Shroud of Turin as a basis for it. 
However, he knew the painters were not aware that the image on the cloth, as their eyes saw it, was a negative. 
Consequently, they would make many mistakes in attempting to paint a positive picture from a negative imprint. 
They would thus copy certain details of the negative even though these are peculiarities which no artist would 
ever consider putting into a positive face, if he were painting directly from a negative imprint. Among these are 
the absence of ears, neck and shoulders; the forked beard and the two long strands of hair each differently 
formed; above the nose, a square which does not have a lid, or top, but is open; a large capital P formed of the 
frontal arches and the nose, and more minute peculiarities of the crossbar and the stem of the P; the distorted 
appearance of the nose, swollen at the bridge with the lower part bent to the right; above the open square on the 
forehead, a curved transverse stain and a shadow due to a bruise; the abnormal shading of the swollen right 
cheek; on the left cheek, a sheaf of demi-tints in the form of a fan; the pronounced slanting furrow at the right of 
the nose; the mustache truncated at both ends and at different angles; the groove between the two halves of the 
mustache; the formation of the mouth and the shape of the shadow on the bare upper part of the chin." (Adams, 
F.O., "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, 1982, pp.82-84).

14/01/2012
"Naturally, no one piece of work contains all these oddities. Artists would see things in different ways. One has 
only to look at the negative image to see how vague and diffused it is. It is possible that in some of the pictures 
the details were copied from prior works of art. Some of them are particularly notable because these minute 
peculiarities in the Shroud were reproduced so exactly. It has been said by experts in the artistic field that such 
exactitude could not have been possible unless the painters were actually viewing the Shroud with their own 
eyes. In Dr. Vignon's monumental work on the Shroud, which was published in French in 1938 in what appears to 
be a private edition with a paper cover, he gives a chart. This is superimposed on the negative imprint of the face 
on the Shroud which details these anomalies-those one would only find in a negative, but not in a positive, and 
which can be identified in the religious pictures painted after the persecutions ceased." (Adams, F.O., "Sindon: A 
Layman's Guide to the Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, 1982, p.84).

14/01/2012
"A discussion of one of these anomalies is sufficient for this study. For example, one may examine the open 
square, a three-sided box without a top, located immediately above the nose on the forehead. At first glance, it 
appears to be a crease in the cloth, but it is too remarkably square and accurate at the corners for this to be so. 
When some scholars have seen this picture, they have suggested that perhaps this was something drawn as a 
symbol on the forehead by Joseph of Arimathea or Nicodemus, as it is placed directly above the so-called third 
eye. This line of reasoning suggests that this symbol indicates that the soul has left the body. ...Horizontal streak 
Strands of hair Right eyebrow higher than left V-shaped marking Open box with `v' inside Owlish eyes Line 
between nose and lip Left nostril size Accented line below lip Forked beard Space between lip and beard [...] 
Illustration of anomalies noted by Vignon. Irrespective of such interesting mystical speculation, the picture as 
shown in Plate No. 6, on Page 19, illustrates all these points perfectly. Observe the open box the artist has drawn 
in thick lines above the nose. Consider those staring eyes that so obviously reflect what one sees on the 
negative image of the Shroud. And it is typical of all the icons of that era. This portrait was found in the Roman 
catacombs and dated from the Sixth or Seventh Century." (Adams, F.O., "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the 
Shroud of Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, 1982, pp.84-85).

14/01/2012
"It is impossible to overestimate the importance of Dr. Vignon's work in developing his iconographic theory. In 
modern culture, with humankind's fascination with scientific findings, the significance of his efforts has been all 
too frequently overlooked, and researchers have gone on evading its inherent implications. Since Vignon's 
research in this area indicates that the Shroud could be as old as the Seventh Century, the possibility that the 
man portrayed on it is Jesus of Nazareth has been strengthened considerably. In addition, it is difficult, if not 
impossible, to explain the similarities in these early icons, except on the basis that they were all copied from one 
source in this early era. This remarkable research has been practically ignored for nearly fifty years. Our modern 
culture demanded proof according to scientific standards; this theory could not be evaluated by test tubes, 
microscopes or new measuring machines. Overwhelming circumstantial evidence and common sense were 
insufficient for general acceptance at that time." (Adams, F.O., "Sindon: A Layman's Guide to the Shroud of 
Turin," Synergy Books: Tempe AZ, 1982, pp.85-86).

15/01/2012
"Abstract The body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a 
great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists. We present preliminary results of 
excimer laser irradiation (wavelength of 308 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth. The permanent 
coloration of both linens is a threshold effect of the laser beam intensity, and it can be achieved only in a 
narrow range of irradiation parameters, which are strongly dependent on the pulse width and time sequence 
of laser shots. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a 
relatively long period (one year) after laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results 
are compared with the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, reflecting the possibility that a burst of 
directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image." (Baldacchini, 
G., Di Lazzaro, P., Murra, D. & Fanti, G., "Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of 
the Turin Shroud," Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 9, pp. 1278-1285, 2008. Emphasis original)

15/01/2012
"This said, however, even from much this same early time there is actually one further even more compelling 
indicator that the Image of Edessa was one and the same as our Shroud. The seventh century saw another 
wave of Pantocrator-type depictions of Christ, which we have shown to be based on the Image of Edessa. 
One of these can be found in the little-visited St Ponziano catacomb in Rome's Transtevere district ... It is of 
exactly the same type as the Pantocrator icon at St Catherine's Monastery in Sinai that we earlier established 
as having been painted under the influence of the Image of Edessa. However, it features one highly 
important extra detail: on the forehead between the eyebrows there is a starkly geometrical shape resembling 
a topless square. Artistically it does not seem to make much sense. If it was intended to be a furrowed brow, 
it is depicted most unnaturally in comparison with the rest of the face. But if we look at the equivalent point 
on the Shroud face ... we find exactly the same feature, equally as geometric and equally as unnatural, 
probably just a flaw in the weave. The only possible deduction is that fourteen centuries ago an artist saw 
this feature on the cloth that he knew as the Image of Edessa and applied it to his Christ Pantocrator portrait 
of Jesus. In so doing he provided a tell-tale clue that the likeness of Jesus from which he was working was 
that on the cloth we today know as the Shroud." (Wilson, I., "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery 
Solved," Bantam Press: London, 2010, p.142).

15/01/2012
"Seven decades ago Frenchman Paul Vignon identified another fourteen such oddities frequently occurring 
in Byzantine Christ portraits ..., likewise seemingly deriving from the Shroud. Among these is a distinctive 
triangle immediately below the topless square. But like a Man Friday footprint of the Shroud's existence six 
centuries before the date given to it by carbon dating, the topless square alone is enough." (Wilson, I., "The 
Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: London, 2010, p.142).

