Studland Wills

Summaries of registered wills in PCC by Richard Wiltshire made using
The National Archives PCC Will Index and PROB 11 microfilms at the Family Records Centre, London.

Transcribed by Ros Dunning

PCC Prob11/93

Gregory Hayward, of Studland
Dated 21 Dec 1598

- being sicke in bodye, but sound in mynde and of perfect memorye

- to the Churche at Studland : a noble

- to the poore of Studland: Tenne grotes

- to my three chilldren: Twentye poundes to every one

- my daughters: to receave their Twenty poundes at their daie of marriage
- my sonne: his Twentye poundes at the age of One and Twentye yeares
- yf anie of the Three dye before thaforesaid termes, my will is that thother two, or one living
  shall receave the money that was due to that one or twoo dead

- to myne heires for ever: all my lands in Our and North Castle within the parish of corffe castle
  and Ile of Purbecke

- my three chilldren aforesaid John Elynor and Anne: one Dozen of pewter apiece a crocke and
  a panne to either of them to be delyvered at thaforesaid termes

- to the sonne of Peter Hayward, to the sonne of William Baker and to the sonne of William Morse
  my brother in lawe: one Chilver sheepe a peice

- Anne my wyfe: all my other goods moveable and unmoveable

- myne Uncle Willm Bond of Steeple: Overseer and Twelve pence

- my brother in lawe Peter Hayward of Sandwich: Overseer and Twelve pence


Witnesses: William Bull minister Luke Chippe John Lankney
Proved at London 15 February 1599

PROB 11/101

Willyam [William] Baker of Stowdlande [Studland], Dorset
Dated 15 January 1603 [1602/03]

- 'sick in body'

- body to be buried in parish church of Studland

- Parish church of Studland: 6s 8d

- Poor of Studland: 5s

- Parson of Studland: 5s

- Mary Baker (dau): 30

- Joane Baker (dau): 30 at day of marriage

- Thomas (son): 40 when 21; cupboard, 'whissille' and apparrell, two pair of sheets

- Mary and Jone: two pair of sheets each

- Wynifride (wife): rest and executrix

- Mr William Bond of Steeple; John Burgis of Studland (brother in law): overseers and 12d each

Witnesses: Willyam [William] Mosse, Nicholas Barens
Proved 08 April 1603 by Winifride (widow)

PROB 11/123

Thomas Nittingale [Nightingale] of Studland, Isle of Purbeck, Dorset
Dated 28 January 1613/14

- body to be buried in the churchyard of Studland

- Church of Studland: 4d

- Poor of Studland: 3s 4d

- Church of Corfe Castle: 3s 4d

- Poor of Corfe Castle: 3s 4d 

- [blank] Panter daughter of Richard Panter deceased: 10s to buy her a petticoat and pair of hose and pair of shoes

- Rest of godchildren: 12d

- Alice (wife): 10, best cloak and wool as I have in hoyse and two ewes that I have at Vitworth; use of featherbed and
  household stuff during her life then to Alice Crest (dau)

- Jane Colman (dau): 6

- Honer Colman dau of David Colman: ewe and lamb and chilver hogen

- Marie Burges dau of Margret Burges: 40s

- Alice Crest dau of William Crest: 5 when 14 years

- Sara Crest her sister: 10s

- William Crest (son-in-law): rest and executor

- John Burges of Newton and William Ardern of Norden: overseers, 3s 4d each

Witnesses: John Burges, William Ardern, Margrett Burges Proved 18 May 1614 by William Crest

PROB 11/257

John Tombes of Studland, Dorset
Dated 28 August 1652

- Poor of Studland: 5s

- Peter and Edith (my two children): 30 each and piece of gold of 11s each

- Wife [Amy]: executrix

Thomas Summers and Richard Chattock: overseers
Witnesses: John Beaumont, William Chattock
Proved 19 August 1656 by Amy Tombes (widow)

PROB 11/272

John Talbot, Seaman of Studland, Dorset
Dated 14 September 1657

- 'sick and weak in body'

- Poor of Studland: 12d

- granddaughter [not named] daughter of Martine Talbot: copper kettle

- Rest of grandchildren: 12d each

- Henry Chatlocke (gson): 40s

- Mary Tomes (dau): 3

- Alice (wife): 3

- Thomas (son): white mare and 40s and his son Talbot the colt

- Martine (son): part of the leaving that I leave and things belonging and my fishing crate and 40s