15/01/2012
"THE VIGNON MARKINGS. The French scholar Paul Vignon noticed these and other markings recurring in 
Byzantine portraits of Jesus, seemingly deriving from features visible on the Shroud: (a) Two strands of hair; 
(b) Transverse streak across forehead; (c) Topless square between eyebrows; (d) `V' shape at the bridge of 
the nose; (e) Raised right eyebrow; (f) Heavily accentuated `owlish' eyes; (g) Accentuated left cheek; (h) 
Accentuated right cheek; (i) Enlarged left nostril; (j) Accentuated line between nose and upper lip; (k) 
Heavy line under lower lip; (l) Hairless area between lower lip and beard; (m) Forked beard; (n) Transverse 
line across throat; (o) Left sidelock of hair lower than right. In some instances the marks in the artworks 
appear in mirror reverse." (Wilson, I., "The Shroud: The 2000-Year-Old Mystery Solved," Bantam Press: 
London, 2010, p.143). 

15/01/2012
"Gove said speculation that the motive for reducing the number of labs from seven to three was to conserve 
the amount of shroud material that would have to be destroyed is specious. `As a homey example, let's 
measure it in terms of postage stamps,' he said. `The entire shroud could be covered by 8,800 standard 22-
cent stamps. The amount of material the original seven labs would need is a sample the size of about two-
and-a-half stamps. Three labs would need seven-tenths of a stamp. So what? It's like knocking a few dollars 
off the national debt.'" (Kenneth R. Clark, "Shroud of Turin Controversy Resumes," Chicago Tribune, 
January 17, 1988).

15/01/2012
"Dr. Paul Damon, who, with his University of Arizona colleague, Douglas Donahue, has won the coveted 
right to test the age of the shroud, said the process was extremely complex and, like Gove, he offered an 
analogy to illustrate it. `Let's say the shroud material is 1,000 acres of green marbles piled three feet deep, 
and in there somewhere is one blue marble,' he said in a telephone interview from his Tucson laboratory. 
`We've got to find the blue marble. It's daunting, but we can do it.' Dr. Paul Damon, who, with his University 
of Arizona colleague, Douglas Donahue, has won the coveted right to test the age of the shroud, said the 
process was extremely complex and, like Gove, he offered an analogy to illustrate it. `Let's say the shroud 
material is 1,000 acres of green marbles piled three feet deep, and in there somewhere is one blue marble,' he 
said in a telephone interview from his Tucson laboratory. `We've got to find the blue marble. It's daunting, 
but we can do it.' " (Kenneth R. Clark, "Shroud of Turin Controversy Resumes," Chicago Tribune, January 
17, 1988).

15/01/2012
"The results of the FTIR [ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy] analysis on all three threads taken from 
the Raes sampling area (adjacent to the C-14 sampling corner) led to identification of the fibers as cotton and 
definitely not linen (flax). Note, that all age dating analyses were conducted on samples taken from this same 
area. Apparently, the age-dating process failed to recognize one of the first rules of analytical chemistry that 
any sample taken for characterization of an area or population must necessarily be representative of the 
whole. The part must be representative of the whole. Our analyses of the three thread samples taken from 
the Raes and C-14 sampling corner showed that this was not the case. What was true for the part was most 
certainly not true for the whole. This finding is supported by the spectroscopic data provided in this 
presentation. The recommendations that stem from the above analytical study is that a new age dating 
should be conducted but assuring that the sample analyzed represents the original main shroud image area, 
i.e. the fibers must be linen (flax) and not cotton or some other material. It is only then that the age dating 
will be scientifically correct." (Villarreal, R., Schwortz, B. & Benford, M.S., "Analytical Results on Thread 
Samples Taken from the Raes Sampling Area (Corner) of the Shroud Cloth," August 16, 2008, "The Shroud 
of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, " 2008 Columbus Ohio International Conference, August 
14-17, 2008).

16/01/2012
"Image Characteristics explained by Hypothesis Let us now show how this concept explains each of the 
image characteristics of the Shroud discussed at the beginning of this paper. 1. High Resolution. As 
various points on the Shroud intersect different topographical features on the body surface during the 
collapse process, radiation dose on the cloth begins to accumulate. If the radiation is assumed to be 
strongly absorbed in air, radiation effects on the cloth cannot begin until virtual intersection with the body 
surface occurs. Thus, a one-to-one mapping between a given point on the body to a unique point on the 
cloth is achieved for all points on the Shroud, which is equivalent to stating that the resulting image is well 
resolved." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the 
Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, 
St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 
1991, p.340. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"2. Superficial Penetration of Image. Once the cloth enters the body region, radiation emitted from within 
the body volume interacts with each cloth fibril throughout the bulk of the cloth from all directions. 
However, fibrils on both surfaces of the cloth receive a greater dose than those inside because they are 
unobstructed by overlying fibril layers. These fibrils would probably be highly absorbing to the radiation 
because the air, which is less dense by nearly three orders of magnitude than cellulose, is assumed to be 
highly absorbing to account for image resolution. (See also discussion in Item 5 below pertaining to 
absorption in cellulose.) The net result is an exaggerated dose accumulation of the surface fibrils over those 
inside the cloth." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found 
on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium 
Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: 
Amarillo TX, 1991, p.340. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"3. Correlation of Image Intensity with Cloth-Body Distance. The initial draping configuration of the 
Shroud over a body establishes the initial cloth-body distances. If, then, the Shroud overlying the body falls 
into the body region, different points on the cloth will intersect the body surface at different times 
depending upon how far that point was originally away from the body. Thus, each cloth point will receive a 
radiation dose in proportion to the time that it is inside the emitting body region. Since that time is inversely 
proportional to the initial cloth-body distance, it follows that the radiation dose, and hence image intensity, 
is likewise inversely proportional to the initial cloth-body distance. However, since the cloth on the dorsal 
side of the body does not move into the body. image discolorations are generated only at point of contact; 
hence, the dorsal image appears as a direct contact image." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis 
to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, 
Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the 
Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.340-341. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"4. Absence of Side Images. As the cloth collapses into the body region, internal stresses within the cloth 
cause it to bulge away from the sides of the body and at the top of the head. Because the radiation is 
strongly absorbed in air, very little dose is accumulated in the side and upper head regions of the cloth and, 
hence, no image is visible there." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image 
Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.341. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"5. Chemical Nature of the Image. Electromagnetic radiation that is absorbed strongly in air consists of 
photons in the ultraviolet or soft x-ray region. It happens that these photons are also sufficiently energetic 
to photochemically modify cellulose. Such photons are strongly absorbed in cellulose over fibril-like 
distances. Experiments performed by the author have shown that subsequent aging in an oven of 
photosensitized (bleached) cloth by shortwave ultraviolet radiation produces a yellow-browned pattern like 
the Shroud body image composed of chemically altered cellulose. Thus, I posit that radiation from the body 
initially photosensitized the body image onto the Shroud. This pattern would have appeared, if the radiation 
was ultraviolet, as a white (bleached) image on a less white cloth. With time, natural aging would have 
reversed the relative shading of the image to its presently observed state where it appears darker than the 
surrounding cloth (which also aged or darkened with time, but not as fast). This mechanism is consistent 
with (1) the observed lack of pyrolytic products in microchemical studies of Shroud fibrils expected from 
high-temperature cellulose degradation (in this case image coloring occurs by natural aging at ambient 
temperatures over a long period of time) and (2) the absence of substances in the image areas that 
chemically colored the cloth (Note that image coloration is produced onto the cloth only by radiation and 
without any extraneous chemicals)." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image 
Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.341. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"6. Blood on the Shroud. As the Shroud is initially draped over a body covered with blood, that blood is 
transferred naturally to the Shroud by direct contact." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to 
Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, 
Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the 
Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.341. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"7. Vertical Alignment of Image and Associated Body Features. As the Shroud collapses into the body 
region, each cloth point falls vertically downwards. Thus, relative to the initial draping configuration of the 
Shroud over the body, image features tend to align vertically over their corresponding body part. The only 
exception to this rule would be where stresses in the cloth are sufficient to perturb the otherwise vertical 
motion. Such stresses would probably be significant mostly near the sides of the body image due to the 
flattening of the cloth and bulging away from the body as explained above." (Jackson, J.P., "An 
Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., 
ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 
1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.341-342. Emphasis 
original).

16/01/2012
"8. Equivalence of Maximum Intensities of Frontal and Dorsal Images. Image intensity is determined 
solely by contact time of the cloth with the body region. Thus, assuming the radiation event is operative on 
a time scale less than the time for the upper part of the Shroud to fall completely through the body region, as 
discussed above, it follows that the interaction timed for cloth points, whether initially in contact with the 
frontal or dorsal surfaces of the body, are equal. Hence, the doses, or image intensities, at those initial 
contact points should be equal." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image 
Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.342. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"Thus, the hypothesis of the Shroud collapsing into a radiating body explains all the above characteristics 
of the Shroud image, something that other image formation hypotheses posed thus far fail to do. (Jackson, 
J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in 
Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, 
June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.342).

16/01/2012
"Testable Predictions of Hypothesis In addition, there are several other predictions of the theory which 
should be noted: 1. Possible Imaging of the Internal Body Structures. If the assumed radiation is 
homogeneously generated throughout the body region, then image intensity would be determined strictly 
by the length of time that a given part of the cloth is inside the body region. However, if the radiant emission 
varied with type of internal structure, such as tissue versus bone, then internal body structures, might be 
convoluted into the general image picture. However, the fact that the surface details of the body appear to 
dominate the image indicates that the assumed volumetric emission of radiation would have to have been 
nearly homogeneous. In the context of the collapse theory, the hand region might be an example where an 
internal body structure dominated the image which normally recorded body surface topography. In 
particular, the `elongated fingers' discussed above might actually be images of the internal bones of the 
hand extending into the palm region, which, as the cloth passed through the hand region, recorded a greater 
dose than the surrounding tissue." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image 
Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.342. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"2. Surface Discolorations on Both Sides of the Shroud for the Frontal Image. As noted above, the 
superficial nature of the image is explained by the theory. However, the above reasoning leads to one other 
prediction concerning the superficiality of the image; the frontal image should reside on both sides of the 
Shroud, whereas the dorsal image should reside on only one side. The reason is that when the upper part of 
the Shroud falls into the body region, radiation from the body impinges upon both sides of the cloth. 
However, in the case of the dorsal image, radiation impinges from only one side because the cloth there 
never moves into the body. Unfortunately, there are no suitable data available to test this prediction 
because the reverse side of the Shroud has been covered since 1534 with a backing cloth. But if such a 
prediction could be confirmed by a future examination of the reverse side, then the theory proposed herein 
would be given considerable support. It is likely, however, that if a frontal image discoloration exists on the 
reverse surface of the Shroud, it would be somewhat less intense than the discoloration which is observed 
on the normal viewing side because that side presumably entered the body first. However, one complication 
might exist; depending upon how the body was actually wrapped in the Shroud, it is possible that the sides 
of the cloth were folded back onto the top of the body, making a double layer with the top part of the cloth. 
It is unclear how such a folding configuration might affect the generation of a possible frontal image on the 
reverse side of the Shroud." (Jackson, J.P., "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image 
Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.342-343. Emphasis original).

16/01/2012
"3. Photochemical Modification of the Shroud Blood. Given that the assumed radiation stimulus induced 
a chemical change in the cellulose of the Shroud, which we refer to generically as the `body image,' it is 
reasonable to ask if analogous chemical changes might also have been induced in the blood which remained 
attached to the Shroud during the hypothesized collapse. This possibility could be addressed by further 
direct chemical testing. In this context, I would like to note that the off-elbow bloodstain discussed above in 
Figure la is brown, whereas the blood flow to which it is connected on the forearm is red, suggesting a 
possible chemical difference between on-and off-image bloodstains. It is also possible that the collapse 
hypothesis might explain Barbet's `mirror image' effect of the bloodstains." (Jackson, J.P., "An 
Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image," in Berard, A., 
ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 
1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, p.343). 