- Alice (wife): 4, blanket and bolster and the goods which she brought with her and a stock of bees

- William (son): rest and executor

William Pollard and John Bayly both of Studland: overseers
Witnesses: Thomas Grove, Martin Talbut
Proved 02 January 1658 by William (son)

PROB 11/351

John Ford, Merchant of Studland, Dorset
Dated 16 March 1676

- John (son): 100

- Elizabeth (dau): 100 when of age or married

- Johana (dau): 100

- Joane (wife): executrix

- Robert Duk and Philipp Ford (friends): overseers and 5s each

Witnesses: Robert Duck, Nicholas Outten
Proved 03 July 1676 to Joane (widow)

PROB 11/413

Thomas Grove, Gentleman of Stodland [Studland] Isle of Purbeck, Dorset
Dated 23 May 1691

- 'sick and weak of body'

- Giles and Thomas (sons): 100 each

- Honore Grove (dau): 150 when my executor comes to enjoy the estate

- David, Giles, Thomas and Honore (sons and dau): household goods divided, Thomas only is to have the best bed and bedstead

- David (son): farm of Stodland after decease of his mother during his brother Giles' life
  paying 6 yearly to 'my sister True' out of the farm duirng her life

- David (son): tenement in Corfe during his sister Honore's life; all land at Corfe and Capers hell after decease of his mother to him
  and his males heir, for want of heirs to Giles (son) etc then to Thomas (son)

- David (son): rest and executor

Thomas Cockram and Giles Tornor [Turner] (true and loving kinsmen): overseers
Witnesses: Thomas Cockram, Mary Cockram, Margrett Balling (her mark)
Proved 6 January 1692/93 by David Grove (son)

PROB 11/572

George Lawrence of Studland, Isle of Purbeck, Dorset
Dated 18 September 1719

- 'in a very ill state of health'

_Mary Lawrence (dau-in-law): 1s

- Oliver Lawrence (nephew) elder son of Rawleigh Lawrence (bro): 40

- Rawleigh Lawrence (nephew) younger son of Rawleigh Lawrence (bro): 40

- I allow and assign 5 to bury me

- Mary Lawrence (wellbeloved granddau) dau of my daughter in law: estate, bonds bills and money and goods;
  if she dies before she be of age or married then to be divided between said nephews

- Rawley Lawrence (bro) and Mr John Chapman of Sandwich [Swanage], stone merchant: overseers

Witnesses: Richard Passingham, Thomas Summers, Elizabeth Talbut (her mark)
Proved 24 February 1719/20 by Mary Lawrence, executrix

PROB 11/733

Benjamin Culme, Clerk of Studland, Dorset
Dated 19 January 1724/25

- Benjamin (eldest son): freehold estate at Bridgwater after decease of his mother Judith, 'she giving him a liberal education
  and so soon as he shall arrive at the age of 21 years allowing him 40 per annum out of the said estate I having purchased
  for her my loving wife 50 per annum in the Mercers Company since the settlement of the aforesaid estate in marriage. If Benjamin
  deceased then to John (second son) he paying his three unmarried sisters Mary Anne, Jane and Albina Culme 100 each

- John (second son): freehold estate in Braden, Isle of Wight 'my wife having the charge of him during his minority'

- 'My 3rd son if it please God that child which my wife now carries in her womb be such': freehold estate and copyhold purchased
  of Mr John Layfeild [Layfield] in Kertling, County of Cambridge. If a daughter, then to Benjamin (son) he paying her 500 out of
  the same at age of 21

26 June 1738 [sic date in the text]

- Mary Anne, Jane and Albina Culme (daus): rest of estate.