16/01/2012
"The ghostly image of a man's face has emerged on the reverse side of the Shroud of Turin, the piece of 
linen believed to have been wrapped around the body of Jesus after he was crucified, scientists say. The 
discovery, using new digital imaging techniques, adds new complexity to one of the most controversial 
relics in Christendom. The study, which will be published online ahead of print publication in the Journal of 
Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, examined the back surface of the famous handwoven linen. The front 
side of the shroud, which carries the smudged outline of the body of a man, has been venerated as proof 
that Christ was resurrected from the grave, yet dismissed by others as a brilliant medieval fake. While a 
multitude of scientists have investigated the front side of the shroud, the back side has remained hidden for 
centuries beneath a piece of so-called Holland cloth. Nuns had sewn on the cloth in 1534 to protect the 
shroud after it had been damaged by fire. And researchers only fully scrutinised the cloth's back surface in 
2002, when the 14-foot-long linen was unstitched from the Holland cloth during a restoration project. To the 
naked eye, the back surface of the shroud showed almost nothing, apart from a peculiar stitching that Dr 
Mechtild Flury-Lemberg, the Swiss textile expert who performed the restoration work, identified as a style 
seen in the first century AD or before. The back surface, however, was photographed in detail and the 
pictures published in a book by Monsignor Giuseppe Ghiberti, one of the Church's top shroud officials. At 
the end of the restoration, a new reinforcing cloth was sewn back in place, hiding the shroud's reverse side 
once more. `As I saw the pictures in the book, I was caught by the perception of a faint image on the back 
surface of the shroud. I thought that perhaps there was much more that wasn't visible to the naked eye,' said 
Giulio Fanti, professor of mechanical and thermic measurements at the University of Padua and the study's 
lead author. Imaging the face Fanti used sophisticated image processing based on direct and inverse Fourier 
transform, enhancement and template-matching techniques on Ghiberti's pictures to uncover the image of a 
man's face. Lying behind the known image of the bearded man bearing the marks of crucifixion, the new 
image had a striking 3-D quality and matched the known face in form, size and position. `Though the image 
is very faint, features such as nose, eyes, hair, beard and moustache are clearly visible. There are some 
slight differences with the known face. For example, the nose on the reverse side shows the same extension 
of both nostrils, unlike the front side, in which the right nostril is less evident,' Fanti said. But the enhancing 
procedure did not uncover the full body image as it appeared on the front side. `If it does exist, it is masked 
by the noise of the digital image itself. But we found what it is probably the image of the hands,' Fanti said. 
The presence of a face on both sides of the shroud would seem an obvious feature in case of a fake: when 
making a print onto a cloth, paint soaks the cloth's fibres and also reaches the back side. `This is not the 
case of the shroud. On both sides, the face image is superficial, involving only the outermost linen fibres. 
When a cross-section of the fabric is made, one extremely superficial image appears above and one below, 
but there is nothing in the middle. It is extremely difficult to make a fake with these features,' Fanti said. .... 
Fanti's finding matches a hypothesis postulated in 1990 by Dr John Jackson, a U.S. physicist who 
conducted the first major investigation into the shroud in 1978. Jackson speculated the presence of a faint 
image on the back surface of the shroud, only in correspondence to the frontal image." ("Turin shroud 
shows another mystery face," Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery News, ABC Science, 12 April 2004).

18/01/2012
"C-14 and the sudarium The carbon dating of the sudarium is a subject which seems difficult to obtain 
clear results on. The information is different in each source ... Soon after the International Congress in 
Oviedo in 1994, in one of the many reports in various newspapers and magazines, information about the 
carbon dating of the sudarium openly conflicted with that of the above-mentioned book. According to this 
report, Dr Baima Bollone had a highly contaminated sample of the sudarium dated in Tucson, Arizona, and 
the result given was that the cloth dates from `the second half of the first millennium' i.e. between AD 500 
and 1000. Here at least, we have definite dates, but the margin is enormous, any time over a period of five 
hundred years. This is nothing like as specific as the dates given for the Shroud, where the margin given 
was one hundred and thirty years. The dates clearly do not coincide with the time of Christ either." (Guscin, 
M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, pp.76-77. Emphasis original).

18/01/2012
"Faced with this conflicting information, I decided to write to the Department of Geosciences at the 
University of Arizona to ask them to clear the matter up. Their answer was surprising: `Your letter of Nov 11 
'94 finally reached me. Concerning the Sudarium of Oviedo, we received two samples from Dr Richard Muller 
of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Both samples were received supposedly as CO2 gas in ampoules that 
had leaked air and so were unusable. We would have preferred receiving them as cloth and done the 
combustion ourselves. Consequently, there were no `favorable' results and the statement is mistaken as 
fabricated. This is not unusual for 'true' believers. Hence, you are right about being quite bored. 
Unfortunately a peer-reviewed Shroud paper, which is the only kind we will respond to, has been accepted 
for publication in the Journal of Archaeological Research. It was written by a Russian, Dr Dmitri 
Kouznetsov. Obviously the peers knew nothing about the radiocarbon technique and equations. Now, we 
must respond! Yours sincerely, Paul Damon'" (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: 
Cambridge UK, 1998, pp.77-78).

18/01/2012
"According to the laboratories, the carbon dating was never carried out. It then seems very strange that Dr 
Bollone, who considers both the Shroud and the sudarium authentic, should invent a result that does not 
coincide with what he thinks. There has clearly been some confusion somewhere. Even though I did not 
mention the subject in my letter to Tucson, they mention Dr Kouznetsov in their reply. They say he knows 
nothing about the radio carbon technique. This is typical of the antagonism between the radio carbon 
laboratories and those who believe in the Shroud's authenticity -the non-believing scientists consider 
science to be the final answer to everything and think that anyone who can possibly believe that such a 
thing as the Shroud really wrapped the body of Christ must be a religious maniac or simpleton who still 
believes the earth is flat. The other extreme is equally narrow-minded, as can be seen from the Spanish book 
mentioned earlier. Many respected doctors, scientists and other experts all over the world, both believers 
and non- believers, have reached the conclusion that the Shroud is genuine on purely scientific grounds. 
Science cannot definitively prove the existence of God or the resurrection, but it can show that the Shroud 
and sudarium were in direct contact with the dead body of Jesus Christ.." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," 
Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, p.78).

18/01/2012
"I wrote to the Rev A Dreisbach of the AICCSST (Atlanta International Centre for Continuing Study and 
Exhibit of the Shroud of Turin) to see if he knew anything about the carbon dating of the sudarium in 
Arizona. Unfortunately, his answer was negative: `I regret that I am not informed about the details of Dr 
Baima Ballone's `highly contaminated' sample of the Oviedo Cloth which he had sent as gas in leaky 
capsules to Dr Paul Damon at Tucson. My best guess would be that he acquired them in 1994 when he was 
present in Oviedo with that group and Alan Whanger, M.D. of Duke University." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo 
Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, pp.78-79).

18/01/2012
"However, he did make some other very interesting points. In relation to the dust particles on the nasal area 
of the Shroud, he mentions an analysis carried out on particles from the foot area. He says: microscopic dirt 
particles taken from the foot area during the 1978 examination were eventually analysed by Joseph Kohlbek 
at the Hercules Aerospace Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah and found to be travertine aragonite - a rare 
form of calcite also found near the Damascus Gate (i.e. the one closest to Golgotha) in Jerusalem. That 
finding was later confirmed by Dr Levi Setti using an electron probe microscope at the Enrico Fermi 
Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. This interesting information is further proof that the Shroud is that of Jesus, 
because no forger, either pious or impious, nobody who made a portrait of Christ, for whatever reason, 
would ever think of including such details, which would have been ignored anyway until this present age 
with its microscopic possibilities." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 
1998, p.79).