- Church of Cleve: My estate in Somerset purchased of Mr Layfeild being the Great Tyths called the Sheaf of Old Cleve

- Chapel of Leeland in Cleve: 30 per annum to be paid out of the said Sheaf upon condition executrix receives 100 subscribed
  by me as also Mr Colston's 100 promised to be paid by Mr Colston's executors for augmentation of the chapel as also 200 of the
  Queen's Bounty to the same augmentation

- Curate of the Chapel residing at Leeland and vicarage of Cleve: rest of appropriate tythes executrix receiving 100 subscribed by me
  and the 100 subscribed by Honorable Dean of St Pauls and 200 Queen's Bounty for the augmentation of the vicarage the advowson
  of the vicarage of Cleve purchased by me of Mr Charles Michael vicar of the said parish and conveyed to him my Mrs Martha Layfeild
  I order to be sold for the money arising from thence to be distributed among my 4 daughters

- Judith (my good wife): executrix

Witnesses: Ane Fuller, Richard Butler, Dorothy King

Codicil: 26 June 1738 [the following all crossed out]
Ann Bowles (dau) 'who married Mr Jos. Bowles without my consent': 500 'and no more' 'two of which I have paid already to her husband
ordered him a hundred more who is now gone to Newfoundland to drase[?] upo me for'

Witness: Dennis Camell (mark, examined)

4 June 1744 Judith Culme, widow of Studland sworn that she saw Benjamin erase the lines and make additions and he asked her to take
custody of it and told her he would alter the will or make another when he grew better. She didnt know its content until on 14 April last
when she opened the same in the presence of all her children

Sworn before John Cooth, Clerk in presence Walter Erle Notary Public
Proved 9 June 1744 by Judith Culme, widow

PROB 11/735

Robert Phippard, now belonging to His Majesty's Ship Augusta Mariner of Studland, Dorset
Dated 4 April 1740

- 'weak of body'

- 'my body I comit unto the earth or sea'

- Elizabeth (eldest dau) and her husband William Bonfield: 5s each and their dau Anne (grandchild) 100 guineas when of age

- Nicholas Ekeroth (wellbeloved son-in-law) now of his Majesty's Ship Somerset, mariner and Jane (wellbeloved dau): remaining
  land houses tenements goods monies and effects at Studland and Swanage

Nicholas Ekeroth (said son-in-law): executor
Witnesses: Thomas Wise, James Hannah, Andrew Leslie
Proved 20 October 1744 by Nicholas Ekeroth

PROB 11/765

Albina Culme, Spinster of Studland Isle of Purbeck, Dorset
Dated 7 May 1748

- Jane Culme (sister): moneys rings jewels plate lands tenements hereditaments advowsons right of presentation
  debts etc

Witnesses: John Layfield, Albina Layfield, Thomas Colson
Proved 20 October 1748 by Jane Culme, spinster (sister)

PROB 11/884

William Vincen, Mariner now belonging to His Majesty's Ship Royal George of Stradland [Studland] Isle of Purbeck, Dorset
Dated 16 January 1758

- 'in perfect health' Grace (dearly beloved wife): all lands, goods and chattels; executrix

Witnesses: Matthew Buckle, John Sherer
Proved 15 February 1763 by Grace, widow

PROB 11/1089

Thomas Meaden, Yeoman of Studland, Isle of Purbeck, Dorset
Dated 9 December 1780

- David (brother) of Town and County of Poole: 10 and wearing apparel

- Thomas (nephew) son of Edward (brother deceased): 20 and best bedstead and bed clothes and furniture belonging

- Edward (nephew) another son of Edward (brother deceased): 10, my other bed bedstead and all bed clothes and furniture belonging

- Thomas (nephew) son of Thomas (said nephew): 10

- Mary Eldridge of Portsmouth (niece) dau of William Meaden (brother): 40s

- Children of Daniel Meaden (late nephew deceased): 10 in trust to executors, to be divided between them

- Children of Edward Meaden (nephew): 10 in trust to executors, to be divided between them

- William and Thomas Meaden (nephews) of Town and County of Poole: 5 each

- Edith Summers (cousin) dau of John and Rose Summers of Studland: 10

- Thomas Summers son of said John and Rose Summers: 10 and all his children 40s each when 21 years old
  James Summers (nephew): 2s and brass kettle, 6 pewter plates and oak coffer

- Rose Row (niece): 3 guineas

- Martha Cook (niece): 40s

- William, John and George Summers sons of John and Rose Summers: 40s each

- Rest of goods, book debts etc to executors on trust to be divided among children of Thomas and
  Edward Meaden of Blandford

Thomas Homer senior of Rogers Hill, Dorset, yeoman and James Brown of Corfe Castle, innholder: executors
Witnesses: Mary Talbott, Richard Talbott
Proved 22 April 1782 by Thomas Homer and James Brown, executors