18/01/2012
"The Rev Dreisbach also sent me the following information: `St. Nino (d. AD 338) relates in a deathbed account 
of what she was taught at Jerusalem: And they found the linen early in Christ's tomb, whither Pilate and his wife 
came.... Now they did not find the Shroud (/I>sudari) but it is said to have been found by Peter who took it and 
kept it, but we do not know if it has ever been discovered (Quoted by P.A. Beecher The Holy Shroud: A Reply 
to the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J., Dublin: M.H. Gill and Son, Ltd., 1928, p.171). Supporting such a connection 
between Peter and the Shroud, Ishodad of Merv (ca. 850) who is known to preserve early eastern traditions 
states that "the clothes that were in his grave were taken away by Simeon and John" (Quoted from Ishodad of 
Merv's Commentaries on the Gospel, trans. Gibson, 1911, 208. Cited by Alfred O'Rahilly. `The Burial of Christ.' 
Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 59, 1941, p.169, f.n. 6). Elsewhere Ishodad is quoted as writing : "But the shroud 
(sudara = sudarium) Simeon took, and it remained with him, that it might be a crown upon his head. And 
whenever he made an ordination, he arranged it on his head [On (the) head-could this be the face Cloth of 
Oviedo? The comparison of this cloth with a turban would seem to negate the size and bulk required by a full-
sized burial linen. (Rev. Dreisbach).] - and many and frequent helps flowed from it -just as even leaders and 
bishops of the Church arrange the turbans that are on their heads and about their necks in place of that shroud 
(read sudarium). (Commentaries, p. 280, trans. Gibson. Corrections O'Rahilly op.cit.).'" (Guscin, M., "The 
Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, pp.79-80).

18/01/2012
"The link between the linen (i.e. all the burial cloths) and Peter and John goes back to the earliest times. The 
gospel of John tells us that they were the first to see the cloths in the empty tomb. It is always difficult to know 
how much truth underlies the medieval legends of early Christianity. It is quite possible that Peter did take the 
burial cloths; indeed, someone must have done so, someone who believed in Jesus, otherwise the cloths would 
not have been preserved. However, it is more or less certain that all the details of Pilate's guilty conscience after 
the crucifixion and his subsequent conversion to Christianity are false. Pilate was removed from his post in AD36 
for excessive cruelty, and there are no trustworthy accounts of what happened to him after this. The details 
about Peter wearing the sudarium on his head are curious. It is certainly true that the Shroud is much too big for 
this, but we should ask whether Peter would have wrapped a blood stained cloth around his head, as this would 
hardly seem a suitable treatment for such a cloth, important though it may have been. The sudarium is also too 
small to wrap round a head, at most it could be worn, but not as a turban. On the other hand, it is clear that if the 
two cloths have survived to today, they must have been with believers, probably with the immediate followers of 
Jesus at the beginning." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, p.80-81)

18/01/2012
"The problem about the sudarium's carbon dating, however, was not solved by any of this interchange of 
information. Some headway was made in 1997, however. The surprising information in the letter from Mr Damon 
gradually found its way around the Shroud and sudarium circles in Spain. It was used to answer a claim in the 
local Oviedo press that the sudarium had been carbon dated to the seventh century by the Tucson laboratories. 
In February 1997 there was a small Shroud symposium in San Marino, where nothing new or noteworthy came to 
light. Jorge Manuel Rodriguez, from the Spanish Centre for Sindonology, was there, as was the Italian, Mario 
Moroni, who was involved in the supposed Tucson carbon dating of the sudarium. When Jorge showed him a 
photocopy of the letter from Mr Damon, he was, to say the least, surprised. Once everyone had arrived home 
from the congress, he sent a fax to Jorge, which Jorge then sent to me. He expresses his doubts about the 
information in Mr Damon's letter, saying that the ampoules were sent directly to a certain T Jull at the Tucson 
laboratories, and the second one was sent almost a year after the first. Both ampoules had an identification 
number, but the original and supposed historical date were apparently secret. Mr Moroni said he had numerous 
documents and letters to and from Mr Jull in Tucson, and wanted me to try and clear this apparent contradiction 
up. It is no secret that the origin and supposed historical date were probably no secret at the laboratories, but it 
does seem strange that the ampoules, according to Mr Damon, were received via an intermediary, and that both 
had leaked air, if they were sent almost a year apart. Somebody was clearly mistaken." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo 
Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, pp.81-82). 

18/01/2012
"I wrote to Mr Moroni in Italy asking him to send me copies of all the literature he mentioned in his fax. I also 
wrote again to Mr Damon in Tucson, in the hope that he would be able to take the time to help me. I actually met 
Mr Moroni on a visit to Turin in May 1997. He gave me all the papers he had mentioned, from which it would 
indeed seem that the sudarium had been carbon dated. The first is a letter dated October 31 1990, signed by Jodi 
Barnhill of the University of Arizona. She gives the following results:

Sample		Radiocarbon age (years BP)	Calendar age
V6009 linen	1292  53			642-869 AD
					666-771 AD

The years 666-771 AD represent a 68% confidence interval and 642-869 AD a 95% interval. This sample was 
submitted by Baima Bollone." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, p.82).


18/01/2012
"The second sample is a fragment of the first which had been treated in a simulated fire. This time, the letter is 
dated September 7 1992, and signed by A J T Jull of the University of Arizona. The information is given as 
follows:

Date no.		AA-8432
Sample:		linen cloth, Copta tomb
14 C age:		1,40565 years BP
Calibrated age:	598-666 AD (68% confidence)
		540-754 AD (95% confidence)

The reference to the Copta tomb is curious, because if the test was done with no knowledge of where the sample 
came from, the information should not be there. If this information is really where Arizona thought the sample 
came from, they were either mistaken or had been told it was from somewhere else (a Coptic tomb?). The letter 
has clearly been labelled `Sudario Oviedo' in Italian, i.e. this labelling had nothing to do with Arizona.." (Guscin, 
M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, p.82).

18/01/2012
"Mr Moroni then clearly wrote to Dr Jull asking for an explanation of the difference reported between the two 
samples. Dr Jull answered as follows (excerpt): `The two results you cite do not appear to me to be in 
disagreement. The ages are to my mind in agreement. One always gets some scatter between different 
measurements, although I agree it could be a little better in this case. I suppose it is possible that there is a small 
offset in the two ages due to the second having been heated, but the conditions you describe seem to me to be 
too low to have any great effect. We have material remaining from these samples, if there is some further question 
about the measurements." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, pp.82-83).

18/01/2012
"I contacted Paul Damon in Arizona again, this time by fax. This time I received a kind answer from Mr A J T Jull. 
He informed me that samples AA-6049 and AA-8432 had indeed been carbon dated. `Mr Jull continues, `These 
samples were of linen cloth. The second was stated ... to be a sample of 11 th century linen. The second sample 
was also used by Mr Moroni in some heating experiments, which suggests they were not particularly valuable. 
Unfortunately, no detailed provenance information was provided by Moroni or his colleagues. In order to 
produce a radiocarbon date on any particular material, it is important that the origin of the samples be known and 
clearly stated to the laboratory. In the case of samples of particular archaeological interest, it is important to 
follow the correct protocols in order that samples ages are not represented as something else at a later date. I do 
not think this has happened here.'" (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, 
p.83).

18/01/2012
"To sum up this rather complicated case: a) Paul Damon says the sudarium samples were never carbon dated, 
because they were received as gas in ampoules which had leaked air; b) Mario Moroni claims that he has the 
results of the sudarium's carbon dating. In the papers he provides, there were two datings:
1990-sample V6009-642-869 AD
sample V6009 equated with sample AA6019
1992-sample AA-8432-540-754 AD
Final results mention AA-8432 and AA 6049" 
(Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, p.83).

18/01/2012
"The only conclusion that can be drawn from this, and the Tucson laboratory would seem to agree, is 
that the whole affair was something of a shambles. Mr Jull ends his fax to me offering to carry out a 
serious radiocarbon dating on a sample of interest. The samples were not taken with permission for 
radiocarbon dating, and had presumably been taken by Monsignor Ricci about 15 years before being 
sent to Tucson. When sent, insufficient provenance information accompanied them; one of the 
samples was even stated to be 11th century. Paul Damon says the dating was never carried out, and in 
the results sent to Italy the sample numbers do not coincide. The laboratory suggests a serious 
experiment. Taking all this into account, the supposed results of the carbon dating of the sudarium can 
safely be ignored." (Guscin, M., "The Oviedo Cloth," Lutterworth Press: Cambridge UK, 1998, pp.83-
84).

18/01/2012
"CARBON 14 AND THE SUDARIUM In an article published in LINTEUM, as well as in his book The 
Oviedo Cloth, Mark Guscin investigates the question of carbon dating. As previously mentioned, 
EDICES is not certain if, when, or under what conditions a carbon 14 dating was carried out on the 
Sudarium of Oviedo, and does not consider it to be a relevant factor in determining the authenticity of 
the cloth. According to Guscin's investigation, the first reference to carbon dating and the Sudarium 
was made at an international seminar on the Shroud, held in Barcelona in 1991. Because of a 
contribution made by the speaker, Mario Moroni, it was made public that the dating of the Sudarium of 
Oviedo had attributed to the cloth a date that fit between the first and the seventh century, a date that 
is not at all exact. Later, in 1994, it was reported at the First International Congress on the Sudarium in 
Oviedo that Mario Moroni sent two laboratories, that of the University of Arizona in Tucson and the 
ISO Trace Radiocarbon Laboratory of Toronto, fragments of the Sudarium taken by Max Frei in 1979. 
According to this report, the results of the dating were between 642 and 869 (Tucson) and 653-786 
(Toronto) with 95% reliability. A short time later many reports were published which said that Dr. Baime 
Bollone had a highly contaminated sample dated in Tucson and that the result showed that the cloth 
dated from the second half of the first millennium, between 500 and 1000 AD." (Bennett, J., "Sacred 
Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of 
Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, 2001, p.78. Emphasis original).

18/01/2012
"When Guscin wrote to Tucson to clarify matters, they wrote back saying that they had received two 
samples of the Sudarium as CO2 gas in ampoules that had leaked air and were therefore unusable. 
According to the lab, the carbon dating was not carried out. Wondering why Dr. Bollone would report 
very specific results that do not support what he believes, Guscin continued his investigation. In 1997, 
at a Shroud convention in San Marino, Mario Moroni said that the samples were sent to the Tucson 
laboratory about one year apart; both ampoules had an identification number, but the original and 
supposed historical dates were kept secret. He also produced a letter from the laboratory of the 
University of Arizona that contains the results that were published in the Acts of the Congress of 
Oviedo. Another letter from the same laboratory, dated two years later and signed by another person, 
says that the sample tested was that of a linen cloth, Copta tomb, and gives dates between 540 and 754 
AD with 95% reliability. The identification number disagrees with those of the first letter, and the 
description of the cloth is completely erroneous. When questioned about it, Dr. Jull wrote back from 
the Tucson laboratory that the two results did not appear to him to be in disagreement, that they had 
material remaining from the samples, and that `in order to produce a radiocarbon date on any particular 
material, it is important that the origin of the samples be known and clearly stated to the laboratory.' He 
claimed that they had been informed that the second sample, the one supposedly from a Coptic tomb, 
was from the eleventh century. He that said that he didn't think that the correct protocol was followed 
and suggested doing a `serious' dating." (Bennett, J., "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of 
Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, 
2001, pp.78-79).

18/01/2012
"It should also be mentioned that the samples were not taken with permission for radiocarbon dating, and 
had been taken from the cloth about 15 years before being sent to Tucson. It is not known in what condition 
they were kept during that time. What is obvious is that the radiocarbon results published in the Acts of the 
First International Congress on the Sudarium of Oviedo are without scientific value, and cannot be 
considered as a factor when discussing the authenticity of the cloth. As stated at the beginning, the 
investigative team of CES began their studies on the Sudarium of Oviedo in 1989, after it was announced 
that carbon 14 dating of the Shroud of Turin had definitively dated it from 1260 to 1390. Their objective was 
to find out if the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin had indeed covered the same person, because 
if this were the case, the carbon dating results would have to be erroneous. It is absolutely certain that the 
Sudarium was in Oviedo in 1075, and that it had been in Spain for several centuries prior to that date. All of 
the studies carried out to date on the Sudarium indicate that it covered the same crucifixion victim as the 
Shroud of Turin." (Bennett, J., "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the 
Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, 2001, p.79).

19/01/2012
"However, to perform a radiocarbon dating, a good deal of archaeological and historical information is 
indispensable. In chemical analyses, there is no need for exogeneous information. This is the weak point of 
the Carbon 14 method: its specialists will not accept to proceed with their work unless they are given the 
probable result. It is anomalous in the scientific field, all the more anomalous since Carbon 14 claimed to 
have an aura of infallibility among the other chemical analyses." (Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., "The Enigma 
of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, 1996, 
pp.124-125).