PROB 11/1147

Reverend Thomas Colson, Clerk of Studland, Dorset
Dated 4 November 1772

- Jane (dear wife): messuage in All Saints, Dorchester, then to John Morton Colson (son)

- Jane (wife): 50 per annum from the tenement and farm called Scovells alias Scoles and close called Quar
  Close adjoining the farm and also out of tenement or farm called Hillway and Challway and out of meadow
  called Arfleet Meadows and ground called Wood Furlongs and out of mill called Arfleet Mill in parish of Corfe
  Castle and out of messuage or farm called Byestwall near Wareham and out of lands tenements where the
  inheritance of my late uncle John Morton Esquire and descended and came to me on the deaths of my late
  dear brother and sister

- Robert Worgan of Blandford Forum, clerk and John Templeman of Dorchester, gent: The above properties
  by sale or mortgage in the term of 500 years to raise 500 to Mary Morton Colson (dau) on interest until
  21 years old, if deceased to John Morton Colson (dau)

- Jane (wife): 50 per annum from closes of land called One Hundred Acres containing 86 acres near
  Bridgwater, Somerset heretofore in tenure of Benjamin Culme and since of John Culme, clerk; trustees to
  raise 500 to Mary Morton Colson (dau) if deceased to Thomas Morton Colson (son); and the closes to
  Thomas Morton Colson (son)

- Jane (wife): only receives the two sums of 50 per annum if she relinquishes a jointure by me made on her
  of lands in Isle of Wight and County of Southampton by indentures of lease and release 9-10 May 1760

- Marriage settlement 10 May 1760 500 to be applied amongst our younger children Thomas Morton Colson
  (10) and Mary Morton Colson (490) and capital messuage and farm at Morton in parish of Braden, Isle of
  Wight and County of Southampton in occupation of executors of Peter Denis and messuages and dwellinghouses
  at Braden formerly in tenures of Edward Duke, John Compton, Thomas Batchelor and Henry Cox and all other
  lands tenements in Isle of Wight to Thomas Morton Colson (son)

- Jane (wife): 50 as soon after my decease John Morton Colson (son): plate belonging to late brother and
  left to me by his will

- Jane (wife): use of my plate and all household goods china linen furniture and implements of household,
  after her decease, plate to Thomas (son) and rest divided between John and Thomas (sons)

- Jane (dear wife), said Robert Worgan, said John Templeman and Mr Benjamin Worgan (brother-in-law):
  guardians of children until 21 years old or married

- Thomas Morton Colson (son): messuage and lands at Wooleston in parish of Corfe Castle in occupation
  of Titus Chinchin [Chinchen] during my right, title and interest therein

- John and Thomas (sons): rest

Robert and Benjamin Worgan (said): executors
Witnesses: Samuel Gould, Elizabeth Worgan, Anna Hunt

Codicil: Reverend Thomas Colson now of Dorchester, clerk
Dated 5 September 1783

- 'desirous to make a more ample and farther provision for my daughter Mary Morton Colson': 510 [and
  lenghty details on raising of sums from lands]

- Guardianship now void and same will also soon determine as to my youngest son and 'my very particular
  friends Thomas Gundry and Radford Gundry both of Dewlish, Esquire have kindly offered me to bestow their
  advice and assistance to my children in their worldly concerns' - children to 'religiously observe and perform'
  to seek advice and assistance from them

Witnesses: Anna Hunt, Anna Edmonds, Thomas Melmer, servants to Mr Colson
Proved 23 November 1786 to Reverend John Morton Colson and Reverend Thomas Morton Colson (sons) - the executors
Reverend Robert Worgan clerk and Benjamin Worgan having renounced

PROB 11/1545

Thomas Summers, Yeoman of Studland in the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset
Dated at Swanage 16 May 1811

- Betty (wife) and William (son): farming, stock and crops and live and dead stock and implements of husbandry - to share until wife's
  decease then to William 'for him to do what he pleases with'

- James (son): clock and two west fields of 8 acres

- John (son): three north fields of 5 acres

- Thomas (son): 10

- Rose (dau) wife of George Harden: 5

- Betty (dau) wife of Robert White: 5

- Ann (dau) wife of James Hatchard: 5

- Sarah Corn Summers, spinster (dau): 5 and bed

- Matthew Gould (gson): 5

- Above to be paid three months after decease of Betty (wife)