19/01/2012
"Bonnet-Eymard comments on the whole affair; he says: two hypotheses may explain the medieval result; 
either the substitution of the sample or the lie about the conclusion of a badly-conducted experiment. His 
suspicions fall on the conditions stipulated for the cutting of the samples, on their transmission and on the 
calculations used to convert the Carbon 14 measurements to actual dates. On this last point, the French 
sindonologist advances his hypothesis: the laboratories may have found an amount of Carbon 14 too high 
with the result that their interpretations tended to move towards too recent a date, for example the fifteenth 
century, with the obvious anachronism. The statistical commission that had been entrusted with the 
harmonization of the three results, having looked at the known history of the Shroud, therefore aged them 
according to a method of correction that has become customary, if not exactly official, in order to make them 
possible. [Bonnet-Eymard, b., La Contre-Reforme Catholique, Christmas 1988, p.33] The hypothesis of the 
substitution of the specimen is, instead, fostered by the inconceivable incongruities that emerged in the 
weighing and measuring of the Shroud samples: they turned out to weigh twice what they should have 
weighed according to the computed average weight of the Shroud itself." (Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., "The 
Enigma of the Shroud: A Challenge to Science," Scerri, L.J., transl., Publishers Enterprises Group: Malta, 
1996, pp.128-129).

25/01/2012
"COMPARISON OF PANTOCRATOR ICON AND THE SHROUD IMAGE Having developed the polarized 
image overlay technique, we then examined the photograph of the Pantocrator icon from St. Catherine's 
superimposed on the Shroud face. We found indeed that the icon is an incredibly accurate image derived 
from the Shroud image because of the presence of well over 200 points of congruence between the two, 
including such features as a tear running down from the left eye, small irregular areas on the lips, and 
configurations of lines in the halo or nimbus which are exacting replications from image areas on the Shroud 
itself. This astonishing fidelity between the Pantocrator icon and the Shroud would indicate that the artist 
had direct access to the Shroud image when the icon was produced and that he was considering the Shroud 
to be authentic, since in the Orthodox Church icons have the same status as scripture and the iconographer 
would attempt to reproduce the original as accurately as possible." (Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "A 
Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in 
Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, 
June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.303-324, p.307. 
Emphasis original).

25/01/2012
"The work on developing the polarized image overlay technique was first done on the image on a Byzantine 
gold solidus coin produced by Justinian II between 692 and 695 AD., the first coin bearing the portrait of 
Jesus. The polarized image overlay comparison shows these coins to bear incredibly accurate derivative 
images from the Shroud face. The images of the face on the coins are only eight to nine millimeters in height 
from the crown of the head to the point of the beard, but they have large numbers of congruencies with the 
Shroud face. On the first coin that we examined we found about 145 points of congruence, including 
remarkable similarity of blood stains, small markings and even wrinkles of the Shroud that were reproduced 
on the coin. ... Even many small flower-like images that are present on the Shroud were faithfully reproduced 
on the Byzantine solidii. At this time there was an extremely highly skilled die-cutter in the Byzantine empire 
who produced these tiny images in the negative. The images are so small that details cannot be seen by the 
unaided eye, so there would be no apparent way one die could be copied from another." (Whanger, A.D. & 
M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of 
Turin," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis 
Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.303-
324, pp.308-309).

25/01/2012
"More recently, Mr. Bill Yarbrough, a coin expert working with Shroud researchers, spotted a Byzantine 
tremissis coin of Justinian II that had an image that looked remarkably like that on the Shroud. The face on 
this tremissis coin, which was also struck 692-695 A.D., has a rather crude appearance when compared with 
those on the other Byzantine coins, but, comparison with the Shroud face shows that this coin image is a 
direct copy from the Shroud face rather than a derivative image as are almost all of the other icons." 
(Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images 
on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium 
Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: 
Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.303-324, p.308).

25/01/2012
"THE SUDARIUM OF OVIEDO AND THE SHROUD The polarized image overlay technique has enabled us 
to intimately relate two of the burial cloths traditionally associated with the death of Jesus. The scripture in 
John 20:7 mentions the napkin which had been on the head not lying with the linen cloths but rolled up in a 
place by itself. There has been considerable confusion and controversy about this, with speculation 
whether this cloth was the chin band or a separate cloth. This is of great importance because in the 
Cathedral of Oviedo, Spain, is a cloth in their treasury which came to Spain in the 7th century and is 
traditionally the face cloth or the napkin or the Sudarium mentioned in John. This cloth which measures 83 
by 52 centimeters is sewn to a backing cloth and has a large number of blood stains on it although it has no 
image similar to that on the Shroud. This cloth has been extensively studied by Monsignor Giulio Ricci in 
1965 and again in 1979 when he examined the back side of the cloth which is the side that was against the 
body. He observed that the blood stain pattern on the Sudarium closely resembles that on the Shroud. We 
examined his photographs of both sides of the Sudarium, and found his observations to be very astute and 
accurate. One end of the Sudarium was tucked behind the head, and the rest of it was placed across the face 
and part of it folded back on itself so that there is a double image of blood stains, one of which is the 
reversal of the other." (Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and 
Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.303-324, p.312. Emphasis original).

25/01/2012
"Using the polarized image overlay technique we first superimposed the blood stains on the facial portion of 
the Sudarium on the face on the Shroud. There are approximately 75 congruent blood stains between these 
two. We then superimposed the blood stains on the Sudarium from the back of the head on the back of the 
head and the neck of the Shroud image, and found 55 congruent blood stains there. In a number of the 
blood stains on the Sudarium there is a much heavier deposit of blood than there is in the same areas on the 
Shroud. In addition, we noticed a number of blood stains on the Sudarium extending across the apparent 
gap between the face and the hair on both sides of the lower face on the Shroud." (Whanger, A.D. & M.W., 
"A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," 
in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis 
Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.303-
324, p.312).

25/01/2012
"To answer another important question, we have been able to demonstrate that there is a chin band on the 
Man of the Shroud which is quite evident on the Shroud itself. This strip of cloth is approximately 2 inches 
wide and is wrapped over the top of the head and around the chin and back to the top of the head where a 
knot was tied. The gaps in the image on both sides of the face and under the chin are caused by the 
presence of the chin band which is compressing the hair and the beard and is blocking the image-forming 
process in these areas. Since there are no similar gaps in the blood stains on the Sudarium, this would 
indicate that the Sudarium was put over the face immediately after the body was taken from the cross and 
was removed prior to enshroudment. The fact that there is no image on the Sudarium is another indication 
that it was removed prior to enshroudment. By Jewish custom anything that had the life blood on it would 
have been entombed with the body. The Sudarium, therefore, would quite logically have been folded and 
put close by the body exactly as St. John observed." (Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "A Quantitative Optical 
Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, A., ed., 
"History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 
1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.303-324, pp.312-313).

25/01/2012
"All of this is quite compatible with Jewish burial customs of the time. If the face of the deceased was 
disfigured, it was covered by a small cloth as a matter of respect. Also, two things were done as quickly as 
possible after death: the eyes were closed and the chin tied shut. Since the body was in cadaveric spasm, 
the individual very likely died with his eye lids open. They would tend to reopen when closed, and thus 
some small weights were placed on them. Placing coins on the eyes of the dead was not a usual Jewish 
custom, as it was among the Greeks of the time, but we feel that someone simply put coins on the eyes to 
keep them shut, as people have been doing in many different cultures for millennia. This, we feel, accounts 
for the presence of the two coins on the eyes, whose images are to be found on the Shroud." (Whanger, 
A.D. & M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and Authenticating the Images on the 
Shroud of Turin," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, 
St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 
1991, pp.303-324, p.313).

25/01/2012
"These findings, we feel, show the accuracy of the Biblical account in recognizing that there was a burial 
cloth that was separated from the rest of the burial cloths, and this was important because it was saturated 
with the blood of Jesus. This is clearly separate from the chin band which is visible on the Shroud image in 
accord with Jewish burial practices of the time. Remarkably, this Sudarium is still in existence in Oviedo, 
Spain, and we feel that the 130 congruent blood stains between the Sudarium and the Shroud are powerful 
evidence that both of these cloths, which are the traditional burial cloths of Christ, were in touch with the 
same individual." (Whanger, A.D. & M.W., "A Quantitative Optical Technique for Analyzing and 
Authenticating the Images on the Shroud of Turin," in Berard, A., ed., "History, Science, Theology and the 
Shroud," Symposium Proceedings, St. Louis Missouri, June 22-23, 1991, The Man in the Shroud Committee 
of Amarillo, Texas: Amarillo TX, 1991, pp.303-324, p.313).

25/01/2012
"As early as the 1930s, Paul Vignon, who had been studying the Shroud since the turn of the century, 
observed that in Byzantine portraiture there was a recurrence of unusual features that seemed to derive from 
the Shroud. These oddities, noted by many others throughout the years, include: (1) long hair, parted in two 
at each side of the face; (2) a short tuft of hair on the forehead; (3) prominent eyebrows; (4) a triangular mark 
on the bridge of the nose; (5) large, deep, staring eyes; (6) a long, straight nose; (7) pronounced 
cheekbones; (8) sunken cheeks; (9) a small mouth visible despite the moustache; (10) a beardless area below 
the lower lips; and (11) a forked beard. [Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., "The Enigma of the Shroud: Challenge 
to Science," PEG: San Gwann, Malta, 1996, p.192]." (Ruffin, C.B., "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-
Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington 
IN, 1999, p.110). 

25/01/2012
"The sixth-century icon portrait of Christ called `The Pantocrator' (ruler of the universe) from St. Catherine's 
Monastery on Mount Sinai bears a particularly strong resemblance to the Shroud. Professor Kurt 
Weitzmann of Princeton University, who made no connection with the Shroud, nonetheless noted that `the 
pupils of the eyes are not at the same level; the eyebrow over Christ's left eye is arched higher than over his 
right ... one side of the mustache droops at a slightly different angle from the other, while the beard is 
combed in the opposite direction.' These are all oddities of the Shroud image, and Weitzmann notes that 
`many of these subtleties' appear in many other portraits of Christ in Byzantine art. [Wilson, I., "The 
Mysterious Shroud," Doubleday: Garden City NY, 1986, p.107] When the Whangers compared the 
Pantocrator icon with the Shroud they found no less than one hundred seventy `points of congruence,' 
[Ibid. p.110]. leading some students of the Shroud to speculate that the artist who painted the Pantocrator 
copied the Shroud from life." (Ruffin, C.B., "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the 
Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, 1999, pp.110-111). 

25/01/2012
"The Duke University researchers also studied dozens of Byzantine coins bearing the likeness of Jesus, and 
found similarities to them as well. In one, a tremissis from the reign of Justinian II, they found one hundred 
forty-five points of congruence. [Borkan,M., "Ecce Homo? Science and the Authenticity of the Turin 
Shroud," Vertices, Duke University Magazine, Winter 1995, Vol. X, no. 2, p.34.] Some of the features from 
the Shroud that appear on the icons or coins are simply marks or folds on the cloth, but this can be 
determined only by studying the negative with computer-enhanced photography. The medieval artists, if 
they copied the Shroud, had to go by only the murky positive image." (Ruffin, C.B., "The Shroud of Turin: 
The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday 
Visitor: Huntington IN, 1999, p.111). 

25/01/2012
"Starting about the eleventh century, some Byzantine icons show Jesus with one leg shorter than the other. 
Even some portrayals of the infant Jesus show a withered and deformed limb. [Petrosillo, O. & Marinelli, E., 
"The Enigma of the Shroud: Challenge to Science," PEG: San Gwann, Malta, 1996, p.196] Indeed, some icons 
of the crucified Christ show a crooked footpiece, fashioned to accommodate limbs of unequal length. Many 
Shroud researchers are certain that this peculiar artistic convention resulted because the man on the Shroud, 
when viewed superficially with the naked eye in the positive image, does appear to have a short left leg. 
This is, however, because this leg apparently was fixed to the cross in a more curved position than the right 
when its owner was crucified and, because of rigor mortis, remained bent in death." (Ruffin, C.B., "The 
Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial 
Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington IN, 1999, p.111). 

25/01/2012
"The incorporation of minor details of the Shroud image into many examples of Byzantine art, even those 
which turn out to be the result of folds or blemishes in the cloth; convinced many people that the 
stereotypical portrait of Jesus comes from none other than the Shroud. This, and features such as the 
images of the eye coins and of the banks of flowers, convinced many researchers that the body of Jesus 
Christ was once enshrouded in the cloth from Turin. (Ruffin, C.B., "The Shroud of Turin: The Most Up-To-
Date Analysis of All the Facts Regarding the Church's Controversial Relic," Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington 
IN, 1999, p.111).

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Copyright © 2011-2012, by Stephen E. Jones. All rights reserved. These my quotes may be used
for non-commercial purposes only and may not be used in a book, ebook, CD, DVD, or any other
medium except the Internet, without my written permission. If used on the Internet, a link back
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Created: 27 December, 2011. Updated: 15 October, 2012.

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