- James, John and William (sons): two boats, nets and fishing gear

- William (son): rest and executor but if he dies unmarried before death of Betty (wife), then divided among James, Thomas and John (sons)

Witnesses: Thomas Lamb, John Barnes
Proved 18 June 1813 by William (son)


PROB 11/1865

Peter Talbot, yeoman of Studland
Will dated 16 September 1833

This is the last will and testament of me Peter Talbot of Studland in the Isle of Purbeck in the County of Dorset Yeoman which I make as
follows that is to say first I direct that all my just debts funeral expenses the charges and expenses of proving this my will be paid and
discharged by my Executors hereinafter named. I give devise and bequeath unto my son Richard Talbot all that my freehold
dwelling house garden orchard land hereditaments and premises with their appurtenances situate and being in Swanage in the
said Isle of Purbeck and recently occupied by my late father Mr Richard Talbot to hold the same and every part thereof unto
my said son Richard Talbot his heirs and assigns for ever all the rest residue and remainder of my freehold leasehold and other
tenements and cottages gardens lands and hereditaments with their appurtenances wheresoever situate and also the
Rest Residue and Remainder of my monies securities for money in the public funds of this Kingdom live and dead stock rope farming
 utensils and implements in husbandry household goods furniture books plate linen woollen china glass chattels estate and effects
whatsoever and wheresoever which I shall be possessed of at the time of my decease I give devise and bequeath the same and every
 part thereof unto William Dugdale of Wareham in the said County of Dorset Builder and James Kent of  Court Farm, Christchurch
 in the County of Hants, Yeoman their heirs executors and administrators and assigns upon the trusts intents and purposes following
 namely Upon trust that they my said trustees  control the money in trust for sons and daughters until they marry or attain 25 years,
seeing to their education I have subscribed my name and affixed my seal the sixteenth day of September in the year of our Lord
one thousand eight hundred and thirty three. Peter Talbot  Signed sealed delivered published and declared by the said Peter Talbot the
Testator as and for his last will and testament in the presence of us who at his request in his presence and in the presence of each other
have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses attesting the execution thereof.  

William Furnedge  William Read  Robt D. Marshfield

This is a codicil to the last Will and testament of me Peter Talbot of Studland in the Isle of Purbeck in the County of Dorset Yeoman dated the
sixteenth day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty three whereas I have by my said will given devised and bequeathed unto
my son Richard Talbot his heirs and assigns for ever all that my freehold dwelling house garden orchard land hereditaments and premises
with their appurtenances situate and being in Swanage in the said Isle of Purbeck and then recently occupied by my late father Mr Richard Talbot
Now I do hereby revoke and make void the said devise and bequest and do hereby give devise and bequeath the said freehold dwelling house
garden orchard land hereditaments and premises unto William Dugdale and James Kent the executors add and trustees mentioned in my said
will and the survivor of them and his heirs executors administrators and assigns upon trust to go along with my residuary real and personal estate
and effects so devised and bequeathed to them  by virtue of my said will and be subject to the trusts and powers  to the said residuary estate
and effects for the benefit of all these my children therein named their heirs executors administrators and assigns and I do hereby appoint them
the said William Dugdale and James Kent and the survivor of them for the time being Guardians and Guardian of all and every my said children
during their respective minorities and in all other respects I do hereby ratify and confirm my said will.  In witness whereof I the said Peter Talbot
have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty day of January one thousand eight hundred and thirty six Peter Talbot  

Signed sealed delivered published and declared by the said Peter Talbot as and for a Codicil to my last will and testament in the presence of us
who at his request in his presence and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses William Furnedge  
William Read  Robert D. Marshfield. Proved at London with a codicil 25th July 1836 before the Judge by the oaths of William Dugdale and James Kent
the Executors to whom Admon was granted having been first sworn by duly to administer

Notes by Rachel Kent
Peter asked the trustees to invest all monies for and towards the better support maintenance and bringing up of all and every my children until the sons
had attained the age of 25 years and the daughters had attained 25 years or be married. They must then assign transfer and convey the whole of his
estate and effects with the interest dividends and proceeds thereof unto and amongst his children to be equally divided between them as tenants in common.

No mention was made of his wife Mary so possibly she had died – hence making William Dugdale and James Kent the guardians.


PROB 11/1960

Henrietta Turner of Studland, Dorset
Dated 24 August 1841 at Studland Rectory

- 'Understanding from brother Charles that after marriage I could make any alteration I wished in my settlement and having now
  lived 18 months in perfect happiness with my loved husband receiving from him every proof of the most sincere affection it is
  my earnest desire (to which I hope none of my family could object) that in the event of his surviving me the whole of any property
  which I possess and all names in my settlement should be his and for him to dispose of at his death as he may judge best I now
  therefore wish to use this power given me in my settlement in his behalf I should wish him to give at once on the event of my decease
  and my dear mother surviving me a 100 to her to purchase a remembrance of her grateful child also 50 to my God child Edith
  Freeling and the same to Edward Wise who was my dear Brother Robert's God child.'

Witnesses: Mary Ottley Lang of Hyde Park Gardens; Sarah Galton of Studland Rectory
Mary Ottley Lang of Hyde Park Gardens, Middlesex, spinster witness of will of Henrietta Turner, wife of The Reverend Charles Michael Turner,
clerk of Studland, sworn 3 March 1842

Witnesses: John Daubeny; Edward F Jenner, Notary Public
Proved 09 March 1842 by Reverend Charles Michael Turner (husband) - 'no executor being named in the said will lawful husband
of deceased being the sole person entitled to the personal estate and effects of the said deceased over which she had no disposing power
and concerning which she is dead intestate'

PROB 11/2039

John Read of Studland, Dorset
Dated 3 March 1846

- Anne[sic] Hayes (eldest dau): 100

- Harriot Churchill (youngest dau): rest of property

Witnesses: George Hood, junior; Maria Summers both of Studland

Codicil: undated

- Ann Hayes (dau) to be executor

Witnesses: George Hood, senior; George Hood, junior
4 July 1846 George Hood, younger of Studland, footman oath that he signed with Maria Summers, widow.

Codicil was made on 29 April 1846.
Proved 11 July 1846 by Ann Hayes wife of Richard Hayes (the younger), executrix

PROB 11/2115

John Summers, Junior, Labourer of Studland, Dorset
Dated 8 March 1822

- Priscilla (beloved wife): 'all lands messuages and tenements protickler [sic - particularly] my freehold house situate in the
  Borough of Corf Castle [Corfe Castle]', house in Studland and household 'furniter'[sic - furniture]

Witnesses: John White, Studland; George Hood, Studland; John Hood, Studland
Proved 04 June 1850 by Priscilla (wife)

PROB 11/2131

Priscilla Summers, Widow of Studland, Dorset
Dated 21 June 1850

- Thomas Summers (bro-in-law), yeoman of Studland: 19 19s

- Hester (niece) wife of Stephen Summers, yeoman of Studland: 19 19s

- George Thorn son of said niece Hester Summers by her former husband: 10

- George, William and Henry Summers (bros-in-law): 5 each

- Margaret (sister-in-law) wife of William Gould of Town and County of Poole: 5

- Priscilla (niece) wife of William Vye of Langton Matravers, stonemason and Sarah White Styles of Jersey (niece): 5 each

- John Styles of Langton Matravers, labourer; Robert Styles of Wareham, shoemaker; George Styles of Guernsey, labourer;
  Joseph Hayes of Ulwell, Swanage, labourer (nephews): 5 each

- Hester Summers (said niece): fields and parcels of land, Studland in my occupation for term to come

- Priscilla (niece) wife of William Vye of Langton Matravers, stonemason and Sarah White Styles of Jersey (niece): freehold messuage with
  garden at Corfe Castle in occupation of Mr Robert Taylor as tenants in common

- Hester Summers, Priscilla Vye and Sarah White Styles (nieces): household goods, furniture and wearing apparell divided equally

- Hester Summers, Priscilla Vye, Sarah White Styles, John Styles, Robert Styles, George Styles, Joseph Styles (nieces and nephews): rest

Thomas White of Swanage, carpenter: executor
Signed her mark
Witnesses: William Furmedge of Studland, yeoman; Robert D Marshfield of Wareham, attorney at law
Proved 03 April 1851 by Thomas White